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19. Arrays

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An array is a data structure that contains a number of variables which are
accessed through computed
indices. The variables contained in an array, also called the elements of
the array, are all of the same type,
and this type is called the element type of the array.
An array has a rank which determines the number of indices associated with
each array element. The rank of
an array is also referred to as the dimensions of the array. An array with
a rank of one is called a singledimensional
array. An array with a rank greater than one is called a multi-dimensional
array. Specific sized
multi-dimensional arrays are often referred to as two-dimensional arrays,
three-dimensional arrays, and so
on. Each dimension of an array has an associated length which is an
integral number greater than or equal to
zero. The dimension lengths are not part of the type of the array, but
rather are established when an instance
of the array type is created at run-time. The length of a dimension
determines the valid range of indices for
that dimension: For a dimension of length N, indices can range from 0 to N
? 1 inclusive. The total number
of elements in an array is the product of the lengths of each dimension in
the array. If one or more of the
dimensions of an array have a length of zero, the array is said to be empty.
The element type of an array can be any type, including an array type.
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