HOWTO: Using Archetypes SQLStorage and Advanced Tips

转载 2008年04月30日 10:28:00

HOWTO: Using Archetypes SQLStorage and Advanced Tips

Author: Joel Burton
Date: 2003-09-02
Version: 1.2
Web site:
Covers: Archetypes 1.0beta

Where is the knowledge we have lost in information?

—T. S. Eliot, The Rock


The SQLStorage storage for Archetypes 19 allows you to transparently store attributes of your Archetypes objects in an SQL-backed database.

This is useful in many situations, such as:

  • You have other applications that need to simultaneous access data in relational database format.
  • You have a lot of existing data in a relational database format.
  • You or your boss/client are more comfortable knowing that your data is accessible in a relational database format.

This HOWTO assumes that you are comfortable installing Archetypes, and using it with non-SQLStorage, and are comfortable administering Plone/CMF/Zope sites.

This HOWTO explains how you can use relational database features like triggers and rules to store your data in traditional relational database parent/child tables, while still accessing it with traditional Zope accessors. While the advanced techniques in this HOWTO can be used with any database that supports triggers and updatable views, the example code is for PostgreSQL 18. It should not be difficult to translate these ideas to Oracle or other database. At the time of this writing, MySQL does not support triggers, views, or rules, so these ideas could not easily be implemented in MySQL.

Typographic conventions

In most relational databases, commands are case-insensitive: SELECT is the same as select. To help you understand the commands, however, I'll follow the traditional format of putting SQL commands in upper case.

Database identifiers (field names, table names, etc.) may or may not be case-sensitive, depending on your database. The examples here will be using PostgreSQL, which is case-insensitive for identifiers. I'll show table names with a leading capital letter, and field name in all lower case. However, you can enter these any way you like.

Comparing SQLStorage to other relational database interface strategies

The scope of what Archetypes accomplishes is similar to, yet very different from, other systems of connecting Zope to relational databases.

Archetypes stores the objects in the ZODB as an archetype object, having traditional Plone/CMF/Zope methods such as Title(), absolute_url(), etc. However, individual attributes (such as title, author, body, etc.) can be looked up in and stored in the relational database. Since objects are real Zope objects, they work naturally with acquisition, catalogs, and other Zope technologies. Since you can choose which attributes to store in the relational database, attributes that don't have a naturally tight fit with relational database structures can be left in the ZODB, as can ones that might easily fit in a relational database structure, but for which you have no external relational database access requirements.

Versus ZSQL methods

A more traditional method of Zope/Relational Database connection has been to store rows of information in a relational database, and create ZSQL Methods to look up and display this information. With this technique, you can associate a Python class with a relational database row 1, but the objects aren't real persistent Zope objects, and aren't found during catalog calls. This strategy requires customized integration to work with key Plone technologies such as acquisition, workflow, portal_forms, etc.

While there are worthwhile Zope product to simplify some of the details of traditional relational database storage and Zope (such as Znolk 20, which auto-generates database forms and storage methods), these still fall quite short of the interface simplication and power that Archetypes delivers.

Traditional SQL Method strategies for using Zope with relational databases are of most use when converting an existing site built using other web technologies (such as PHP or Perl), and in which you already have written the SQL statements for insterting, updating, deleting, viewing, etc., all of your object types.

[1] This technique goes by the colorful name pluggable brains.

Versus APE (formerly Adaptable Storage)

Shane Hathaway's product APE 21 (formerly called Adaptable Storage) allows you to store your Zope objects in different formats (such as in standard filesystem objects or on a relational database). In this case, segments of the ZODB space are "mounted" from results in a relational database. This means the entire object is kept in the relational database--all attributes, etc. Deleting an object from the relational database, adding it, or modifying it affects the the ZODB instantly since the this part of the ZODB is just a mounted pointer the relational database.

While APE is a technological accomplishment, and very useful for some projects, it doesn't fit perfectly into an existing natural database role. All ZODB objects are stored in a few very APE-oriented tables, rather than being stored in customizable, traditional-relational-database tables.

In addition, APE works by location, rather than by type (as Archetypes does). That is, everything in the folder /foo is controlled (mounted) by APE. If /foo contains all and only objects of a certain portal_type (like Customers) you could treat these tables as the "customer relational database", and work around the unusual object-to-relational database table structure. However, if there are different types stored in that directory, you end up with a mishmash of different types of data stored in the same tables, and don't have the straightforward setup of a "customer" table versus an "orders" table, etc. 2 With Archetypes, each portal_type maps to an individual table, regardless of where it is stored.

Lastly, APE does not produce the integrated form production/validation/editing systems that Archetypes does.

[2] It seems as if APE supports custom object marshallers and unmarshallers to create different table types for different object types; however, at this point, I haven't been able to find working examples of this that I could understand and apply.

Creating a Database-Stored Object

Let's start with a simple Archetypes object, representing a Customer:

# Customer portal type (non-SQL storage)

from Products.Archetypes.public import *
from Products.Archetypes.TemplateMixin import TemplateMixin

schema = BaseSchema + Schema((
    )) + TemplateMixin.schema

class Customer(TemplateMixin, BaseContent):
    """Our example object"""
    schema = schema
    archetype_name = "Customer"
    actions = TemplateMixin.actions

This object defines two custom fields, body and phone (plus all the traditional metadata attributes that are brought in by BaseSchema). This object would be stored entirely in the ZODB by Archetypes; however, we can convert this to being stored in a relational database by making just two simple changes to the object:

  • Add an import to the beginning for the appropriate SQL database storage method.
  • Add an attribute storage to the fields we want stored in the database, and set these to our storage method.

Since we're using PostgreSQL in this example, we'll import the PostgreSQL storage method.

Our new object then becomes:

# Customer portal type (SQL storage)

from Products.Archetypes.public import *
from Products.Archetypes.TemplateMixin import TemplateMixin
from Products.Archetypes.SQLStorage import PostgreSQLStorage

schema = BaseSchema + Schema((
    )) + TemplateMixin.schema

class CustomerSQL(TemplateMixin, BaseContent):
    """Our example object"""
    schema = schema
    archetype_name = "Customer SQL"
    actions = TemplateMixin.actions

At this point, you should install our new Archetypes type and register it with portal_types.

