# K倍动态减法游戏

#include <iostream>
#include <string.h>
#include <stdio.h>

using namespace std;
const int N = 2000005;

int a[N],b[N];

int main()
{
int T,tt=1;
int n,k;
scanf("%d",&T);
while(T--)
{
scanf("%d%d",&n,&k);
a[0] = b[0] = 1;
int i = 0;
int j = 0;
while(a[i] < n)
{
i++;
a[i] = b[i-1] + 1;
while(a[j+1] * k < a[i]) j++;
if(a[j] * k < a[i]) b[i] = a[i] + b[j];
else b[i] = a[i];
}
printf("Case %d: ",tt++);
if(a[i] == n) puts("lose");
else
{
int ans = 0;
while(n)
{
if(n >= a[i])
{
n -= a[i];
ans = a[i];
}
i--;
}
printf("%d\n",ans);
}
}
return 0;
}


#include <iostream>
#include <string.h>
#include <stdio.h>

using namespace std;
typedef long long LL;
const LL N = 3000005;

LL a[N],b[N];

int main()
{
LL T;
LL n,k;
scanf("%lld",&T);
while(T--)
{
scanf("%lld%lld",&k,&n);
a[0] = b[0] = 1;
LL i = 0;
LL j = 0;
while(a[i] < n)
{
i++;
a[i] = b[i-1] + 1;
while(a[j+1] * k < a[i]) j++;
if(a[j] * k < a[i]) b[i] = a[i] + b[j];
else b[i] = a[i];
}
LL ans = 0;
if(a[i] == n) ans = n - i - 1;
else ans = n - i;
printf("%lld\n",ans);
}
return 0;
}


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