# ID3算法实验

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Outlook    Temperature    Humidity   Wind    Play ball

Sunny       Hot    High          Weak    No

Sunny       Hot    High          Strong    No

Overcast     Hot    High          Weak    Yes

Rain        Mild    High          Weak    Yes

Rain       Cool     Normal        Weak   Yes

Rain       Cool     Normal        Strong    No

Overcast    Cool     Normal        Strong    Yes

Sunny       Mild    High          Weak    No

Sunny       Cool    Normal        Weak   Yes

Rain        Mild     Normal        Weak   Yes

Sunny        Mild   Normal        Strong    Yes

Overcast    Mild     High          Strong    Yes

Overcast    Hot     Normal         Weak   Yes

Rain       Mild     High          Strong    No

Outlook

Rain            Wind

Strong          No

Weak            Yes

Overcast        Yes

Sunny           Humidity

Normal          Yes

High            No

#include <iostream>

#include <fstream>

#include <math.h>

#include <string>

using namespace std;

#define ROW 14

#define COL 5

#define log2 0.69314718055

typedef struct TNode

{

char data[15];

charweight[15];

TNode *firstchild,*nextsibling;

}*tree;

typedef struct LNode

{

char  OutLook[15];

char  Temperature[15];

char  Humidity[15];

char  Wind[15];

char  PlayTennis[5];

LNode *next;

typedef struct AttrNode

{

char   attributes[15];//属性

int        attr_Num;//属性的个数

AttrNode*next;

}*Attributes;

char * Examples[ROW][COL] ={//"OverCast","Cool","High","Strong","No",

//      "Rain","Hot","Normal","Strong","Yes",

"Sunny","Hot","High","Weak","No",

"Sunny","Hot","High","Strong","No",

"OverCast","Hot","High","Weak","Yes",

"Rain","Mild","High","Weak","Yes",

"Rain","Cool","Normal","Weak","Yes",

"Rain","Cool","Normal","Strong","No",

"OverCast","Cool","Normal","Strong","Yes",

"Sunny","Mild","High","Weak","No",

"Sunny","Cool","Normal","Weak","Yes",

"Rain","Mild","Normal","Weak","Yes",

"Sunny","Mild","Normal","Strong","Yes",

"OverCast","Mild","Normal","Strong","Yes",

"OverCast","Hot","Normal","Weak","Yes",

"Rain","Mild","High","Strong","No"

};

char * Attributes_kind[4] ={"OutLook","Temperature","Humidity","Wind"};

int      Attr_kind[4] = {3,3,2,2};

char * OutLook_kind[3] ={"Sunny","OverCast","Rain"};

char * Temperature_kind[3] ={"Hot","Mild","Cool"};

char * Humidity_kind[2] ={"High","Normal"};

char * Wind_kind[2] ={"Weak","Strong"};

/*int i_Exampple[14][5] = {0,0,0,0,1,

0,0,0,1,1,

1,0,0,1,0,

2,1,0,0,0,

2,2,1,0,0,

2,2,1,1,1,

1,2,1,1,0,

0,1,0,0,1,

0,2,1,0,0,

2,1,1,0,0,

0,1,1,1,0,

1,1,1,1,0,

1,1,1,0,0,

2,1,0,0,1

};*/

void treelists(tree T);

double Gain(int positive,int negative,char *atrribute,link L,Attributes attr_L);

void main()

{

Attributesattr_L,q;

tree T;

T = new TNode;

T->firstchild = T->nextsibling = NULL;

strcpy(T->weight,"");

strcpy(T->data,"");

attr_L = newAttrNode;

attr_L->next = NULL;

LL = newLNode;

LL->next =NULL;

//成功建立两个链表

InitAttr(attr_L,Attributes_kind,Attr_kind);

ID3(T,LL,NULL,attr_L);

cout<<"决策树以广义表形式输出如下："<<endl;

treelists(T);//以广义表的形式输出树

//     cout<<Gain(9,5,"OutLook",LL,attr_L)<<endl;

cout<<endl;

}

//以广义表的形式输出树

void treelists(tree T)

{

tree p;

if(!T)

return;

cout<<"{"<<T->weight<<"}";

cout<<T->data;

p =T->firstchild;

if (p)

{

cout<<"(";

while (p)

