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springcloud----Zuul动态路由

标签: 框架动态路由
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前言

Zuul 是Netflix 提供的一个开源组件,致力于在云平台上提供动态路由,监控,弹性,安全等边缘服务的框架。也有很多公司使用它来作为网关的重要组成部分,碰巧今年公司的架构组决定自研一个网关产品,集动态路由,动态权限,限流配额等功能为一体,为其他部门的项目提供统一的外网调用管理,最终形成产品(这方面阿里其实已经有成熟的网关产品了,但是不太适用于个性化的配置,也没有集成权限和限流降级)。

不过这里并不想介绍整个网关的架构,而是想着重于讨论其中的一个关键点,并且也是经常在交流群中听人说起的:动态路由怎么做?

再阐释什么是动态路由之前,需要介绍一下架构的设计。

传统互联网架构图

这里写图片描述
上图是没有网关参与的一个最典型的互联网架构(本文中统一使用book代表应用实例,即真正提供服务的一个业务系统)

加入eureka的架构图

这里写图片描述
book注册到eureka注册中心中,zuul本身也连接着同一个eureka,可以拉取book众多实例的列表。服务中心的注册发现一直是值得推崇的一种方式,但是不适用与网关产品。因为我们的网关是面向众多的其他部门已有或是异构架构的系统,不应该强求其他系统都使用eureka,这样是有侵入性的设计。

最终架构图

这里写图片描述
要强调的一点是,gateway最终也会部署多个实例,达到分布式的效果,在架构图中没有画出,请大家自行脑补。

本博客的示例使用最后一章架构图为例,带来动态路由的实现方式,会有具体的代码。

动态路由

动态路由需要达到可持久化配置,动态刷新的效果。如架构图所示,不仅要能满足从spring的配置文件properties加载路由信息,还需要从数据库加载我们的配置。另外一点是,路由信息在容器启动时就已经加载进入了内存,我们希望配置完成后,实施发布,动态刷新内存中的路由信息,达到不停机维护路由信息的效果。

zuul–HelloWorldDemo

项目结构

    <groupId>com.sinosoft</groupId>
    <artifactId>zuul-gateway-demo</artifactId>
    <packaging>pom</packaging>
    <version>1.0</version>

    <parent>
        <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
        <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-parent</artifactId>
        <version>1.5.2.RELEASE</version>
    </parent>

    <modules>
        <module>gateway</module>
        <module>book</module>
    </modules>

    <dependencyManagement>
        <dependencies>
            <dependency>
                <groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId>
                <artifactId>spring-cloud-dependencies</artifactId>
                <version>Camden.SR6</version>
                <type>pom</type>
                <scope>import</scope>
            </dependency>
        </dependencies>
    </dependencyManagement>

tip:springboot-1.5.2对应的springcloud的版本需要使用Camden.SR6,一开始想专门写这个demo时,只替换了springboot的版本1.4.0->1.5.2,结果启动就报错了,最后发现是版本不兼容的锅。

gateway项目:
启动类:GatewayApplication.java

@EnableZuulProxy
@SpringBootApplication
public class GatewayApplication {

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        SpringApplication.run(GatewayApplication.class, args);
    }

}

配置:application.properties

#配置在配置文件中的路由信息
zuul.routes.books.url=http://localhost:8090
zuul.routes.books.path=/books/**
#不使用注册中心,会带来侵入性
ribbon.eureka.enabled=false
#网关端口
server.port=8080

book项目:
启动类:BookApplication.java

@RestController
@SpringBootApplication
public class BookApplication {

    @RequestMapping(value = "/available")
    public String available() {
        System.out.println("Spring in Action");
        return "Spring in Action";
    }

    @RequestMapping(value = "/checked-out")
    public String checkedOut() {
        return "Spring Boot in Action";
    }

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        SpringApplication.run(BookApplication.class, args);
    }
}

配置类:application.properties

server.port=8090

测试访问:http://localhost:8080/books/available

上述demo是一个简单的静态路由,简单看下源码,zuul是怎么做到转发,路由的。

@Configuration
@EnableConfigurationProperties({ ZuulProperties.class })
@ConditionalOnClass(ZuulServlet.class)
@Import(ServerPropertiesAutoConfiguration.class)
public class ZuulConfiguration {

