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虚拟语气用法总结及真题解析

标签: 英语学习虚拟语气
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英语的动词有三种语气形式,即陈述语气、祈使语气和虚拟语气。陈述语气用来说明事实或就事实提出询问,可用于陈述句疑问句和某些感叹句中;祈使语气用于表示请求、命令、建议或警告等。虚拟语气谓语动词的一种特殊形式,用来表达假设、主观愿望、猜测、建议、可能或空想等非真实情况。

eg: He is honest. 他很诚实。(陈述语气)

eg: If I have time,I will go. 假若我有时间,我就去。(陈述语气)

eg: Don’t be late next time. 下次别迟到。(祈使语气)

eg: Be careful. 小心。(祈使语气)

eg: If I were you ,I would not go. 我要是你,我就不会去。(虚拟语气)

eg: I wish I had a lot of money. 要是我有很多很多钱就好了。(虚拟语气)

一、虚拟语气在条件从句的用法

条件句有两类,一类是真实条件句;一类是非真实条件句,即虚拟条件句。

(1) 如果假设的情况是有可能发生的,就是真实条件句,谓语要用陈述语气。

eg:If it doesn’t rain tomorrow, we will go tothe park. 如果明天不下雨,我们就会去公园。

(2) 如果假设的情况是过去或现在都不存在的,或将来不大可能发生的,则是虚拟条件句。

eg: If he had seen you yesterday, he would have asked you aboutit.如果他昨天见到你,他会问你这件事的。(事实上他昨天没见到你,因此也未能问你这件事。)

1在含有虚拟条件句的复合句中,主句和从句的谓语都要用虚拟语气。虚拟条件从句和主句的使用形式列表如下:

时态类型

主句

虚拟条件句

例如

与过去现实相反

主语+ should/would/could/might + have + 过去分词

If + 主语 + had + 过去分词

1. If you had taken my advice, you would not have failed in the test.

2. If I had left a little earlier, I would have caught the train.

与现在现实相反

主语+ should/would/could/might + 动词原形

If + 主语 + 动词的过去式(be动词一律用were)

1. If I were you, I should study English.

2. I would certainly go if I had time.

与将来现实相反

主语+ should/would/could/might + 动词原形

① If+主语+动词过去式

② If+主语+ were to +动词原形

③ If+主语+should+动词原形

1. If you came tomorrow, we would have the meeting.

2. If he should not come tomorrow, we should put off the meeting till next Monday.

规律总结:从句都往过去推一个时态,如:与现在相反的if从句就用过去式;与过去相反用过去完成时(即过去的过去)

 

注 :(1)would/should/could/might主句谓语中的should主要用于第一人称后;would表示结果还表示过去经常常常做某事,might表示可能性,could表示能力、允许或可能性。比较:

eg:If you tried again ,you would succeed. 要是你再试一试,你就会成功的。 (would表结果)

eg:If you tried again, you might succeed. 要是你再试一试,你可能会成功的。 (might表可能)

eg:If you tried again ,you could succeed. 要是你再试一试,你就能成功了。(could表能力)

(2)在虚拟条件从句中,动词be在正常语序中常用were。在口语中,当主语是第一、第三人称单数时,可用was,但在if的倒装句中,必须用were。

2、 错综时间条件句:有时条件从句中的动作和主句中的动作发生的时间不一致(表示错综时间的虚拟语气),这时动词的形式要根据它所表示的时间加以调整。

eg:If you had listened to the doctor, you would be all right now. 如果你当初听了医生的话,身体现在就好了。(从句动作指过去,主句动作指现在)

eg:If I were you,I would have gone to see the doctor.我要是你,我早就去看病了。(从句与现在事实相反,主句与过去事实相反)

3、 省略连词if(省略/倒装)。在书面语中,如果虚拟条件从句中有were,had或 should,可以把if省略,把这几个词放到主语之前,构成主谓倒装

eg:Were I in school again (= If I were in school again), I would work harder.如果我能再上一次学,我会学习得更努力。

eg:Had you asked me (= If you had asked me), I would have told you.如果你问我,我就会告诉你。

4、含蓄条件句:句中没有明显的虚拟条件句,而是利用某他手段或方式来暗示存在虚拟条件。其虚拟的结构形式通过主句来表现。常用来表示含蓄虚拟条件的方式有:

(1)介词或介词短语(代替状语从句):but for(要不是…),without(假若没有…),with(假若有…)

eg:With you help,I could have finished the work ahead of time. 如果有你的帮助的话,我本可以提前完成这项工作。

eg:Without air and water,there would be no living things on the earth. 如果没有空气和水,地球上就不会存在生物。

eg:But for the rain,we should have had a pleasant journey. 如果不是因为下雨,旅途会很愉快。

eg:What would you do with a million dollars? 如果有了一百万美元,你会做什么?