Now, before we can begin using this object, we must do two things:

  • Add a database connector (in our case, PostgreSQL) to our site. We can use any PostgreSQL adapter; however, I've used ZPyscopgDA 22 for testing this, as this appears to be the best maintained of the noncommercial adapters.
  • In the archetype_tool, under the Connections tab, we need to set our database connector for this type of object to our new database connector. Note that in this tab, we have a default connection, and we can override this for an portal_type that uses SQLStorage. In our case, you can either set the default to the new connection, or the specific connection for our CustomerSQL type. However, since we'll be adding several other Archetypes types, it will be easier to point the default setup to your database adapter connection.

Before you go any further, make sure that the user you defined in your database connection has the ability to create tables, and insert, update, and delete from tables in your database. 3

[3] In real life, it isn't neccessary that the user have to have CREATE TABLE privileges, as you can create the table yourself before Archetypes tries to. However, it's easiest to let Archetypes create the table for you. In which case a good strategy is to grant CREATE TABLE permissions for the zope database connector user, let it create the table, then rescind that right (for security's sake) once the table has been created.

Testing Our New Object

Now, we can add an instance of our object through the standard Plone interface. Plone will recommend a unique ID; let's change that to "new_example". Put in values for body and phone. Notice that you can see these values in the view view, and can re-edit them in the edit view.

Switch to your database monitor (for PostgreSQL, this is psql) and examine the database:

database=# /d
                  List of relations
 Schema |           Name           |   Type   | Owner
 public | customersql              | table    | joel

Archetypes has created our table for us. Examine the table:

database=# /d customersql
  Table "public.customersql"
  Column   | Type | Modifiers
 uid       | text | not null
 parentuid | text |
 body      | text |
 phone     | text |
Indexes: customersql_pkey primary key btree (uid)

Notice that Archetypes has created our body field as text field and the phone field as a text field. These transformations are part of the PostgreSQLStorage method, and can be easily changed in the source, should your needs require different mappings. 4 We'll look at changing those mappings later in this document, in Changing SQLStorage's Storage Methods: An Example With Lists.

Also, notice that there are two new fields created:

  • UID (uid): this is a unique identifier for your object
  • Parent UID (parentuid): this is the unique identifier (if any) for the parent (enclosing) container for your object.
[4] Or you can create the table in advanced of Archetypes, and choose whatever field types you want, as long as your database can cast Archetypes values into your field types. For instance, in our example, though text is an acceptable choice for phone numbers, we might prefer to have this stored as a varchar(20). We could have created the table ourselves and made this choice; when Archetypes goes to insert a text-type value into phone, PostgreSQL can cast this to varchar(20)

About UIDs

One of the smartest things about Archetypes is that it introduces the ideas of unique identifiers into CMF sites. Zope IDs must be unique within a folder, but need not be unique across a site. Therefore, keeping track of the fact that you have an object called Eliot isn't useful, since you may have several objects called that in different folders.

A common workaround has been to refer to objects by their path (eg, /animals/cats/Eliot), but this is fragile, since any change to the object ID, or the IDs of any of the parent objects will change the path and break these references.

Archetypes assigns each object a unique ID at creation 5, and then maintains a mapping of that unique ID to the current location of the object in the ZODB. If the object is deleted, Archetypes will remove it from its UID mapping.

[5] The IDs that are created are in the Plone default style, e.g., PortalType.2003-07-23.4911

Please note the difference between the Zope ID (the standard name for the object returned by getId()) and the Archetypes UID. When our object was created, Plone assigned it an ID like CustomerSQL.2003-07-23.4911. Archetypes used this ID as its UID. Even though we may change the object ID to new_example, it will keep its UID for the lifetime of the object. The UID should be treated as an immutable attribute.

Archetypes also creates a portal_catalog index for the UID field, so you can easily query the catalog using the UID. It also exposes several methods in its API for finding an object by its UID (from

## Reference Engine Support
def lookupObject(self, uid):
    if not uid:
        return None
    object = None
    catalog = getToolByName(self, 'portal_catalog')
    result  = catalog({'UID' : uid})
    if result:
        #This is an awful workaround for the UID under containment
        #problem. NonRefs will aq there parents UID which is so
        #awful I am having trouble putting it into words.
        for object in result:
            o = object.getObject()
            if o is not None:
                if IReferenceable.isImplementedBy(o):
                    return o
    return None

def getObject(self, uid):
    return self.lookupObject(uid)

def reference_url(self, object):
    """Return a link to the object by reference"""
    uid = object.UID()
    return "%s/lookupObject?uid=%s" % (self.absolute_url(), uid)

We can use the method lookupObject(uid) to get the actual object by UID, or use reference_url(object) to generate a "safe" URL to an object that will always find it given its UID.

You can see the list of currently-tracked UIDs and actual objects in the archetype_tool, UID tab.

Parent UID

The Parent UID field created in our table is the UID of the container, if it is an Archetypes object (or some other kind of future object that might expose a UID).

This is very helpful for creating a simple parent/child relationship in Plone, as we'll see in the next section.

Customers and Orders

For example, a common database example is a database of customers and orders, where one customer can have several orders. Pseudo-SQL for this would be:

  , custname TEXT
  ... other customer fields ...

  , custid INT REFERENCES Customer
  ... other order fields ...

The field custid in the orders table is a reference (called a foreign key) to the field custid in the customer table.

To create a similar structure in Archetypes, we need to create just two types: CustomerFolder and Orders. Objects of both of these types will get UIDs from Archetypes. But if we change our Customer type to become folderish (ie, derived from Archetypes's BaseFolder rather than BaseContent), it can contain objects, and we can add Orders objects inside of it. These Orders objects will have their Parent UID field set to the CustomerFolder UID, giving us an easy way to write ZCatalog queries for all orders with a certain customer UID, or SQL queries asking the same thing.