    @Autowired
    //zuul的配置文件,对应了application.properties中的配置信息
    protected ZuulProperties zuulProperties;

    @Autowired
    protected ServerProperties server;

    @Autowired(required = false)
    private ErrorController errorController;

    @Bean
    public HasFeatures zuulFeature() {
        return HasFeatures.namedFeature("Zuul (Simple)", ZuulConfiguration.class);
    }

    //核心类,路由定位器,最最重要
    @Bean
    @ConditionalOnMissingBean(RouteLocator.class)
    public RouteLocator routeLocator() {
        //默认配置的实现是SimpleRouteLocator.class
        return new SimpleRouteLocator(this.server.getServletPrefix(),
                this.zuulProperties);
    }

    //zuul的控制器,负责处理链路调用
    @Bean
    public ZuulController zuulController() {
        return new ZuulController();
    }

    //MVC HandlerMapping that maps incoming request paths to remote services.
    @Bean
    public ZuulHandlerMapping zuulHandlerMapping(RouteLocator routes) {
        ZuulHandlerMapping mapping = new ZuulHandlerMapping(routes, zuulController());
        mapping.setErrorController(this.errorController);
        return mapping;
    }

    //注册了一个路由刷新监听器,默认实现是ZuulRefreshListener.class,这个是我们动态路由的关键
    @Bean
    public ApplicationListener<ApplicationEvent> zuulRefreshRoutesListener() {
        return new ZuulRefreshListener();
    }

    @Bean
    @ConditionalOnMissingBean(name = "zuulServlet")
    public ServletRegistrationBean zuulServlet() {
        ServletRegistrationBean servlet = new ServletRegistrationBean(new ZuulServlet(),
                this.zuulProperties.getServletPattern());
        // The whole point of exposing this servlet is to provide a route that doesn't
        // buffer requests.
        servlet.addInitParameter("buffer-requests", "false");
        return servlet;
    }

    // pre filters

    @Bean
    public ServletDetectionFilter servletDetectionFilter() {
        return new ServletDetectionFilter();
    }

    @Bean
    public FormBodyWrapperFilter formBodyWrapperFilter() {
        return new FormBodyWrapperFilter();
    }

    @Bean
    public DebugFilter debugFilter() {
        return new DebugFilter();
    }

    @Bean
    public Servlet30WrapperFilter servlet30WrapperFilter() {
        return new Servlet30WrapperFilter();
    }

    // post filters

    @Bean
    public SendResponseFilter sendResponseFilter() {
        return new SendResponseFilter();
    }

    @Bean
    public SendErrorFilter sendErrorFilter() {
        return new SendErrorFilter();
    }

    @Bean
    public SendForwardFilter sendForwardFilter() {
        return new SendForwardFilter();
    }

    @Configuration
    protected static class ZuulFilterConfiguration {

        @Autowired
        private Map<String, ZuulFilter> filters;

        @Bean
        public ZuulFilterInitializer zuulFilterInitializer() {
            return new ZuulFilterInitializer(this.filters);
        }

    }

    //上面提到的路由刷新监听器
    private static class ZuulRefreshListener
            implements ApplicationListener<ApplicationEvent> {

        @Autowired
        private ZuulHandlerMapping zuulHandlerMapping;

        private HeartbeatMonitor heartbeatMonitor = new HeartbeatMonitor();

        @Override
        public void onApplicationEvent(ApplicationEvent event) {
            if (event instanceof ContextRefreshedEvent
                    || event instanceof RefreshScopeRefreshedEvent
                    || event instanceof RoutesRefreshedEvent) {
                //设置为脏,下一次匹配到路径时,如果发现为脏,则会去刷新路由信息
                this.zuulHandlerMapping.setDirty(true);
            }
            else if (event instanceof HeartbeatEvent) {
                if (this.heartbeatMonitor.update(((HeartbeatEvent) event).getValue())) {
                    this.zuulHandlerMapping.setDirty(true);
                }
            }
        }