(2)If虚拟条件句的否定常用两个句型:If it weren’t for…和If it hadn’t been for…,其意为“若不是(有)” “要不是”。如:

eg:If it hadn’t been for your assistance ,we wouldn’t have succeeded.

= But for your assistance ,we wouldn’t have succeeded.

= Without your assistance ,we wouldn’t have succeeded.

如果没有你的帮助,我们不会成功的。

(3)用or,otherwise(否则),等类似转折词

eg:He telephoned to inform me of your birthday, or I would have known nothing about it.

eg:I was ill that day. Otherwise,I would have taken part in the sports meeting.

(4)根据上下文语境来表示某种假设情况

eg:Five minutes earlier and you could have met her at the station.  早来五分钟的话,你就能在车站见到他了。

eg:You could have done better,but you didn’t try you best.

5、省去条件从句或主句:表示虚拟语气的主句或从句有时可以省略,但其含义仍可以推知。

(1)省去条件从句。如: You could have washed your clothes yourself. 你本可以自已洗衣服的。(省去了"If you had wanted to",事实是:你自己没洗衣服,因为你不想洗。)

(2)省去主句(常用以表示愿望)。如:

eg:If my grandmother were with me!  如果我的祖母与我在一起多好啊! (事实是:祖母已不在世。);

eg:If only she had not left!  如果她没走就好了! (事实是:她已经走了。)

二、虚拟语气在其他从句中的用法

(一)宾语从句

1.wish后的宾语从句

wish从句后使用虚拟语气时,动词的形式根据所表示的时间概念而采用不同形式:过去完成时(与过去事实相反)、过去时(与现在相反)、过去将来时(与将来事实相反)

eg:I wish I were as young as you.我希望自己像你一样年轻。

wish与hope接宾语从句的区别在于:hope表示一般可以实现的希望,宾语从句用陈述语气。wish表示很难或不大可能实现的希望,宾语从句用虚拟语气。试比较:

eg:We hope they will come. (We don’t know if theycan come.)

eg:We wish they could come. (We know they are not coming.) 我们希望他们能来。

2. if only 与 I wish一样,也用于表示与事实相反的愿望,其后所虚拟语气的时态与 wish后所接时态的情况相同。if only 通常独立使用,没有主句

eg:If only she had had more courage! 她再勇敢一些就好了。

eg:If only I had listened to my parents! 我要是当时听了父母的话就好了。

eg:If only she would go with me! 她要是愿意和我一道去就好了!

注:only if表示"只有"  

eg:I wake up only if the alarm clock rings. 只有闹钟响了,我才会醒。

3.would rather和would sooner后的宾语从句

两个词组都表示宁愿、宁可的意思,后面如果用宾语从句,动词采用过去完成时(与过去事实相反)、过去时(与现在或将来事实相反)。

eg:I’d rather I hadn’t met you.我宁愿从来就没遇见过你。

eg:I’d rather you went tomorrow (now). 我宁愿你明天(现在)去。

would rather和would sooner两词组除了要掌握它们后面宾语从句中虚拟语气的用法以外,还要知道这两个词组后面都可以直接加动词原形。

eg:I’d rather be a sparrow than a snail.

4. intend,hope,want,plan,mean等表示“希望、想法、意图”,常用过去完成时态或不定式的完成式表示与过去事实相反的虚拟

eg:I had meant to go to the party,but I had to work extra hours to prepare a speech.

eg:I intended to have helped you,but I was very busy at the time.