Creating in Archetypes

Let's create these two new archetypes. First, the CustomerFolder. This will be exactly the same as CustomerSQL, except using BaseFolder rather than BaseContent:

# Customer portal type (SQL storage, folderish)

from Products.Archetypes.public import *
from Products.Archetypes.TemplateMixin import TemplateMixin
from Products.Archetypes.SQLStorage import PostgreSQLStorage

schema = BaseSchema + Schema((
    )) + TemplateMixin.schema

class CustomerFolder(TemplateMixin, BaseFolder):
    """Our example object"""
    schema = schema
    archetype_name = "Customer Folder"
    actions = TemplateMixin.actions

Our Order type is straightforward. It will include the cost of an order, and shipping details:


from Products.Archetypes.public import *
from Products.Archetypes.TemplateMixin import TemplateMixin
from Products.Archetypes.SQLStorage import PostgreSQLStorage

schema = BaseSchema + Schema((
    )) + TemplateMixin.schema

class Orders(TemplateMixin, BaseContent):
    """Our example object"""
    schema = schema
    archetype_name = "Orders"
    actions = TemplateMixin.actions

Testing Them Out

Register these two new types with portal_types and add a CustomerFolder object. You should be able to edit this data and see the resulting information in the table customerfolder without a problem.

As of the writing of this HOWTO, Archetypes does not expose a "folder contents" tab for folderish objects like our CustomerFolder. However, you can go to this view manually by visiting the new customer folder object, and changing the end of the URL to point to folder_contents. 6

[6] And you can add this action to the type so that it automatically shows as a tab up by adding it to the actions for CustomerFolder in portal_type.

Inside of the new customer folder, add an Orders object and enter details. Then, examine the orders table in the database:

database=# SELECT * FROM Orders;
          uid           |           parentuid            | shipping_details | total_cost
 Orders.2003-07-23.4935 | CustomerFolder.2003-07-23.4609 | Shipping         |          0
(1 rows)

Notice how we get the parentuid value correctly. From our relational database, we could write a traditional query now on customers and the total of the orders as:

database=# SELECT C.uid,, SUM(O.total_cost)
             FROM CustomerFolder as C
               INNER JOIN Orders as O on (O.parentuid = C.uid)
             GROUP BY C.uid,;

Working With Existing Table Structure

Of course, if you're working with existing tables, or if you want to work with other SQL tools, chances are you want to use a more traditional primary key/foreign key setup than the Archetypes UID. Many databases use a serial column 7 (integers that increase for each new record) as a primary key.

[7] MySQL uses an integer columns with the autoincrement feature.

To do this with Archetypes, you can simply either:

  • create the table before you insert the first Archetypes record


  • modify the table after Archetypes creates it and starts using it.

For example, our customerfolder table was created automatically by Archetypes, and it contains a UID field, but not a traditional, numeric primary key. We can fix this by adding this:

ALTER TABLE Customerfolder ADD customerid INT;

CREATE SEQUENCE customerfolder_customerid_seq;

UPDATE Customerfolder SET customerid = nextval('customerfolder_customerid_seq');

ALTER TABLE Customerfolder ALTER customerid
  SET DEFAULT nextval('customerfolder_customerid_seq');

ALTER TABLE Customerfolder ALTER customerid SET NOT NULL;

ALTER TABLE Customerfolder DROP CONSTRAINT customerfolder_pkey;

ALTER TABLE Customerfolder ADD PRIMARY KEY ( customerid );

ALTER TABLE Customerfolder ADD UNIQUE ( uid );

Note that syntax for altering tables, adding primary keys, etc., varies considerably from one relational database to another, so if you're not using PostgreSQL, you'll want to research how to do this with your relational database. Also note that it's rather wordy to make this changes, whereas having the table setup properly in the first place is much more succinct:


So it may often be to your advantage to create the table before Archetypes.

Now we have a traditional primary key that is automatically increased, but since its not part of Archetypes's schema, it will leave it alone.


Notice that we make the UID field UNIQUE. This guarantees that two records cannot have the same UID. Even though we're no longer using the Archetypes UID as our primary key, it is still critical to keep this field unique.

When Archetypes edits an object, it doesn't know if the object exists in the relational database yet or not. Therefore, it tries to insert a record for this object. If this fails, it then updates the existing record.

This behavior may change in future versions of Archetypes, but, unless it does, you must make sure UID stays unique or else you'll have multiple copies of your objects' data in the relational database, only one of which will be correct.

If You Need A Very Different Table Structure

Instead of having Archetypes write to the real table, we can have Archetypes insert to a view of the table. Such a view can have fields that looks like those that Archetypes expects, but actually insert the information in different places and different ways.

This is especially useful if you have existing relational database tables that have non-Zope-like fields, names, etc.

To do this, let's first move the real table out of the way:

ALTER TABLE customerfolder RENAME TO customerfolder_table;

This is because Archetypes expects to work with customerfolder, and we want that to be our view. The actual table name doesn't have to be customerfolder_table; it can be whatever we want it to be.

Now, let's create our view:

CREATE VIEW customerfolder AS
  SELECT uid, parentuid, body, phone
    FROM customerfolder_table;

Now, we'll make this view updatable so that new records can be inserted into it. The syntax for this is very relational database-specific; you'll need to change this for other database systems. Following is our PostgreSQL syntax:

CREATE RULE customerfolder_ins AS
  ON UPDATE TO customerfolder DO INSTEAD (
    INSERT INTO customerfolder_table ( uid, parentuid, body, phone )
      VALUES ( NEW.uid, NEW.parentuid, NEW.body, ); );

Now, Archetypes can insert to customerfolder, assuming that it is a table, when in fact, we're rewriting its work to write to the real table.

So that Archetypes can do updates and deletes, we'll need to add rules for that, too:

CREATE RULE customerfolder_del AS
  ON DELETE TO customerfolder DO INSTEAD
    DELETE FROM customerfolder_table WHERE uid=OLD.uid;

CREATE RULE customerfolder_upd AS
  ON UPDATE TO customerfolder DO INSTEAD
    UPDATE customerfolder_table
      SET parentuid = NEW.parentuid
        , body = NEW.body
        , phone =;

In this example, our real table and view are only slightly different, but this strategy is helpful when dealing with existing tables that have many fields not of interest to Archetypes, or when our relational database tables have a different type of structure than is natural to Archetypes. We'll see advanced uses of this later.

FIXME: Show It Working

Using Traditional Referential Integrity For the Child Table

For our orders table, we can do the same thing to give that a serial-type primary key that is more traditinal for a relational database. In addition, though, it's likely that we want to child orders table to relate to the parent customerfolder table by the new customerid rather than the Archetypes-oriented Parent UID.