{

treelists(p);

p =p->nextsibling;

if(p)cout<<',';

}

cout<<")";

}

}

{

Attributes p;

for (int i=0;i < 4;i++)

{

p = newAttrNode;

p->next =NULL;

strcpy(p->attributes,Attributes_kind[i]);

p->attr_Num = Attr_kind[i];

}

}

{

for (int i =0;i < ROW;i++)

{

p = newLNode;

p->next =NULL;

strcpy(p->OutLook,Examples[i][0]);

strcpy(p->Temperature,Examples[i][1]);

strcpy(p->Humidity,Examples[i][2]);

strcpy(p->Wind,Examples[i][3]);

strcpy(p->PlayTennis,Examples[i][4]);

p->next =LL->next;

LL->next= p;

}

}

{

positve = 0;

negative = 0;

p =L->next;

while (p)

{

if(strcmp(p->PlayTennis,"No") == 0)

negative++;

elseif(strcmp(p->PlayTennis,"Yes") == 0)

positve++;

p =p->next;

}

}

//计算信息增益

//attr_L：属性集合

double Gain(int positive,int negative,char *atrribute,link L,Attributes attr_L)

{

intatrr_kinds;//每个属性中的值的个数

Attributes p =attr_L->next;

int attr_th =0;//第几个属性

while (p)

{

if(strcmp(p->attributes,atrribute) == 0)

{

atrr_kinds= p->attr_Num;

break;

}

p =p->next;

attr_th++;

}

doubleentropy,gain=0;

double p1 =1.0*positive/(positive + negative);

double p2 =1.0*negative/(positive + negative);

entropy =-p1*log(p1)/log2 - p2*log(p2)/log2;//集合熵

gain =entropy;

//获取每个属性值在训练样本中出现的个数

//获取每个属性值所对应的正例和反例的个数

//声明一个3*atrr_kinds的数组

int ** kinds=new int * [3];

for (int j=0;j < 3;j++)

{

kinds[j] =new int[atrr_kinds];//保存每个属性值在训练样本中出现的个数

}

//初始化

for (int j =0;j< 3;j++)

{

for (int i=0;i < atrr_kinds;i++)

{

kinds[j][i] = 0;

}

}

while (q)

{

if(strcmp("OutLook",atrribute) == 0)

{

for (int i= 0;i < atrr_kinds;i++)

{

if(strcmp(q->OutLook,OutLook_kind[i]) == 0)

{

kinds[0][i]++;

if(strcmp(q->PlayTennis,"Yes") == 0)

kinds[1][i]++;

else

kinds[2][i]++;

}

}

}

else if(strcmp("Temperature",atrribute) == 0)

{

for (int i= 0;i < atrr_kinds;i++)

{

if(strcmp(q->Temperature,Temperature_kind[i]) == 0)

{

kinds[0][i]++;

if(strcmp(q->PlayTennis,"Yes") == 0)

kinds[1][i]++;

else

kinds[2][i]++;

}

}

}

else if(strcmp("Humidity",atrribute) == 0)

{

for (int i= 0;i < atrr_kinds;i++)

{

if(strcmp(q->Humidity,Humidity_kind[i]) == 0)

{

kinds[0][i]++;

if(strcmp(q->PlayTennis,"Yes") == 0)

kinds[1][i]++;//

else

kinds[2][i]++;

}

}

}

else if(strcmp("Wind",atrribute) == 0)

{

for (int i= 0;i < atrr_kinds;i++)

{

if(strcmp(q->Wind,Wind_kind[i]) == 0)

{

kinds[0][i]++;

if(strcmp(q->PlayTennis,"Yes") == 0)

kinds[1][i]++;

else

kinds[2][i]++;

}

}

}

q =q->next;

}

//计算信息增益

double *gain_kind = new double[atrr_kinds];

intpositive_kind = 0,negative_kind = 0;

for (int j =0;j < atrr_kinds;j++)

{

if(kinds[0][j] != 0 && kinds[1][j] != 0 && kinds[2][j] != 0)

{

p1 =1.0*kinds[1][j]/kinds[0][j];

p2 = 1.0*kinds[2][j]/kinds[0][j];

gain_kind[j] = -p1*log(p1)/log2-p2*log(p2)/log2;

gain =gain - (1.0*kinds[0][j]/(positive + negative))*gain_kind[j];

