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Mac下安装LNMP(Nginx+PHP5.6)环境

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Mac下安装LNMP(Nginx+PHP5.6)环境

安装Homebrew

最近工作环境切换到Mac,所以以OS X Yosemite(10.10.1)为例,记录一下从零开始安装Mac下LNMP环境的过程

确保系统已经安装xcode,然后使用一行命令安装依赖管理工具Homebrew

ruby -e "$(curl -fsSL https://raw.githubusercontent.com/Homebrew/install/master/install)"

之后就可以使用

brew install FORMULA

来安装所需要的依赖了。

brew(意为酿酒)的命名很有意思,全部都使用了酿酒过程中采用的材料/器具,名词对应以下的概念:

  • Formula(配方) 程序包定义,本质上是一个rb文件
  • Keg(桶)程序包的安装路径
  • Cellar(地窖)所有程序包(桶)的根目录
  • Tap(水龙头)程序包的源
  • Bottle (瓶子)编译打包好的程序包

最终编译安装完毕的程序就是一桶酿造好的酒

更详细的信息参考Homebrew的官方Cookbook

因此使用Homebrew常见的流程是:

  1. 增加一个程序源(新增一个水龙头) brew tap homebrew/php
  2. 更新程序源 brew update
  3. 安装程序包(按照配方酿酒) brew install git
  4. 查看配置 brew config 可以看到程序包默认安装在/usr/local/Cellar下 (酒桶放在地窖内)

安装PHP5.6(FPM方式)

首先加入Homebrew官方的几个软件源

brew tap homebrew/dupes
brew tap homebrew/versions
brew tap homebrew/php

PHP如果采用默认配置安装,会编译mod_php模块并只运行在Apache环境下,为了使用Nginx,这里需要编译php-fpm并且禁用apache,主要通过参数--without-fpm --without-apache来实现。完整的安装指令为

brew install php56 \
--without-snmp \
--without-apache \
--with-debug \
--with-fpm \
--with-intl \
--with-homebrew-curl \
--with-homebrew-libxslt \
--with-homebrew-openssl \
--with-imap \
--with-mysql \
--with-tidy

由于OSX已经自带了PHP环境,因此需要修改系统路径,优先运行brew安装的版本,在~/.bashrc里加入:

export PATH="/usr/local/bin:/usr/local/sbin:$PATH"

如果要安装新的php扩展,可以直接安装而不用每次重新编译php,所有的扩展可以通过

brew search php56

看到,下面是我自己所需要的扩展,可以支持Phalcon框架

brew install php56-gearman php56-msgpack php56-memcache php56-memcached php56-mongo  php56-phalcon php56-redis php56-xdebug

PHP-FPM的加载与启动

安装完毕后可以通过以下指令启动和停止php-fpm

php-fpm -D
killall php-fpm

同时可以将php-fpm加入开机启动

ln -sfv /usr/local/opt/php56/*.plist ~/Library/LaunchAgents
launchctl load ~/Library/LaunchAgents/homebrew.mxcl.php56.plist

安装Nginx

brew install nginx

安装完毕后可以通过

nginx
nginx -s quit

启动和关闭,同时也支持重载配置文件等操作

nginx -s reload|reopen|stop|quit

nginx安装后默认监听8080端口,可以访问http://localhost:8080查看状态。如果要想监听80端口需要root权限,运行

sudo chown root:wheel /usr/local/Cellar/nginx/1.6.2/bin/nginx
sudo chmod u+s /usr/local/Cellar/nginx/1.6.2/bin/nginx

并使用root权限启动

sudo nginx

开机启动

ln -sfv /usr/local/opt/nginx/*.plist ~/Library/LaunchAgents
launchctl load ~/Library/LaunchAgents/homebrew.mxcl.nginx.plist

Nginx + PHP-FPM配置

Nginx一般都会运行多个域名,因此这里参考了@fish的方法,按Ubuntu的文件夹结构来存放Nginx的配置文件

mkdir -p /usr/local/var/logs/nginx
mkdir -p /usr/local/etc/nginx/sites-available
mkdir -p /usr/local/etc/nginx/sites-enabled
mkdir -p /usr/local/etc/nginx/conf.d
mkdir -p /usr/local/etc/nginx/ssl