    }

}

我们要解决动态路由的难题,第一步就得理解路由定位器的作用。
这里写图片描述
很失望,因为从接口关系来看,spring考虑到了路由刷新的需求,但是默认实现的SimpleRouteLocator没有实现RefreshableRouteLocator接口,看来我们只能借鉴DiscoveryClientRouteLocator去改造SimpleRouteLocator使其具备刷新能力。

public interface RefreshableRouteLocator extends RouteLocator {
    void refresh();
}

DiscoveryClientRouteLocator比SimpleRouteLocator多了两个功能,第一是从DiscoveryClient(如Eureka)发现路由信息,之前的架构图已经给大家解释清楚了,我们不想使用eureka这种侵入式的网关模块,所以忽略它,第二是实现了RefreshableRouteLocator接口,能够实现动态刷新。
对SimpleRouteLocator.class的源码加一些注释,方便大家阅读:

public class SimpleRouteLocator implements RouteLocator {

    //配置文件中的路由信息配置
    private ZuulProperties properties;
    //路径正则配置器,即作用于path:/books/**
    private PathMatcher pathMatcher = new AntPathMatcher();

    private String dispatcherServletPath = "/";
    private String zuulServletPath;

    private AtomicReference<Map<String, ZuulRoute>> routes = new AtomicReference<>();

    public SimpleRouteLocator(String servletPath, ZuulProperties properties) {
        this.properties = properties;
        if (servletPath != null && StringUtils.hasText(servletPath)) {
            this.dispatcherServletPath = servletPath;
        }

        this.zuulServletPath = properties.getServletPath();
    }

    //路由定位器和其他组件的交互,是最终把定位的Routes以list的方式提供出去,核心实现
    @Override
    public List<Route> getRoutes() {
        if (this.routes.get() == null) {
            this.routes.set(locateRoutes());
        }
        List<Route> values = new ArrayList<>();
        for (String url : this.routes.get().keySet()) {
            ZuulRoute route = this.routes.get().get(url);
            String path = route.getPath();
            values.add(getRoute(route, path));
        }
        return values;
    }

    @Override
    public Collection<String> getIgnoredPaths() {
        return this.properties.getIgnoredPatterns();
    }

    //这个方法在网关产品中也很重要,可以根据实际路径匹配到Route来进行业务逻辑的操作,进行一些加工
    @Override
    public Route getMatchingRoute(final String path) {

        if (log.isDebugEnabled()) {
            log.debug("Finding route for path: " + path);
        }

        if (this.routes.get() == null) {
            this.routes.set(locateRoutes());
        }

        if (log.isDebugEnabled()) {
            log.debug("servletPath=" + this.dispatcherServletPath);
            log.debug("zuulServletPath=" + this.zuulServletPath);
            log.debug("RequestUtils.isDispatcherServletRequest()="
                    + RequestUtils.isDispatcherServletRequest());
            log.debug("RequestUtils.isZuulServletRequest()="
                    + RequestUtils.isZuulServletRequest());
        }

        String adjustedPath = adjustPath(path);

        ZuulRoute route = null;
        if (!matchesIgnoredPatterns(adjustedPath)) {
            for (Entry<String, ZuulRoute> entry : this.routes.get().entrySet()) {
                String pattern = entry.getKey();
                log.debug("Matching pattern:" + pattern);
                if (this.pathMatcher.match(pattern, adjustedPath)) {
                    route = entry.getValue();
                    break;
                }
            }
        }
        if (log.isDebugEnabled()) {
            log.debug("route matched=" + route);
        }

        return getRoute(route, adjustedPath);

    }

    private Route getRoute(ZuulRoute route, String path) {
        if (route == null) {
            return null;
        }
        String targetPath = path;
        String prefix = this.properties.getPrefix();
        if (path.startsWith(prefix) && this.properties.isStripPrefix()) {
            targetPath = path.substring(prefix.length());
        }
        if (route.isStripPrefix()) {
            int index = route.getPath().indexOf("*") - 1;
            if (index > 0) {
                String routePrefix = route.getPath().substring(0, index);
                targetPath = targetPath.replaceFirst(routePrefix, "");
                prefix = prefix + routePrefix;
            }
        }
        Boolean retryable = this.properties.getRetryable();
        if (route.getRetryable() != null) {
            retryable = route.getRetryable();
        }
        return new Route(route.getId(), targetPath, route.getLocation(), prefix,
                retryable,
                route.isCustomSensitiveHeaders() ? route.getSensitiveHeaders() : null);
    }