5.suggest等动词后的宾语从句

表示主观判断、推测、建议、命令和要求的动词通常引起虚拟的宾语从句,此类动词后的宾语从句中采用should +do、should可以省略的虚拟语气形式。该类动词包括:

(1)高中词汇:advise(劝告)、ask(要求)、decide(决定)、insist(坚持)、order(下令)、suggest(建议)等。

(2)四、六级常考词汇:command(命令)、demand(要求)、desire(渴望)、propose(提议)、recommend(劝告)、require(要求)等。

(3)其他词汇:consent(同意)、deserve(值得提起)、maintain(主张)、move(提议)、urge(极力主张)、 vote(提议)等。

通常我们可以用“一二三四”法巧记这其中比较常用的动词:“一、二、三、四”法,即:一个坚持(insist),两个命令(order,command),三个建议(suggest,propose,advise), 四个要求(demand,require, request ,ask)。

eg:I recommend that you all be diligent if you want to pass the exam.如果你们要考及格,我劝你们勤奋学习。

eg:I demand that he (should) answer me immediately. 我要求他立即回答我问题。

eg:I move that we accept the proposal. 我提议通过这项提案。

eg:The general directed that the prisoners should be set free. 将军指示释放那些俘虏。

注:当suggest表示暗示,表明时,不用虚拟语气,用陈述语气

eg:The smile on her face suggested that she was satisfied with ourwork.

当insist表示“坚持认为,坚持说”之意时, 不用虚拟语气,用陈述语气。表示“坚持要求,坚持主张”用虚拟语气

eg:The man insisted that he had never stolen the money.

(二)主语从句

在It is +形容词/某些动词的过去分词+主语从句的结构中,从句的谓语动词须用动词原形或 should +do的形式。这些形容词包括:

(1)高中词汇:decided(决定的)、important(重要的)、ordered(命令的)等。

(2)四、六级常考词汇:advisable(合理的)、demanded(要求的)、desired(期望的)、desirable(合乎需要的)、essential(紧要的)、insistent(坚持的)、natural(自然的)、preferable(更可取的)、proposed(建议的)、 recommended(推荐的)、required(要求的)、urgent(紧迫的)、vital(极其重要的)等。

(3)其他词汇:appropriate(适当的)、arranged(安排好的)、better(较好的)、imperative(迫切的)、possible(可能的)、probable(可能的)、resolved(决心的)、 strange(奇怪的)、suggested(建议的)等。

eg:It is highly desirable that a new mayor be appointed for this city.这座城市急需任命一位新市长。

eg:It is ordered that the army (should) get there by 4 a.m.

eg:It’s strange that he should have acted toward his parents like that.(竟然会)

eg:It’s surprising/amazing/pleasing/that she (should) win over hermother.(居然会)

eg:It’s strange that he (should) leave without telling us.  (竟然会)

eg:It’s natural that she should make such a mistake.(不以为然的语气,“会”)

(三)表语从句和同位语从句

有些名词引起的表语从句或同位语从句中,谓语动词须用动词原形或should +do的形式。这些名词包括:advice(忠告)、decision(决定)、demand(要求)、desire(渴望)、idea(想法)、motion(提议)、necessity(必要性)、order(命令)、plan(计划)、preference(偏爱)、proposal(建议)、recommendation(推荐)、requirement(要求)、suggestion(建议)等。

eg:His proposal is that we turn off TV for half an hour every day.他建议我们每天少看半个小时的电视。

eg:Our suggestion is that you( should)be the first to go. 我们的建议是你应该第一个去。

注:从以上的各类从句中我们可以得到以下的推论,即当一个动词后面的宾语从句中要使用(should)+do的虚拟语气形式时,则可推理出用法相同的一组从句。以动词advise为例:

  • I advise that we stay and wait here.(动词后的宾语从句)
  • It is advised that we stay here.(It is +动词的过去分词+that引导的主语从句)
  • It is advisable that we stay here.(It is +由该动词转换的形容词+that引导的主语从句)
  • My advice is that we stay here.(由该动词转换的名词后的表语从句)
  • I offered the advice that we stay here.(由该动词转换的名词后的同位语从句)
  • I think it advisable that we stay here.(由该动词转换的形容词作宾语补足语,it为形式宾语,真正的宾语从句中使用虚拟语气)