编辑Nginx全局配置

vim /usr/local/etc/nginx/nginx.conf
worker_processes  1;
error_log   /usr/local/var/logs/nginx/error.log debug;
pid        /usr/local/var/run/nginx.pid;

events {
    worker_connections  256;
}


http {
    include       mime.types;
    default_type  application/octet-stream;

    log_format main '$remote_addr - $remote_user [$time_local] '
        '"$request" $status $body_bytes_sent '
        '"$http_referer" "$http_user_agent" '
        '"$http_x_forwarded_for" $host $request_time $upstream_response_time $scheme '
        '$cookie_evalogin';

    access_log  /usr/local/var/logs/access.log  main;

    sendfile        on;
    keepalive_timeout  65;
    port_in_redirect off;

    include /usr/local/etc/nginx/sites-enabled/*;
}

这样一来首先可以把一些可复用配置独立出来放在/usr/local/etc/nginx/conf.d下,比如fastcgi的设置就可以独立出来

vim /usr/local/etc/nginx/conf.d/php-fpm

内容为

location ~ \.php$ {
    try_files                   $uri = 404;
    fastcgi_pass                127.0.0.1:9000;
    fastcgi_index               index.php;
    fastcgi_intercept_errors    on;
    include /usr/local/etc/nginx/fastcgi.conf;
}

然后/usr/local/etc/nginx/sites-enabled目录下可以一个文件对应一个域名的配置,比如web服务器目录是/opt/htdocs

vim /usr/local/etc/nginx/sites-enabled/default
server {
    listen       80;
    server_name  localhost;
    root         /opt/htdocs/;

    location / {
        index  index.html index.htm index.php;
        include     /usr/local/etc/nginx/conf.d/php-fpm;
    }
}

此时启动了php-fpm并且启动了Nginx后,就可以通过http://localhost来运行php程序了

安装MySQL

brew install mysql

可以通过

mysql.server start
mysql.server stop

来启动/停止,启动后默认应为空密码,可以通过mysqladmin设置一个密码

mysqladmin -uroot password "mypassword"

但是在操作的时候出现了空密码无法登入的情况,最终只能通过mysqld_safe来设置

sudo mysqld_safe --skip-grant-tables
mysql -u root
mysql> UPDATE mysql.user SET Password=PASSWORD('mypassword') WHERE User='root';
mysql> FLUSH PRIVILEGES;

最后将MySQL加入开机启动

cp /usr/local/Cellar/mysql/5.6.22/homebrew.mxcl.mysql.plist ~/Library/LaunchAgents/

Memcache

brew install memcached

启动/停止指令

memcached -d
killall memcached

加入开机启动

cp /usr/local/Cellar/memcached/1.4.20/homebrew.mxcl.memcached.plist ~/Library/LaunchAgents/

Redis

brew install redis

Redis默认配置文件不允许以Deamon方式运行,因此需要先修改配置文件

vim /usr/local/etc/redis.conf

将daemonize修改为yes,然后载入配置文件即可实现后台进程启动

redis-server /usr/local/etc/redis.conf

加入开机启动

cp /usr/local/Cellar/redis/2.8.19/homebrew.mxcl.redis.plist ~/Library/LaunchAgents/ 

设置别名

最后可以对所有服务的启动停止设置别名方便操作

vim ~/.bash_profile

加入

alias nginx.start='launchctl load -w ~/Library/LaunchAgents/homebrew.mxcl.nginx.plist'
alias nginx.stop='launchctl unload -w ~/Library/LaunchAgents/homebrew.mxcl.nginx.plist'
alias nginx.restart='nginx.stop && nginx.start'
alias php-fpm.start="launchctl load -w ~/Library/LaunchAgents/homebrew.mxcl.php55.plist"
alias php-fpm.stop="launchctl unload -w ~/Library/LaunchAgents/homebrew.mxcl.php55.plist"
alias php-fpm.restart='php-fpm.stop && php-fpm.start'
alias mysql.start="launchctl load -w ~/Library/LaunchAgents/homebrew.mxcl.mysql.plist"
alias mysql.stop="launchctl unload -w ~/Library/LaunchAgents/homebrew.mxcl.mysql.plist"
alias mysql.restart='mysql.stop && mysql.start'
alias redis.start="launchctl load -w ~/Library/LaunchAgents/homebrew.mxcl.redis.plist"
alias redis.stop="launchctl unload -w ~/Library/LaunchAgents/homebrew.mxcl.redis.plist"
alias redis.restart='redis.stop && redis.start'
alias memcached.start="launchctl load -w ~/Library/LaunchAgents/homebrew.mxcl.memcached.plist"
alias memcached.stop="launchctl unload -w ~/Library/LaunchAgents/homebrew.mxcl.memcached.plist"
alias memcached.restart='memcached.stop && memcached.start'

安装其他项目支持

brew install composer node

安装Oh My Zsh

brew install zsh-completions
chsh -s /usr/local/bin/zsh
vim ~/.zshenv

加入内容

export PATH=/usr/local/bin:$PATH

然后

vim ~/.zshrc

加入内容

fpath=(/usr/local/share/zsh-completions $fpath)
autoload -Uz compinit
compinit -u

最后运行

rm -f ~/.zcompdump; compinit

查看正在使用的shell

dscl localhost -read Local/Default/Users/$USER UserShell

安装Oh My Zsh

wget https://github.com/robbyrussell/oh-my-zsh/raw/master/tools/install.sh -O - | sh

参考

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