    //注意这个类并没有实现refresh接口,但是却提供了一个protected级别的方法,旨在让子类不需要重复维护一个private AtomicReference<Map<String, ZuulRoute>> routes = new AtomicReference<>();也可以达到刷新的效果
    protected void doRefresh() {
        this.routes.set(locateRoutes());
    }


    //具体就是在这儿定位路由信息的,我们之后从数据库加载路由信息,主要也是从这儿改写
    /**
     * Compute a map of path pattern to route. The default is just a static map from the
     * {@link ZuulProperties}, but subclasses can add dynamic calculations.
     */
    protected Map<String, ZuulRoute> locateRoutes() {
        LinkedHashMap<String, ZuulRoute> routesMap = new LinkedHashMap<String, ZuulRoute>();
        for (ZuulRoute route : this.properties.getRoutes().values()) {
            routesMap.put(route.getPath(), route);
        }
        return routesMap;
    }

    protected boolean matchesIgnoredPatterns(String path) {
        for (String pattern : this.properties.getIgnoredPatterns()) {
            log.debug("Matching ignored pattern:" + pattern);
            if (this.pathMatcher.match(pattern, path)) {
                log.debug("Path " + path + " matches ignored pattern " + pattern);
                return true;
            }
        }
        return false;
    }

    private String adjustPath(final String path) {
        String adjustedPath = path;

        if (RequestUtils.isDispatcherServletRequest()
                && StringUtils.hasText(this.dispatcherServletPath)) {
            if (!this.dispatcherServletPath.equals("/")) {
                adjustedPath = path.substring(this.dispatcherServletPath.length());
                log.debug("Stripped dispatcherServletPath");
            }
        }
        else if (RequestUtils.isZuulServletRequest()) {
            if (StringUtils.hasText(this.zuulServletPath)
                    && !this.zuulServletPath.equals("/")) {
                adjustedPath = path.substring(this.zuulServletPath.length());
                log.debug("Stripped zuulServletPath");
            }
        }
        else {
            // do nothing
        }

        log.debug("adjustedPath=" + path);
        return adjustedPath;
    }

}

重写过后的自定义路由定位器如下:

public class CustomRouteLocator extends SimpleRouteLocator implements RefreshableRouteLocator{

    public final static Logger logger = LoggerFactory.getLogger(CustomRouteLocator.class);

    private JdbcTemplate jdbcTemplate;

    private ZuulProperties properties;

    public void setJdbcTemplate(JdbcTemplate jdbcTemplate){
        this.jdbcTemplate = jdbcTemplate;
    }

    public CustomRouteLocator(String servletPath, ZuulProperties properties) {
        super(servletPath, properties);
        this.properties = properties;
        logger.info("servletPath:{}",servletPath);
    }

    //父类已经提供了这个方法,这里写出来只是为了说明这一个方法很重要!!!
//    @Override
//    protected void doRefresh() {
//        super.doRefresh();
//    }


    @Override
    public void refresh() {
        doRefresh();
    }

    @Override
    protected Map<String, ZuulRoute> locateRoutes() {
        LinkedHashMap<String, ZuulRoute> routesMap = new LinkedHashMap<String, ZuulRoute>();
        //从application.properties中加载路由信息
        routesMap.putAll(super.locateRoutes());
        //从db中加载路由信息
        routesMap.putAll(locateRoutesFromDB());
        //优化一下配置
        LinkedHashMap<String, ZuulRoute> values = new LinkedHashMap<>();
        for (Map.Entry<String, ZuulRoute> entry : routesMap.entrySet()) {
            String path = entry.getKey();
            // Prepend with slash if not already present.
            if (!path.startsWith("/")) {
                path = "/" + path;
            }
            if (StringUtils.hasText(this.properties.getPrefix())) {
                path = this.properties.getPrefix() + path;
                if (!path.startsWith("/")) {
                    path = "/" + path;
                }
            }
            values.put(path, entry.getValue());
        }
        return values;
    }