以上六类从句中所使用的都为(should)+do的虚拟语气形式。

(四)状语从句

虚拟语气在状语从句中,除了表示条件外,还可表示比较、目的等。

1.由as if或as though引导的状语从句

as if/as though(仿佛、好像)引起方式状语从句,从句中的虚拟语气形式与wish后的宾语从句相同:过去完成时(表示与过去事实相反)、一般过去时(表示与现在事实相反)、would +do(表示与将来事实相反)。

eg:You look as if you had seen a ghost.你看起来好像撞见鬼了。

eg:He acts as if he knew me. 他显得认识我似的。

eg:They treat me as though I were a stranger. 他们待我如陌生人。

eg:He talks as if he had been abroad. 他说起话来好像曾经出过国。

注:(1) 从句所表示的内容若为事实或可能为事实,也可用陈述语气:

eg:It looks as if we’ll be late. 我们似乎要迟到了。

(2) 注意 It isn’t as if…的翻译:

eg:It isn’t as if he were poor. 他不像穷的样子(或他又不穷)。

2. 在in order that和so that引导的目的状语从句中,谓语动词多用may/might或can/could后加动词原形,表示虚拟

eg:Mr Green spoke slowly so that his students could (might) hearclearly.

3.lest/in case /forfear that引导的状语从句

lest(以防、以免)、in case(万一、以防)、for fear that(因恐、免得)引起的状语从句中,谓语动词要使用(should)+do的形式

eg:The old woman walked slowly lest she(should)slip.老太太走得很慢,以免滑倒。

3.whoever等引导的状语从句

由连接代词whoever(无论谁)、whatever(无论什么)、whichever(无论哪个)等和连接副词however(无论如何)、whenever(无论何时)、wherever(无论哪里)等及 no matter+how/what/when /where /who(无论怎样/什么/何时/哪里/谁)构成的词组引导的让步状语从句,若表示说话人对现在或将来的推测,谓语动词常用虚拟语气,形式为动词原形或may /might+do

eg:Whichever be the case,my situation remainedthe same.无论是哪种情况,我的处境都一样。

(五)定语从句

It is time(是……时候了),It is about time(差不多是……时候了),It is high timethat(该……了)句式中,后面的从句谓语动词要用过去式或用should加动词原形,但should不可省略

eg:It is time that we protected our environment.

eg:It’s time I was in bed.(不用were)

eg:It is time that the children went to bed.   

eg:It is high time that the children should go to bed.

三、虚拟语气在表示祝愿的句子中的应用

用“may + 动词原形”表示"祝愿"、"但愿”,此时may须置于句首(多用于正式文体中)。

eg:May you be happy! 祝你快乐!   

eg:May good luck be yours.祝你顺利。

eg:May you many years of health and happiness.祝您健康长寿美满幸福。

四、真题讲解

1.真题回放:It would be foolish to go to an interview for a job in a law firm wearing jeans and a sweater;and it would bediscourteous to visit some distinguished scholar looking as if we were going to the beach or a night club.

破解真题:这句话是由分号隔开的两个并列句。第二个并列句中包含一个as if引导的比较状语从句。是把go to an interview与go to the beach or a night club作一对比。

参考译文:穿着牛仔裤和毛衣去法律部门进行求职面试是很愚蠢的行为;而且若我们去见某位著名的学者看起来却像要去海滩或夜总会,这也是很失礼的。

2. 真题回放:However, when two monkeys were placed in separate but adjoining chambers, so that each could observe what the other was getting in return for its rock, their behaviour became markedly different.

破解真题:这是个含有一个时间状语从句、一个目的状语从句的复合句。时间状语从句由when引导;目的状语从句由so that引导,该目的的状语从句中谓语动词由could后加动词原形observe构成。

参考译文:然而,把两只猴子放在两间毗连而又分离的观察室中,以便它们能看到对方用石块换到了什么东西,它们的行为就表现出明显的不同。

3.真题回放:They should be quick to respond to letters to the editor, lest animal right misinformation go unchallenged and acquire a deceptive appearance of truth.

破解真题:这是个含有一个目的状语从句的复合句。目的状语从句由lest引导,其中的主语是animal right misinformation;谓语动词有两个,分别是go和acquire, go是系动词,与后面的unchallenged构成系表结构go和acquire都是动词原形,其实前面的should被省略了;acquire后面的a deceptive appearance of truth是它的宾语。

参考译文:他们应该对报刊的读者来信及时做出反应,以防止动物权利的误导言论在毫无质疑的情况下横行,从而获得一幅真理的面容。

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