To do this, let's create a customerid field to the order table:

ALTER TABLE Orders ADD customerid INT;

UPDATE orders 
  SET customerid = Customerfolder.customerid
  FROM Customerfolder
  WHERE Orders.parentuid = Customerfolder.uid;


ALTER TABLE Orders ADD FOREIGN KEY (customerid) 
  REFERENCES Customerfolder;

Now we have a traditional primary key/foreign key relationship between our tables. If we have a orders record for customer #1, we won't be able to delete this customer until we delete these orders.

We need to set it up so that when we add an order via Plone, we look up the customerid from the customerfolder table and set it in the orders table for the new record.

To do this, we'll add a trigger that, before completing an insert on the order table, figures out the customerid and makes that part of the insert.

Different database implement triggers in different ways. In PostgreSQL, a trigger statement is a simple statement that calls a function. This function can reference and change a record structure called new which reflects the new record being inserted (or for an update, the new record to be written). Functions in PostgreSQL can be written in different languages, including Python; for our example, however, we'll use PostgreSQL's built-in PL/PgSQL language, a PL/SQL-like language that is simple to write and understand.

Before you can write PL/PgSQL functions, you must enable this by adding this language to your database. From the shell:

$ createlang plpgsql your_db_name

Our trigger function will be:

  NEW.customerid := customerid 
                      FROM customerfolder AS C
                      WHERE NEW.parentuid = C.uid;
' LANGUAGE plpgsql;

Now, let's create the trigger:

CREATE trigger order_ins_trig BEFORE INSERT ON Orders
  FOR EACH ROW EXECUTE order_ins();

Our real test is whether this works in Plone, but for a Q&D simulation, we'll test this in the SQL monitor by manually inserting a child orders record and seeing if it gets the parent UID (for your tests, use the real UID of one of your CustomerFolder objects):

database=# insert into orders (uid,parentuid)
             values ('test', 'CustomerFolder.2003-07-23.4609');
INSERT 35162 1
database=# select uid, parentuid, customerid from orders;
          uid           |           parentuid            | customerid
 Orders.2003-07-23.4935 | CustomerFolder.2003-07-23.4609 |          1
 test                   | CustomerFolder.2003-07-23.4609 |          1
(2 rows)

In the above output, the second record is our newly inserted record, and it did get the correct customerid field.

Referential Integrity & Prevention of Deletions

Now our traditional referenial integrity is set up. If we try to delete a customer that has related orders, we'll get the error that we expect and want:

database=# DELETE FROM Customerfolder;
ERROR:  $1 referential integrity violation - key in customerfolder still referenced from orders

However, we can still have problems in Plone.

Our current example has the child order objects nested inside of the parent customer objects, so it's not possible to delete a customer without deleting the orders because the customer itself is a folderish object, so the orders would be deleted automatically.

However, this may not always be the setup. Sometimes, you won't be able to have a child object contained physically in the parent object, and you'll connect things using attributes yourself.

For example, we might want to keep track of which staff member handles this customer. We could do this by nesting the CustomerFolder objects inside a Staff object, but this might, for different reasons, not be possible or preferable. Instead, we would create a staffuid attribute on the CustomerFolder type, and populate this with the UID of the staff member.

In cases like this, if you have the referential integrity in the database connected properly, you won't be able to delete the staff record if related customers exist, but you will be able to delete the customer object in the ZODB without problems--stranding the data in the relational database and ruining your database connections.

This is because the current version of Archetypes doesn't deal properly with deletion exceptions. Archetypes issues an SQL delete on the staff record, but since there are related children, it fails. This raises an exception, but Zope only stops a deletion by raising and propagating a particular exception--others just get logged and ignored. Therefore, the database record can't be deleted (your database will refuse to do this, regardless of how Zope asks), but the pointer to it in the ZODB will be deleted. So the staff member won't be visible on the site, but the data will stay in the relational database.

To fix this, apply the patch FIXME included with this howto. This raises the proper exception (BeforeDeleteException) if the SQL deletion call fails, which causes the Plone object deletion to fail. Unfortunately, you'll get an standard error message, rather than a polite, user-friendly explanation, but this is better than silently ignoring the database failure and moving on. 8

This patch was developed for the current version of Archetypes. This fix may be included by the time you read this HOWTO. If so, please let me know, and I'll update this section.

[8] If you want to make a nicer deletion error message, you could modify the standard_error_message method.


PostgreSQL and most other databases that support referential integrity can handle deletion of parent records in other ways. The default is to block the deletion of parent with related children, but you can also opt to automatically delete the children when a related parent is deleted.

This option is called "cascading" a deletion. To set this up, we'd create our child table differently:


Now, when the parent is deleted in the database, it will delete the related child records rather than raising an exception.

Of course, this won't automatically delete the Zope ZODB objects for the children, but the next section of this tutorial deals with the question of how to have operations in the database "notify" Zope of changes to make in the ZODB. Using techniques explained there, we'll be able to have the child ZODB deleted for us.

Propagating Direct DB Changes Back to ZODB

Sometimes in Zope projects, the changes all come from the Zope interface, and the relational DB storage is just to soothe ZODB-nervous customers, or to allow reporting from standard SQL tools. In this case, the setup we have would be acceptable.

In cases where changes must propigate to Zope, here are some problems we need to solve:

  • Records that are inserted directly into the database are never visible to Zope, as ZODB objects aren't instantiated for these records.
  • Records that are deleted directly in the database are never deleted from Zope. Therefore, objects will remain in the ZODB that point to records that are no longer in the relational database. The current version of Archetypes raises an error if you try to view these objects or get the attributes that are stored in SQLStorage.
  • Records that are changed in the database are visible immediately to Zope, but any Catalog entries won't be updated, making Catalog queries incorrect.

Forcing Catalog Reindexes on Update

There's no way for our relational database to directly affect the ZODB. Instead, we'd have to either make a request that the ZServer hears and passes on to Plone, or we'd have to write a standalone Python program that connects to the ZODB to make these requests. 9

[9] An advanced note on a future possibility: It should be possible to have PL/PythonU, PostgreSQL's untrusted procedural language binding for Python, import the Zope module and work directly with Zope objects. However, when I tried this with Zope 2.7.0b1 and PostgreSQL 7.4devel (the first version of PostgreSQL to support PL/PythonU), it hung my PostgreSQL process. If this becomes possible with other configurations, we'll be able to not use the wget-based strategy outlined below, and talk directly to Zope.