    private Map<String, ZuulRoute> locateRoutesFromDB(){
        Map<String, ZuulRoute> routes = new LinkedHashMap<>();
        List<ZuulRouteVO> results = jdbcTemplate.query("select * from gateway_api_define where enabled = true ",new BeanPropertyRowMapper<>(ZuulRouteVO.class));
        for (ZuulRouteVO result : results) {
            if(org.apache.commons.lang3.StringUtils.isBlank(result.getPath()) || org.apache.commons.lang3.StringUtils.isBlank(result.getUrl()) ){
                continue;
            }
            ZuulRoute zuulRoute = new ZuulRoute();
            try {
                org.springframework.beans.BeanUtils.copyProperties(result,zuulRoute);
            } catch (Exception e) {
                logger.error("=============load zuul route info from db with error==============",e);
            }
            routes.put(zuulRoute.getPath(),zuulRoute);
        }
        return routes;
    }

    public static class ZuulRouteVO {

        /**
         * The ID of the route (the same as its map key by default).
         */
        private String id;

        /**
         * The path (pattern) for the route, e.g. /foo/**.
         */
        private String path;

        /**
         * The service ID (if any) to map to this route. You can specify a physical URL or
         * a service, but not both.
         */
        private String serviceId;

        /**
         * A full physical URL to map to the route. An alternative is to use a service ID
         * and service discovery to find the physical address.
         */
        private String url;

        /**
         * Flag to determine whether the prefix for this route (the path, minus pattern
         * patcher) should be stripped before forwarding.
         */
        private boolean stripPrefix = true;

        /**
         * Flag to indicate that this route should be retryable (if supported). Generally
         * retry requires a service ID and ribbon.
         */
        private Boolean retryable;

        private Boolean enabled;

        public String getId() {
            return id;
        }

        public void setId(String id) {
            this.id = id;
        }

        public String getPath() {
            return path;
        }

        public void setPath(String path) {
            this.path = path;
        }

        public String getServiceId() {
            return serviceId;
        }

        public void setServiceId(String serviceId) {
            this.serviceId = serviceId;
        }

        public String getUrl() {
            return url;
        }

        public void setUrl(String url) {
            this.url = url;
        }

        public boolean isStripPrefix() {
            return stripPrefix;
        }

        public void setStripPrefix(boolean stripPrefix) {
            this.stripPrefix = stripPrefix;
        }

        public Boolean getRetryable() {
            return retryable;
        }

        public void setRetryable(Boolean retryable) {
            this.retryable = retryable;
        }

        public Boolean getEnabled() {
            return enabled;
        }

        public void setEnabled(Boolean enabled) {
            this.enabled = enabled;
        }
    }
}

配置这个自定义的路由定位器:

@Configuration
public class CustomZuulConfig {

    @Autowired
    ZuulProperties zuulProperties;
    @Autowired
    ServerProperties server;
    @Autowired
    JdbcTemplate jdbcTemplate;

    @Bean
    public CustomRouteLocator routeLocator() {
        CustomRouteLocator routeLocator = new CustomRouteLocator(this.server.getServletPrefix(), this.zuulProperties);
        routeLocator.setJdbcTemplate(jdbcTemplate);
        return routeLocator;
    }

}

现在容器启动时,就可以从数据库和配置文件中一起加载路由信息了,离动态路由还差最后一步,就是实时刷新,前面已经说过了,默认的ZuulConfigure已经配置了事件监听器,我们只需要发送一个事件就可以实现刷新了。

public class RefreshRouteService {

    @Autowired
    ApplicationEventPublisher publisher;

    @Autowired
    RouteLocator routeLocator;

    public void refreshRoute() {
        RoutesRefreshedEvent routesRefreshedEvent = new RoutesRefreshedEvent(routeLocator);
        publisher.publishEvent(routesRefreshedEvent);
    }

}

具体的刷新流程其实就是从数据库重新加载了一遍,有人可能会问,为什么不自己是手动重新加载Locator.dorefresh?非要用事件去刷新。这牵扯到内部的zuul内部组件的工作流程,不仅仅是Locator本身的一个变量,具体想要了解的还得去看源码。

到这儿我们就实现了动态路由了,所以的实例代码和建表语句我会放到github上,下载的时候记得给我star QAQ !!!

链接:https://github.com/lexburner/zuul-gateway-demo

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