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Three traditionally central areas of the theory of computation: automata, computability and complexity.
Equivalence relation: reflexive,symmetric,transitive
Boolean Logic: negation, conjunction, disjunction
Theorem: a mathematical statement that proved true.
Lemma: a statement that assists the proof of another, more significant statement.
Corollary: A statement that follows with little or no proof required from one already proven.
Proof by construction
Proof by contradiction
Proof by induction