Shiro —— 从一个简单的例子开始

一、Shiro是用来做权限的。

二、权限

1.基本概念:

(1)安全实体:要保护的数据。

(2)权限:是否有能力去操作(查看、修改、删除 )保护的数据。

2、权限的两个特性

(1)权限的继承性:A 包含 B,B无权限,但A有权限,此时B 的权限即为 A 的权限。如大厦里有公共厕所,进出大厦需要门禁,所以公共厕所的权限就是大厦的门禁权限。

(2)最近路劲匹配:如大厦某层有卫生间,要想到此卫生间需要有该层电梯权限,此时该卫生间的权限为该层电梯的权限,而不是大厦的门禁权限。

3.几个关键词

(1)认证:验证用户身份,即验证登录的用户名密码是否正确,用户是否被锁死。

(2)授权:决定是否有权限访问受保护的资源。

(3)加密:保护或隐藏受保护的资源。

(4)会话管理

(5)单点登录(SSO)

三、Shiro

1.核心组件

(1)Subject:当前用户。

(2)Shiro SecurityManager:Shiro 大管家。

(3)Realm:用于访问数据库。

2.Shiro SecurityManager

Shiro 的大管家管理着 Shiro 下的认证、授权、会话管理、缓存管理、以及 Realm 访问数据库,贯穿于始终的是加密。

3.用户、角色、权限

(1)概念:

  • 用户:通俗来讲,指的就是要登录的用户名密码。
  • 角色:权限的集合。
  • 权限:是否有能力去做某件事。

(2)关系

  • 权限作用于角色,角色是权限的一个集合
  • 角色作用于用户,用户是什么角色。

(3)维系关系

  • 用户——角色:用户角色中间表。
  • 角色——权限:角色权限中间表。

(4)以上所有的这些都归 Shiro 大管家来管理。

四、一个简单的官方的例子

1.需要导入的 jar 包。

2.官方demo。

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import org.apache.shiro.SecurityUtils;
import org.apache.shiro.authc.*;
import org.apache.shiro.config.IniSecurityManagerFactory;
import org.apache.shiro.mgt.SecurityManager;
import org.apache.shiro.session.Session;
import org.apache.shiro.subject.Subject;
import org.apache.shiro.util.Factory;
import org.slf4j.Logger;
import org.slf4j.LoggerFactory;


/**
 * Simple Quickstart application showing how to use Shiro's API.
 *
 * @since 0.9 RC2
 */
public class Quickstart {

    private static final transient Logger log = LoggerFactory.getLogger(Quickstart.class);


    public static void main(String[] args) {

        // The easiest way to create a Shiro SecurityManager with configured
        // realms, users, roles and permissions is to use the simple INI config.
        // We'll do that by using a factory that can ingest a .ini file and
        // return a SecurityManager instance:

        // Use the shiro.ini file at the root of the classpath
        // (file: and url: prefixes load from files and urls respectively):
        Factory<SecurityManager> factory = new IniSecurityManagerFactory("classpath:shiro.ini");
        SecurityManager securityManager = factory.getInstance();

        // for this simple example quickstart, make the SecurityManager
        // accessible as a JVM singleton.  Most applications wouldn't do this
        // and instead rely on their container configuration or web.xml for
        // webapps.  That is outside the scope of this simple quickstart, so
        // we'll just do the bare minimum so you can continue to get a feel
        // for things.
        SecurityUtils.setSecurityManager(securityManager);

        // Now that a simple Shiro environment is set up, let's see what you can do:

        // get the currently executing user:
        Subject currentUser = SecurityUtils.getSubject();

        // Do some stuff with a Session (no need for a web or EJB container!!!)
        Session session = currentUser.getSession();
        session.setAttribute("someKey", "aValue");
        String value = (String) session.getAttribute("someKey");
        if (value.equals("aValue")) {
            log.info("-->Retrieved the correct value! [" + value + "]");
        }

        // let's login the current user so we can check against roles and permissions:
        if (!currentUser.isAuthenticated()) {
            UsernamePasswordToken token = new UsernamePasswordToken("lonestarr", "vespa");
            token.setRememberMe(true);
            try {
                currentUser.login(token);
            } catch (UnknownAccountException uae) {
                log.info("-->There is no user with username of " + token.getPrincipal());
            } catch (IncorrectCredentialsException ice) {
                log.info("-->Password for account " + token.getPrincipal() + " was incorrect!");
            } catch (LockedAccountException lae) {
                log.info("The account for username " + token.getPrincipal() + " is locked.  " +
                        "Please contact your administrator to unlock it.");
            }
            // ... catch more exceptions here (maybe custom ones specific to your application?
            catch (AuthenticationException ae) {
                //unexpected condition?  error?
            }
        }

        //say who they are:
        //print their identifying principal (in this case, a username):
        log.info("-->User [" + currentUser.getPrincipal() + "] logged in successfully.");

        //test a role:
        if (currentUser.hasRole("schwartz")) {
            log.info("-->May the Schwartz be with you!");
        } else {
            log.info("Hello, mere mortal.");
        }

        //test a typed permission (not instance-level)
        if (currentUser.isPermitted("lightsaber:weild")) {
            log.info("-->You may use a lightsaber ring.  Use it wisely.");
        } else {
            log.info("Sorry, lightsaber rings are for schwartz masters only.");
        }

        //a (very powerful) Instance Level permission:
        if (currentUser.isPermitted("winnebago:drive:eagle5")) {
            log.info("-->You are permitted to 'drive' the winnebago with license plate (id) 'eagle5'.  " +
                    "Here are the keys - have fun!");
        } else {
            log.info("Sorry, you aren't allowed to drive the 'eagle5' winnebago!");
        }

        //all done - log out!
        currentUser.logout();

        System.exit(0);
    }
}
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说明:获取 SecurityManager ,认证,认证失败的几种情况,成功登陆后是否拥有某个角色,某个角色是否有某个权限。

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[users]
root = secret, admin
guest = guest, guest
presidentskroob = 12345, president
darkhelmet = ludicrousspeed, darklord, schwartz
lonestarr = vespa, goodguy, schwartz

[roles]
admin = *
schwartz = lightsaber:*
goodguy = winnebago:drive:eagle5
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说明:Shiro.ini 文件,用来维系用户——角色——权限之间的关系。

3.ini 文件说明

[users]:用户名=密码,角色1,角色2

[roles]:角色=权限1,权限2

权限:

(1)用简单的字符串来表示一个权限。如:user

(2)多层次管理:如:user:query,user:edit,user:query,edit。第一部分为操作的领域,第二部分为执行的操作。可以使用通配符:user:*,*:query

(3)实例级权限:域:操作:实例

如:user:edit:manager 只能对 user 中的 manager 进行 edit。

通配符:user:edit:*、user:*:*、user:*:manager

等价:user:edit==user:edit:*、user == user:*:* 只能从字符串结尾处省略。

(4)可对比官方例子学习。

五、总结:

介绍了权限的基础,介绍了 Shiro 的 HelloWorld,要明白其中重要的部分,如:认证、授权,以及Shiro 是如何来做这两件事情的。介绍官方demo 的 ini 配置方式,只是想更加深刻的去理解

Shiro 的管理器,认证,授权,角色,权限等等这些概念。

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