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MySQL:触发器

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【例11.1】在t表格上创建一个名为view_t的视图,代码如下:
首先创建基本表并插入数据,语句如下:
CREATE TABLE t (quantity INT, price INT);
INSERT INTO t VALUES(3, 50);
创建视图语句为:
CREATE VIEW view_t AS SELECT quantity, price, quantity *price FROM t;

SELECT * FROM view_t;

【例11.2】在t表格上创建一个名为view_t2的视图,代码如下:
 CREATE VIEW view_t2(qty, price, total ) AS SELECT quantity, price, quantity *price FROM t;
语句执行成功,查看view_t2视图中的数据:
 SELECT * FROM view_t2;
【例11.3】在表student和表stu_info上创建视图stu_glass,代码如下:
首先向两个表中插入数据,输入语句如下:
 INSERT INTO student VALUES(1,'wanglin1'),(2,'gaoli'),(3,'zhanghai');


 INSERT INTO stu_info VALUES(1, 'wuban','henan'),(2,'liuban','hebei'),(3,'qiban','shandong');

CREATE VIEW stu_glass (id,name, glass) AS SELECT student.s_id,student.name ,stu_info.glass
FROM student ,stu_info WHERE student.s_id=stu_info.s_id;

 SELECT * FROM stu_glass;

【例11.4】通过DESCRIBE语句查看视图view_t的定义,代码如下:
DESCRIBE view_t;
代码执行如下:
 DESCRIBE view_t;

【例11.5】下面将通过一个例子来学习使用SHOW TABLE STATUS命令查看视图信息,代码如下:
SHOW TABLE STATUS LIKE 'view_t' \G

执行结果显示,表的说明Comment的值为VIEW说明该表为视图,其他的信息也为NULL说明这是一个虚表。用同样的语句来查看一下数据表t的信息,执行结果如下:
 SHOW TABLE STATUS LIKE 't' \G

【例11.6】SHOW CREATE VIEW查看视图的详细定义,代码如下:
SHOW CREATE VIEW view_t \G

【例11.7】在views表中查看视图的详细定义,代码如下:
 SELECT * FROM information_schema.views\G

【例11.8】修改视图view_t,代码如下:
CREATE OR REPLACE VIEW view_t AS SELECT * FROM t;
首先通过DESC查看一下更改之前的视图,以便与更改之后的视图进行对比。执行的结果如下:
 DESC view_t;

 CREATE OR REPLACE VIEW view_t AS SELECT * FROM t;

 DESC view_t;

【例11.9】使用ALTER语句修改视图view_t,代码如下:
ALTER VIEW view_t AS SELECT quantity FROM t;
执行结果如下:
 DESC view_t;
+----------+---------+------+-----+---------+-------+
| Field   | Type  | Null | Key | Default | Extra |
+----------+---------+------+-----+---------+-------+
| quantity | int(11) | YES |     | NULL |      |
| price   | int(11) | YES |     | NULL |      |
+----------+---------+------+-----+---------+-------+
2 rows in set (0.06 sec)

 ALTER VIEW view_t AS SELECT quantity FROM t;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.05 sec)

 DESC view_t;
+--------+--------------+------+-----+---------+-------+
| Field  | Type     | Null | Key | Default | Extra |
+--------+--------------+------+-----+---------+-------+
| quantity| int(11)    | YES |     | NULL |     |
+-------+---------------+------+-------+--------+-------+

【例11.10】使用UPDATE语句更新视图view_t,代码如下:
UPDATE view_t SET quantity=5;
执行视图更新之前,查看基本表和视图的信息,执行结果如下:
 SELECT * FROM view_t;
+----------+
| quantity |
+----------+
|      3 |
+---------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

 SELECT * FROM t;
+--------+-------+
| quantity| price |
+--------+-------+
|     3 |   50 |
+--------+-------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

使用UPDATE语句更新视图view_t,执行过程如下:
 UPDATE view_t SET quantity=5;
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.00 sec)
Rows matched: 1  Changed: 1  Warnings: 0

查看视图更新之后,基本表的内容:
 SELECT * FROM t;
+----------+-------+
| quantity | price |
+----------+-------+
|      5 |    50 |
+----------+-------+
1 row in set (0.02 sec)

  SELECT * FROM view_t;
+----------+
| quantity |
+----------+
|       5 |
+----------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

  SELECT * FROM view_t2;
+------+-------+-------+
| qty  | price | total |
+------+-------+-------+
|   5 |    50 |  250 |
+------+-------+-------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)
对视图view_t更新后,基本表t的内容也更新了,同样当对基本表t更新后,另外一个视图view_t2中的内容也会更新。
【例11.11】使用INSERT语句在基本表t中插入一条记录,代码如下:
INSERT INTO t VALUES (3,5);
执行结果如下:
 INSERT INTO t VALUES(3,5);
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.04 sec)

 SELECT * FROM t;
+----------+-------+
| quantity | price |
+----------+-------+
|      5 |   50 |
|      3 |    5 |
+----------+-------+
2 rows in set (0.00 sec)

 SELECT * FROM view_t2;
+------+-------+-------+
| qty  | price | total |
+------+-------+-------+
|   5 |    50 |  250 |
|   3 |     5 |   15 |
+------+-------+-------+
2 rows in set (0.00 sec)
向表t中插入一条记录,通过SELECT查看表t和视图view_t2,可以看到其中的内容也跟着更新,视图更新的不仅仅是数量和单价,总价也会更新。
【例11.12】使用DELETE语句在删除视图view_t2中的一条记录,代码如下:
DELETE FROM view_t2 WHERE price=5;
执行结果如下:
 DELETE FROM view_t2 WHERE price=5;
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.03 sec)
 SELECT * FROM view_t2;
+------+-------+-------+
| qty  | price | total |
+------+-------+-------+
|   5 |    50 |  250 |
+------+-------+-------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

 SELECT * FROM t;
+----------+-------+
| quantity | price |
+----------+-------+
|      5 |    50 |
+----------+-------+

【例11.13】删除stu_glass视图,代码如下:
DROP VIEW IF EXISTS stu_glass;
执行结果:
 DROP VIEW IF EXISTS stu_glass;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)
如果名称为stu_glass的视图存在,该视图将被删除。使用SHOW CREATE VIEW语句查看操作结果:
 SHOW CREATE VIEW stu_glass;
ERROR 1146 (42S02): Table 'chapter11db.stu_glass' doesn't exist

可以看到,stu_glass视图已经不存在,删除成功。


综合案例

步骤1:创建persons表
CREATE TABLE persons (name VARCHAR(40), num int);

步骤2:创建一个销售额表sales
CREATE TABLE sales (name VARCHAR(40), sum int);

步骤3:创建一个触发器
CREATE TRIGGER num_sum AFTER INSERT ON persons
FOR EACH ROW INSERT INTO sales VALUES (NEW.name,7*NEW.num);

步骤4:向persons表中插入记录
INSERT INTO persons VALUES ('xiaoxiao',20),('xiaohua',69);

SELECT * FROM persons;
SELECT *FROM sales;


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