The latter can be very slow (starting connecting to the ZODB can take a while), and would only work on the machine that the ZODB is hosted on, whereas the first choice is ZEO-friendly, remote database machine friendly, and generally easier and faster.

By creating a custom function in PostgreSQL, we can execute a web or XMLRPC request to reindex the catalog.

We'll need a bit of Zope support: Zope will be given the UID for the record that has changed, and it needs to find the real Zope object, and call reindexObject() on it.

We could do this by adding a method to 10, but, for simplicity's sake, we'll implement it as a PythonScript:

# "reindex_by_uid"

## Parameters: uid

o = context.archetype_tool.lookupObject(uid)
return "ok"

You can test calling this by giving it a UID of an existing object. This should be recataloged; you can see the changed catalog information by viewing the portal_catalog.

[10] I think it would be a good idea to move helper methods like this into the Archetypes API. We'll see what happens.

Functions can be written in several procedural languages in PostgreSQL, including Python. However, making a web request is an "unsafe" act in PostgreSQL, so we need to use a language that supports making unsafe calls. PostgreSQL refers to these languages as "untrusted" languages, and traditionally names them with a trailing U. At this time, the Python language is implemented as a trusted language but not as an untrusted language. The built in, easy-to-use PL/PgSQL is also implemented as a trusted language only.

This is changing, howver, in PostgreSQL 7.4. Due to RExec (restricted environment) module being dropped from Python, PL/Python (trusted) is no longer part of PostgreSQL, and PL/PythonU (a new, untrusted variant) is being added. It would be easy to write the functions below as PL/PythonU functions. 11

Our current options for untrusted languages, though, are PL/tclU (tcl untrusted), PL/perlU (perl untrusted), and C. We'll use Perl's untrusted language, plperlu.

[11] In earlier versions of PostgreSQL, you could use PL/Python (trusted) by recompiling PL/Python after adding the required-for-import modules to the list of acceptable modules. However, you'd have to install this modified PL/Python library on every PostgreSQL server that was going to use these functions.

Make sure that Perl untrusted functions are enabled for your database:

$ createlang plperlu your_db_name

Then, in psql, we'll create a function that uses wget, a common, simple command line http request tool:

CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION reindex_by_uid (text) RETURNS text as '
  $uid = shift;

  # Auth required to run PythonScript w/right role
  #    or, dont pass auth stuff and make PyScript proxied to role
  $AUTH = "--http-user=joel --http-passwd=foo";

  # Set to your server and portal name
  $SERVER = "http://localhost:8080/arch";

  # wget options
  #   -q     is quiet (no status output)
  #   -O -   is to send results to standard output
  #   -T 5   is to timeout after 5 seconds
  $WGET = "/usr/bin/wget -q -O - -T 5";

  $cmd = "$WGET $AUTH $SERVER/reindex_by_uid?uid=$uid";

  # output it to psql log so the user has some idea whats going on
  elog NOTICE, $cmd;

  return `$cmd`;
' LANGUAGE plperlu;

As noted in the function comments, above, you can pass authorization headers via wget (using the $AUTH variable). If you don't want to have the username and password in a plaintext script on the PostgreSQL server, or don't want them to travel across the network, you could instead make the PythonScript usable by anonymous users, and have it proxied to a high-enough level role that it can reindex all needed content.

The elog statement in the function outputs the $cmd variable through the PostgreSQL logging system, making it appear in psql as a notice. This is useful for debugging and providing feedback, but may confuse some database front-end systems that don't expect notices to be raised. In addition, it exposes your username and password to the log everytime a record is updated. Once you have the function working for your database, you should probably remove this line.

Now, in PostgreSQL, if we update a record, we can force a reindex by calling this, as in:

database =# SELECT reindex_by_uid('*uid*');

Using Triggers to Automate This

Of course, we'll want to have this happen automatically when we update a record, rather than having to execute the select statement. To do this, we'll write a trigger in PostgreSQL that triggers whenever an update is made to our customer table.

To do this, we need a trigger function that is called when our table is changed. In a perfect world, we could use our Perl function, above. However, at this time, Perl functions can't be used as trigger functions (though functions written in PL/Python, PL/PgSQL, C, PL/tcl, and other procedural languages can). For a simple wrapper function like this, PL/PgSQL would be the normal choice.

Our trigger function is:

    PERFORM reindex_by_uid(OLD.uid);
' LANGUAGE plpgsql;

Then the trigger itself:

CREATE TRIGGER customer_upd 
  AFTER UPDATE ON Customerfolder

Now, whenever we make an change to our table, our trigger calls the PL/PgSQL function customer_upd. This, in turn, calls our general reindexing function, which makes a simple web request that Zope hears and calls the reindexing support PythonScript. It seems like a lot of redirection, but works fine. Go test it out. Make a change to your object's body field directly via PostgreSQL, then check the catalog results and see that the appropriate field (in this case, SearchableText) has been updated.

Syncronizing Deletes and Inserts

(For advanced readers, since some of the detail is left to you to fill in).

Deletes and inserts are a bit trickier than updates, but also more critical to get right. If you don't use the update/reindexing technique, above, everything works fine, except your ZCatalog calls will be out-of-date, and even those will be fixed for you the next time you edit the object in Plone or do a manual recataloging. If inserts and deletes aren't propagated from the relational database to ZODB, data will be missing and errors will be raised.

For this reason, it may be reasonable to decide that record additions and deletions should happen only via the Plone interface. You can make quick data changes in the relational database (helpful for fixing typos across a series of records, or reformatting a field, etc.), but never inserts or updates.

However, if you want or need to have insertions/deletions made to the relational database and propagated into the ZODB, the following sections explain how to do this.


Inserts would be handled using the saem general concepts as the update/reindex fix: write a Zope PythonScript that creates the object when it is passed the different fields required for object creation. Then write a PL/perlU function that crafts a command line wget statement that calls our Zope PythonScript, all of this being set into motion by a trigger on our table.

