并发编程与高并发解决方案学习(J.U.C之ReentrantLock与锁)

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ReentrantLock(可重入锁) 和Synchronized区别

※可重入性 

    两者差别不大

※锁的实现

   Synchronized是JVM实现,ReentrantLock 是JDK实现

※性能的区别

    Synchronized 引入偏向锁,轻量级锁等之后两者效率差不多

※功能区别

    1.便利性

            Synchronized 使用方便

     2.锁的细粒度和灵活度

        ReentrantLock更优化

ReentrantLock独有的功能

1.可指定是公平锁和非公平锁,而Synchronized只能是非公平锁

公平锁也就是先等待的线程先获得锁

2.提供了一个Condition类,可以分组唤醒需要唤醒的线程,而synchronized要么随机唤醒一个线程,要么全部唤醒

3.提供能够中断等待锁的线程机制,lock.lockInterruptibly()

import com.mmall.concurrency.annoations.ThreadSafe;
import lombok.extern.slf4j.Slf4j;

import java.util.concurrent.CountDownLatch;
import java.util.concurrent.ExecutorService;
import java.util.concurrent.Executors;
import java.util.concurrent.Semaphore;

@Slf4j
@ThreadSafe
public class LockExample1 {

    // 请求总数
    public static int clientTotal = 5000;

    // 同时并发执行的线程数
    public static int threadTotal = 200;

    public static int count = 0;

    public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception {
        ExecutorService executorService = Executors.newCachedThreadPool();
        final Semaphore semaphore = new Semaphore(threadTotal);
        final CountDownLatch countDownLatch = new CountDownLatch(clientTotal);
        for (int i = 0; i < clientTotal ; i++) {
            executorService.execute(() -> {
                try {
                    semaphore.acquire();
                    add();
                    semaphore.release();
                } catch (Exception e) {
                    log.error("exception", e);
                }
                countDownLatch.countDown();
            });
        }
        countDownLatch.await();
        executorService.shutdown();
        log.info("count:{}", count);
    }

    private synchronized static void add() {
        count++;
    }
}

输出结果

22:23:36.862 [main] INFO com.mmall.concurrency.example.lock.LockExample1 - count:5000

ReentrantLock

import com.mmall.concurrency.annoations.ThreadSafe;
import lombok.extern.slf4j.Slf4j;

import java.util.concurrent.CountDownLatch;
import java.util.concurrent.ExecutorService;
import java.util.concurrent.Executors;
import java.util.concurrent.Semaphore;
import java.util.concurrent.locks.Lock;
import java.util.concurrent.locks.ReentrantLock;

@Slf4j
@ThreadSafe
public class LockExample2 {

    // 请求总数
    public static int clientTotal = 5000;

    // 同时并发执行的线程数
    public static int threadTotal = 200;

    public static int count = 0;

    private final static Lock lock = new ReentrantLock();

    public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception {
        ExecutorService executorService = Executors.newCachedThreadPool();
        final Semaphore semaphore = new Semaphore(threadTotal);
        final CountDownLatch countDownLatch = new CountDownLatch(clientTotal);
        for (int i = 0; i < clientTotal ; i++) {
            executorService.execute(() -> {
                try {
                    semaphore.acquire();
                    add();
                    semaphore.release();
                } catch (Exception e) {
                    log.error("exception", e);
                }
                countDownLatch.countDown();
            });
        }
        countDownLatch.await();
        executorService.shutdown();
        log.info("count:{}", count);
    }

    private static void add() {
        lock.lock();
        try {
            count++;
        } finally {
            lock.unlock();
        }
    }
}

输出结果

22:31:23.001 [main] INFO com.mmall.concurrency.example.lock.LockExample2 - count:5000

ReentrantReadWriteLock

import lombok.extern.slf4j.Slf4j;

import java.util.Map;
import java.util.Set;
import java.util.TreeMap;
import java.util.concurrent.locks.Lock;
import java.util.concurrent.locks.ReentrantReadWriteLock;