}

else

gain_kind[j] = 0;

}

return gain;

}

//在ID3算法中的训练样本子集合与属性子集合的链表需要进行清空

{

while (p)

{

q = p;

p =p->next;

free(q);

}

}

{

Attributesp,max,attr_child,p1;

tree r,tree_p;

int positive=0,negative =0;

PN_Num(L,positive,negative);

//初始化两个子集合

attr_child =new AttrNode;

attr_child->next = NULL;

if (positive== 0)//全是反例

{

strcpy(T->data,"No");

return;

}

else if(negative == 0)//全是正例

{

strcpy(T->data,"Yes");

return;

}

p =attr->next; //属性链表

double gain,g= 0;

/************************************************************************/

/* 建立属性子集合与训练样本子集合有两个方案：

一：在原来链表的基础上进行删除；

二：另外申请空间进行存储子集合；

采用第二种方法虽然浪费了空间，但也省了很多事情，避免了变量之间的应用混乱

*/

/************************************************************************/

if(p)

{

while (p)

{

gain =Gain(positive,negative,p->attributes,L,attr);

cout<<p->attributes<<"  "<<gain<<endl;

if(gain> g)

{

g =gain;

max =p;//寻找信息增益最大的属性

}

p =p->next;

}

strcpy(T->data,max->attributes);//增加决策树的节点

cout<<"信息增益最大的属性：max->attributes ="<<max->attributes<<endl<<endl;

//下面开始建立决策树

//创建属性子集合

p =attr->next;

while (p)

{

if(strcmp(p->attributes,max->attributes) != 0)

{

p1 = newAttrNode;

strcpy(p1->attributes,p->attributes);

p1->attr_Num = p->attr_Num;

p1->next = NULL;

p1->next = attr_child->next;

attr_child->next = p1;

}

p =p->next;

}

//需要区分出是哪一种属性

//建立每一层的第一个节点

if(strcmp("OutLook",max->attributes) == 0)

{

r = newTNode;

r->firstchild = r->nextsibling = NULL;

strcpy(r->weight,OutLook_kind[0]);

T->firstchild = r;

q =L->next;

while (q)

{

if(strcmp(q->OutLook,OutLook_kind[0]) == 0)

{

q1 =new LNode;

strcpy(q1->OutLook,q->OutLook);

strcpy(q1->Humidity,q->Humidity);

strcpy(q1->Temperature,q->Temperature);

strcpy(q1->Wind,q->Wind);

strcpy(q1->PlayTennis,q->PlayTennis);

q1->next = NULL;

}

q =q->next;

}

}

else if(strcmp("Temperature",max->attributes) == 0)

{

r = newTNode;

r->firstchild = r->nextsibling = NULL;

strcpy(r->weight,Temperature_kind[0]);

T->firstchild = r;

q =L->next;

while (q)

{

if(strcmp(q->Temperature,Temperature_kind[0]) == 0)

{

q1 =new LNode;

strcpy(q1->OutLook,q->OutLook);

strcpy(q1->Humidity,q->Humidity);

strcpy(q1->Temperature,q->Temperature);

strcpy(q1->Wind,q->Wind);

strcpy(q1->PlayTennis,q->PlayTennis);

q1->next = NULL;

}

q =q->next;

}

}

else if(strcmp("Humidity",max->attributes) == 0)

{

r = newTNode;

r->firstchild = r->nextsibling = NULL;

strcpy(r->weight,Humidity_kind[0]);

T->firstchild = r;

q =L->next;

while (q)

{

if(strcmp(q->Humidity,Humidity_kind[0]) == 0)

{

q1 =new LNode;

strcpy(q1->OutLook,q->OutLook);

strcpy(q1->Humidity,q->Humidity);

strcpy(q1->Temperature,q->Temperature);

strcpy(q1->Wind,q->Wind);

strcpy(q1->PlayTennis,q->PlayTennis);

q1->next = NULL;

}

q =q->next;

}

}

else if(strcmp("Wind",max->attributes) == 0)

{

r = newTNode;

r->firstchild = r->nextsibling = NULL;

strcpy(r->weight,Wind_kind[0]);

T->firstchild = r;

q =L->next;

while (q)