First, we'll want to create a PythonScript that will create our content for us. The trickiest part is coming up with a good, unique UID. If we knew that something in our table that was being inserted was unique, we could use that (prepended by the type name, to make sure it was unique across types so that Archetypes could use it). However, to look and feel consistent with UIDs created through the web, we'll copy in the same UID-generating code that Plone itself uses. 12

[12] It would be smarter, of course, to simply call an API method to get a unique ID in this format, but I couldn't find a suitable way to do so given how this has been implemented. If any readers have a suggestion, please let me know.

Our script will be called create_customerfolder, and will be:

## create_customerfolder
## Arguments: phone, body

# this function ripped out of CMFPlone/
def generateId(self, type):
    now = DateTime()
    name = type.replace(' ', '')+'.'+now.strftime('%Y-%m-%d')+'.'+now.strftime('%H%M%S')

    # Reduce chances of an id collision (there is a very small chance that somebody will
    # create another object during this loop)
    base_name = name
    objectIds = self.getParentNode().objectIds()
    i = 1
    while name in objectIds:
        name = base_name + "-" + str(i)
        i = i + 1
    return name

context.invokeFactory( "CustomerFolder"
                     , id=generateId(context, 'CustomerFolder')
                     , phone=phone
                     , body=body)
return "ok"

You can test this script by calling it through the web, or by using the Test tab on the PythonScript. Give it a body and a phone and it will create a new CustomerFolder object in the current context.

Now, we'll write a plperlu function that will craft a proper wget web request to call this script:

CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION customerfolder_add (text,text) RETURNS text as '
  $body = shift;
  $phone = shift;
  $sec = "--http-user=joel --http-passwd=foo";
  $portal = "/arch";
  $server = "localhost:8080";
  $wget = "/usr/bin/wget";
  $cmd = "$wget $sec -q -O - http://$server/$portal/create_customer?body=$body".''///&''."phone=$phone";
  return `$cmd`;
' LANGUAGE plperlu;


The difference is that we don't want to really do an insert in the database, though--when Zope does its object creation, it will create the database record itself in Archetypes. So we want our original direct-in-DB insert to be ignored.

We could do this with a trigger, and have the trigger raise a failure so the insert didn't happen. This, though, would be confusing for the user, who would see an error message, and, if we were in the middle of transaction, would spoil that transaction, aborting it and preventing other actions from happening in the relational database. A better solution, then, would be to use a feature of PostgreSQL called rules, which we saw briefly earlier If You Need A Very Different Table Structure.

Rules are rewritings of a query to do anything instead of the called-for-query. We'll "rewrite" our INSERT query to a SELECT query, which in this case will select the PL/perlU function that calls wget to notify the Zope PythonScript to create the object. Again, it seems like a lot of redirection, but works well.

Rule creation is covered in the PostgreSQL documentation, in The Rule System 23. Our rule will be:

CREATE RULE customer_ins AS 
  ON INSERT TO Customerfolder 
  WHERE NEW.uid = 'direct'
    SELECT customerfolder_add ( NEW.body, );

Now, when you want to insert a record directly, you can do so by:

INSERT INTO customer_ins ( uid, body, phone ) 
  VALUES ( 'direct', 'body goes here', '555 1212' );

The WHERE NEW.uid = 'direct' clause is required to prevent Zope's insertion from triggering our rule which would trigger Zope's insertion ... and so on into permanent recursion. Any attempt to insert a record with a UID not equal to "direct" will go directly into the database without triggering any action from Zope. Since Zope will be inserting a record with real UID, it will always therefore bypass our rule.


Deletes would be handled like inserts, but our PythonScript would obviously do the deleting for us instead.

Details here can be figured here by the reader, but you'll need a PythonScript to handle the deletion, a plperlu function to craft the proper wget command, and a trigger that handles ON DELETE.

Since we can't stop recursion from happening with a DELETE the way we can with an INSERT, we should have our trigger call Zope not just as DO INSTEAD but DO, so the Zope deletion happens and the normal PostgreSQL deletion happens. When the Zope deletion tries ...


Inserting a Child Record

If we want to allow direct database insertion of the child Orders objects, we have to consider one additional wrinkle: the Orders objects are meant to be physically contained in their related parent Customer object. Therefore, our PythonScript that would add their child Orders record must make the context for the invokeFactory call be the context of the enclosing Customer object.

We could accomplish this easily by passing the child Orders PythonScript add helper the UID of the Customer, and it could lookup the Customer object (using the API demonstrated earlier for looking up an object given its UID). Then we could use that context for our invokeFactory call.

FIXME: show this.

Changing SQLStorage's Storage Methods: An Example With Lists

Creating the Types and Fixing the Mapping

If we add a list type to our customer object, we run into a snag with marshalling and unmarshalling.

Let's add the object type, first as a standard Archetypes object stored completely in the ZODB:


from Products.Archetypes.public import *
from Products.Archetypes.TemplateMixin import TemplateMixin

schema = BaseSchema + Schema((
    )) + TemplateMixin.schema

class CustomerList(TemplateMixin, BaseContent):
    """Our example object"""
    schema = schema
    archetype_name = "Customer List"
    actions = TemplateMixin.actions

Put this in the schema and restart Archetypes.

As we're storing this in the ZODB (not in the relational database), everything works fine. The form widget for the clients field is a textarea in which the user enters newline-separated entries. These are converted by Zope to a Python list and stored as an attribute of the object.

If we create a new Archetypes type that contains this same lines field, but tries to store it in the relational database, we run into problems with Archetypes's default behaviors.

First, the object type:


from Products.Archetypes.public import *
from Products.Archetypes.TemplateMixin import TemplateMixin
from Products.Archetypes.SQLStorage import PostgreSQLStorage

schema = BaseSchema + Schema((
    )) + TemplateMixin.schema

class CustomerListSQL(TemplateMixin, BaseContent):
    """Our example object"""
    schema = schema
    archetype_name = "Customer List SQL"
    actions = TemplateMixin.actions

Restart Archetypes, and don't forget to add the new type to portal_types.

At the time of this writing, Archetypes tries to create the new table with the field type lines for the clients field. This is not a valid field type for PostgreSQL (or any other database I know of), and therefore, the addition of the table fails, and any attempt to add an object of this type fails since there is no table to store them in.

There are several different ways we could fix this problem.

  • Create the table before Archetypes does.

    If the table already exists, Archetypes won't create it. We can easily create the table, and give it a text type for the clients field.

    The table structure would be:

    CREATE TABLE Customerlistsql (
        uid text NOT NULL PRIMARY KEY,
        parentuid text,
        body text,
        phone text,
        clients text
  • Change the mapping performed by Archetypes.

    We can fix this problem by patching to do the right thing and create a text field by changing the type mapping that Archetypes does. You can do this either by editing and making changes for your database type, or, if you'd rather not modify the Archetypes source code, you can subclass your storage type, make the changes there, and use this new subclassed storage type. We'll look explicitly at the subclassing strategy later in this document; for now, we'll make changes directly to

    The change we want is in the dictionary db_type_map, which translates an Archetypes field type into the relational database field type. As of this writing, there is no translation for lines, so Archetypes uses lines as the relational database field type. We'll add a translation for lines to become text:

    db_type_map = {
        'object': 'bytea',
        'file': 'bytea',
        'fixedpoint': 'integer',
        'reference': 'text',
        'datetime': 'timestamp',
        'string': 'text',
        'metadata': 'text', 
        'lines':'text', # THIS IS THE CHANGE

    If you restart Archetypes and try to add your object now, it will create the table and let you create objects.

  • Create a suitable domain in PostgreSQL.

    PostgreSQL, like many advanced SQL databases, supports the notion of domains. A domain is a custom-defined explanation of a database type, which can be referenced as if it were a real type.

    For example, if you commonly want to use a varchar(20) not null for telephones in a database, you could create a domain called telephone that is defined as varchar(20) not null, and then you can simply create your tables with the field type telephone to get the right definition and behavior.

    We'll create a domain called lines:

    CREATE DOMAIN lines AS text;

    Domains can contain restrictions (such as CHECK constraints and NOT NULL requirements), but in this case, we don't want or need any of these. This simple definition will be enough.

    Now, when Archetypes tries to create a field with the type lines, it will succeed.

    In some ways, this is the best strategy of our three, as it lets other applications and users understand that this is a lines field. It's still stored as text, and behaves as such, but if you look at the table structure, you'll see lines, which can remind you of its newline-separated, list-oriented use.

Fixing the Translations

A serious problem still persists, though.

The newline-separated entries from the form (the "lines") are turned into a Python list by Archetypes, such as:

[ 'cat', 'dog', 'bird' ]

but SQLStorage attempts to store this list directly in the database. This ends up as the literal string value "['cat,'dog','bird']" which is Archetypes stores in the database:

database=# SELECT uid, clients FROM Customerlistsql ;
               uid               |        clients
 CustomerListSQL.2003-07-23.1619 | ['cat', 'dog', 'bird']
(1 row)

Unfortunately, this string representation of a Python list is a difficult format to work with in the database, and not handled correctly coming out by Archetypes. When Archetypes gets the data back from the relational database, it sees it as a single string. It tries to turn this isnto a list, with the following results:




As this is the way Python handles being given a string and being told to treat it like a list.

The solution is that we want to write a custom marshaller and unmarshaller. These are the routines that Archetypes will run on a value before it tries to write them to the database, and after it retrieves the value from the database.

There are hooks in Archetypes for this: any function called map_XXX is called when storing field type XXX and a method called unmap_XXX is called when retrieving field type XXX.

Our mapping will convert this list back to a newline-separated string, and this is the format it will be given to our relational database as:

def map_lines(self, field, value):
    return '/n'.join(value)

Our unmapping method will convert the newline-separated string back to a Python list:

def unmap_lines(self, field, value):
    return value.split('/n')

Both of these should go into, as methods the class SQLStorage or as methods of the class for your particular relational database. If don't want to (or can't) modify the source to Archetypes, you could subclass your storage class, add the methods to the subclass, and have your object schema fields use your new, subclass storage type. We'll cover this concept of subclassing a storage class extensively later, when we subclass an improved version of the PostgreSQL storage class.

Now we can transparently work with our lists: they appear and are edited on the form as a newline-separated string (so we can easily edit them in a textarea), they're handled in Zope as a Python list object (so we can work naturally with them and don't have to be concerned with how they're stored), and they're stored in the relational database as a simple newline separated list so we can access them simply. 13

[13] Thought PostgreSQL doesn't have any problems arising here, you should ensure that there are no problems with your database converting newlines to another character or messing with the text fields in any way that will prevent our unmap_lines method from being able to retrieve the individual lines. If some kind of unhelpful conversion does occur, you should check to see what kind of binary storage your database offers, as binary storages perform no conversion at all in a relational database. PostgreSQL offers a binary storage type, bytea, but we don't need it in this case as it leaves the newlines alone.

Even Better: Turning Into Arrays

While our solution above lets Archetypes store the data and get it back in one piece, it isn't very suitable in the relational database: most relational database querying programs and reporting programs are ill-equipped to deal with searching for individual values that are stuffed into text fields.

To find all customers that have two values, "fish" and "cat", in clients, you could write queries like:

SELECT * FROM Customerlistsql
  WHERE clients LIKE 'cat/n%fish'
    OR clients LIKE 'cat/n%fish/n%'
    OR clients LIKE '%/ncat/n%fish'
    OR clients LIKE '%/ncat/n%fish/n%'
    OR clients LIKE 'fish/n%cat'
    OR clients LIKE 'fish/n%cat/n%'
    OR clients LIKE '%/nfish/n%cat'
    OR clients LIKE '%/nfish/n%cat/n%'

(and this is still an incomplete example for this!)

However, this is ugly, slow, unindexable 14, and error-prone, especially as you add more predicates to the logic.

[14] Actually, in some databases, including PostgreSQL, there are ways to do a full-text index on a field like this, but this would still be suboptimal compared to more natural ways to store multiple values on a field.

We'll exploit a feature of PostgreSQL that allows us to store arrays in a field, so that one field holds an array of values. While this is similar to storing as newline-separated text, there are many functions in PostgreSQL that can quickly find records having a value in an array, or count the number of values in an array, and so on--all the things that would be slow and unwieldy using text.