{

if(strcmp(q->Wind,Wind_kind[0]) == 0)

{

q1 =new LNode;

strcpy(q1->OutLook,q->OutLook);

strcpy(q1->Humidity,q->Humidity);

strcpy(q1->Temperature,q->Temperature);

strcpy(q1->Wind,q->Wind);

strcpy(q1->PlayTennis,q->PlayTennis);

q1->next = NULL;

}

q =q->next;

}

}

int p = 0,n= 0;

if (p != 0&& n != 0)

{

}

else if(p ==0)

{

strcpy(T->firstchild->data,"No");

//       strcpy(T->firstchild->data,q1->PlayTennis);//----此处应该需要修改----:)

}

else if(n ==0)

{

strcpy(T->firstchild->data,"Yes");

}

//建立每一层上的其他节点

tree_p =T->firstchild;

for (int i =1;i < max->attr_Num;i++)

{

//需要区分出是哪一种属性

if(strcmp("OutLook",max->attributes) == 0)

{

r = newTNode;

r->firstchild = r->nextsibling = NULL;

strcpy(r->weight,OutLook_kind[i]);

tree_p->nextsibling = r;

q =L->next;

while(q)

{

if(strcmp(q->OutLook,OutLook_kind[i]) == 0)

{

q1 =new LNode;

strcpy(q1->OutLook,q->OutLook);

strcpy(q1->Humidity,q->Humidity);

strcpy(q1->Temperature,q->Temperature);

strcpy(q1->Wind,q->Wind);

strcpy(q1->PlayTennis,q->PlayTennis);

q1->next = NULL;

}

q =q->next;

}

}

else if(strcmp("Temperature",max->attributes) == 0)

{

r = newTNode;

r->firstchild = r->nextsibling = NULL;

strcpy(r->weight,Temperature_kind[i]);

tree_p->nextsibling = r;

q = L->next;

while(q)

{

if(strcmp(q->Temperature,Temperature_kind[i]) == 0)

{

q1 =new LNode;

strcpy(q1->OutLook,q->OutLook);

strcpy(q1->Humidity,q->Humidity);

strcpy(q1->Temperature,q->Temperature);

strcpy(q1->Wind,q->Wind);

strcpy(q1->PlayTennis,q->PlayTennis);

q1->next = NULL;

}

q = q->next;

}

}

else if(strcmp("Humidity",max->attributes) == 0)

{

r = newTNode;

r->firstchild = r->nextsibling = NULL;

strcpy(r->weight,Humidity_kind[i]);

tree_p->nextsibling = r;

q =L->next;

while(q)

{

if(strcmp(q->Humidity,Humidity_kind[i]) == 0)

{

q1 =new LNode;

strcpy(q1->OutLook,q->OutLook);

strcpy(q1->Humidity,q->Humidity);

strcpy(q1->Temperature,q->Temperature);

strcpy(q1->Wind,q->Wind);

strcpy(q1->PlayTennis,q->PlayTennis);

q1->next = NULL;

}

q =q->next;

}

}

else if(strcmp("Wind",max->attributes) == 0)

{

r = newTNode;

r->firstchild = r->nextsibling = NULL;

strcpy(r->weight,Wind_kind[i]);

tree_p->nextsibling = r;

q =L->next;

while(q)

{

if(strcmp(q->Wind,Wind_kind[i]) == 0)

{

q1 =new LNode;

strcpy(q1->OutLook,q->OutLook);

strcpy(q1->Humidity,q->Humidity);

strcpy(q1->Temperature,q->Temperature);

strcpy(q1->Wind,q->Wind);

strcpy(q1->PlayTennis,q->PlayTennis);

q1->next = NULL;

}

q =q->next;

}

}

int p =0,n = 0;

if (p != 0&& n != 0)

{

}

else if(p== 0)

{

strcpy(tree_p->nextsibling->data,"No");

}

else if(n== 0)

{

strcpy(tree_p->nextsibling->data,"Yes");

}

tree_p =tree_p->nextsibling;//建立所有的孩子结点

}//建立决策树结束

}

else

{

q =L->next;

strcpy(T->data,q->PlayTennis);

return;//这个地方要赋以训练样本Example中最普遍的Target_attributes的值

}

}

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