First, let's change our table structure to use arrays:

database=# ALTER TABLE Customerlistsql DROP CLIENTS;

database=# ALTER TABLE Customerlistsql ADD CLIENTS text[];

The type text[] is a PostgreSQL type for storing an array of text values. We can test out the array storage works directly in PostgreSQL by updating an existing record and examining it:

database=# UPDATE Customerlistsql SET clients='{cat,dog,bird}';

database=# SELECT uid, clients FROM Customerlistsql;
               uid               |    clients
 CustomerListSQL.2003-07-23.1619 | {cat,dog,bird}
(1 row)

database=# SELECT uid, clients[1] FROM customerlistsql;
               uid               | clients
 CustomerListSQL.2003-07-23.1619 | cat

Now we can change our map_lines and unmap_lines methods from above, to write out and retrieve values written in this format:

def map_lines(self, field, value):
    return "{%s}" % ','.join(value)

def unmap_lines(self, field, value):
    return value.strip("{}").split(',')


These are very naive implementations, as they do not deal with the possibility that a list item might have a comma in it. It would be quite easy, though, to write versions that quoted the comma and unquoted it for unmapping.

Restart Archetypes to pick up the changes to the storage type, then edit an existing or add a new object. Notice how the values you put into the clients field end up as array in PostgreSQL, and are read correctly.

Creating a new storage class


Dynamically changing storage types

FIXME, but for now:

| You add "storage=PostgreSQLStorage()" on fields that you want
| in the PostgreSQL database. This makes it easy to have some
| fields stored in a PostgreSQL database and others in a Sybase
| database. I realise this.
| Let's say that I store everything in PostgreSQL and then one day
| I want to switch to Sybase. Then I'd have to change every
| "storage=PostgreSQLStorage" to "storage=SybaseStorage".
| What if the class had a 'storage' attribute that you could set
| instead? Then you could only specify "storage=SQLStorage".
| I think most people only use one RDBMS? So then this would
| be the simplest thing. And also if you want your new type public,
| everyone won't probably use the same database. Then you'd
| like to change a field in the ZMI to say that all relational database
| fields should be stored with Sybase. Anyone agree?
| But I may be ranting about something that already exists?

In fact there is an (undocumented) method to change storages. It is
called (guess what?) setStorage, and it's a method of the Field
class. So, if you have an existing object, and you want to migrate
from one storage to another, you need to do something like this (in
an External Method, of course):

from Products.Archetypes.Storage import SybaseStorage # Does not exist currently

results = root.portal_catalog(portal_type='MyObjectType')
for r in results:

Then you would shut down your zope instance and adjust the schema
definitions accordingly. NOTE: After migrating your objects.

You also need to make sure the column already exists in your

from mail on the Archetypes-devel mailing ilst by Sidnei da Silva.

Integrating relational database schemas into Archetypes

One interesting trick that could benefit us is using schemas with Archetypes.

While many documents refer to a database schema as the definition of its tables, views, etc., I'm referring here to the feature of PostgreSQL that give a database multiple namespaces.

For example, in the database mydb, we could have only one table called ideas. But if we create a new namespace (schema), we can put this a new ideas table in the new namespace.

For example:

database=# CREATE TABLE Ideas ( idea text );

database=# CREATE TABLE Ideas ( idea text );
ERROR:  Relation 'ideas' already exists

database=# CREATE SCHEMA More;

database=# CREATE TABLE More.Ideas ( idea text );

Now we have two independent tables called ideas, and can choose which one to use by referring to it by namespace:

database=# INSERT INTO Ideas VALUES ( 'commute to work.' );
INSERT 116491 1

database=# INSERT INTO More.Ideas values ( 'go out with friends.' );
INSERT 116492 1

The tables are completely separate:

database=# SELECT * FROM Ideas;
 commute to work.
(1 row)

database=# SELECT * FROM More.Ideas;
 go out with friends.
(1 row)

If you don't name a schema explicitly, PostgreSQL uses your schema path to determine your schema. So, even before you knew you were using schemas, you were! The default schema in most PostgreSQL setups is the same name as the user, so I could see the "unnamed" ideas table above as joel.ideas.

The interesting idea here is that we could have different database adapters that have different connecting PostgreSQL users, each having a different schema path. Then, depending on which database adapter I used, I could see different results.

Or, even more interesting, we can ask PostgreSQL to change our schema path for us by executing the SQL command SET search_path=XXX, where XXX is our new, comma-separated search path. If we set our search path differently, we could get different results. Useful ideas would be to have the search path set differently based on who the logged in user was, or what her or his roles were, etc.

Using this ideas we could implemented Archetypes-stored objects that provided versioning or security capabilities that were dependant on users or roles: the user june would see results from one table, where rebecca would see results from another. All this would happen transparently and quickly at the PostgreSQL level, without having to put code for this in all your accessors in Archetypes.

Of course, we'd have to make sure inserts and deletes kept the tables in sync, otherwise june would get an error trying to look at a ZODB object for which there is no corresponding record in her schema's table. But this syncronization would be fairly straightforward to create using triggers on the tables.

There are no hooks currently in Archetypes SQLStorage to execute the required SET command before the various SQL calls, but it would be easy to implement this.

And, of course, this trick isn't specific to Archetypes--it's also useful when working with relational databases in Zope the traditional way with SQL Methods. It's particularly cool as an idea with APE--you could make the ZODB reconfigure itself depending who the logged in user is! 17

[17] In truth, though, I haven't tried this with APE, and I suspect you'd to test it thoroughly--there might be lots of nasty surprises if APE finds the ZODB changing underneath of it in unexpected ways. Or maybe not. Let me know if you try this out.

The status of SQLStorage

SQLStorage is newer than Archetypes itself, and does not appear to be as soundly developed and tested. In email to me, Alan Runyan said that:

NOTE: SQLStorage is incredibly inefficient. It works quite well and we have done a project with it (that why it exists). But really it should be rewritten if you are going to use it in a very large scale production environment. I would consider the implementation 'alpha' but stable.

I have not had a chance to audit the code to see what the inefficiencies are that he is referring to; however, as seen here, there are several buglets that prevent SQLStorage from working correctly (failing to catch deletion errors, failing to map lists correctly, etc.)

By the time you read this, these errors may be corrected and SQLStorage may be better-tested and more efficiently implemented. Stay tuned!

About this Document

This document was written by Joel Burton 25. It is covered under GNU Free Documentation License, with one invariant section: this section, About this document, must remain unchanged. Otherwise, you can distribute it, make changes to it, etc.

If you have any comments, corrections, or changes, please let me know. Thanks!


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