@Slf4j
public class LockExample3 {

    private final Map<String, Data> map = new TreeMap<>();

    private final ReentrantReadWriteLock lock = new ReentrantReadWriteLock();

    private final Lock readLock = lock.readLock();

    private final Lock writeLock = lock.writeLock();

    public Data get(String key) {
        readLock.lock();
        try {
            return map.get(key);
        } finally {
            readLock.unlock();
        }
    }

    public Set<String> getAllKeys() {
        readLock.lock();
        try {
            return map.keySet();
        } finally {
            readLock.unlock();
        }
    }

    public Data put(String key, Data value) {
        writeLock.lock();
        try {
            return map.put(key, value);
        } finally {
            writeLock.unlock();
        }
    }

    class Data {

    }
}

上例子可能会造成线程饥饿,也就是说总有人去调用get,使write没有机会执行

StampedLock 

控制锁有三种模式(写、读、乐观读)

一个StampedLock状态有版本和模式两部分构成

import java.util.concurrent.locks.StampedLock;

public class LockExample4 {

    class Point {
        private double x, y;
        private final StampedLock sl = new StampedLock();

        void move(double deltaX, double deltaY) { // an exclusively locked method
            long stamp = sl.writeLock();
            try {
                x += deltaX;
                y += deltaY;
            } finally {
                sl.unlockWrite(stamp);
            }
        }

        //下面看看乐观读锁案例
        double distanceFromOrigin() { // A read-only method
            long stamp = sl.tryOptimisticRead(); //获得一个乐观读锁
            double currentX = x, currentY = y;  //将两个字段读入本地局部变量
            if (!sl.validate(stamp)) { //检查发出乐观读锁后同时是否有其他写锁发生?
                stamp = sl.readLock();  //如果没有,我们再次获得一个读悲观锁
                try {
                    currentX = x; // 将两个字段读入本地局部变量
                    currentY = y; // 将两个字段读入本地局部变量
                } finally {
                    sl.unlockRead(stamp);
                }
            }
            return Math.sqrt(currentX * currentX + currentY * currentY);
        }

        //下面是悲观读锁案例
        void moveIfAtOrigin(double newX, double newY) { // upgrade
            // Could instead start with optimistic, not read mode
            long stamp = sl.readLock();
            try {
                while (x == 0.0 && y == 0.0) { //循环,检查当前状态是否符合
                    long ws = sl.tryConvertToWriteLock(stamp); //将读锁转为写锁
                    if (ws != 0L) { //这是确认转为写锁是否成功
                        stamp = ws; //如果成功 替换票据
                        x = newX; //进行状态改变
                        y = newY;  //进行状态改变
                        break;
                    } else { //如果不能成功转换为写锁
                        sl.unlockRead(stamp);  //我们显式释放读锁
                        stamp = sl.writeLock();  //显式直接进行写锁 然后再通过循环再试
                    }
                }
            } finally {
                sl.unlock(stamp); //释放读锁或写锁
            }
        }
    }
}

import com.mmall.concurrency.annoations.ThreadSafe;
import lombok.extern.slf4j.Slf4j;

import java.util.concurrent.CountDownLatch;
import java.util.concurrent.ExecutorService;
import java.util.concurrent.Executors;
import java.util.concurrent.Semaphore;
import java.util.concurrent.locks.StampedLock;

@Slf4j
@ThreadSafe
public class LockExample5 {

    // 请求总数
    public static int clientTotal = 5000;

    // 同时并发执行的线程数
    public static int threadTotal = 200;

    public static int count = 0;

    private final static StampedLock lock = new StampedLock();

    public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception {
        ExecutorService executorService = Executors.newCachedThreadPool();
        final Semaphore semaphore = new Semaphore(threadTotal);
        final CountDownLatch countDownLatch = new CountDownLatch(clientTotal);
        for (int i = 0; i < clientTotal ; i++) {
            executorService.execute(() -> {
                try {
                    semaphore.acquire();
                    add();
                    semaphore.release();
                } catch (Exception e) {
                    log.error("exception", e);
                }
                countDownLatch.countDown();
            });
        }
        countDownLatch.await();
        executorService.shutdown();
        log.info("count:{}", count);
    }

    private static void add() {
        long stamp = lock.writeLock();
        try {
            count++;
        } finally {
            lock.unlock(stamp);
        }
    }
}
Condition 
import lombok.extern.slf4j.Slf4j;

import java.util.concurrent.locks.Condition;
import java.util.concurrent.locks.ReentrantLock;

@Slf4j
public class LockExample6 {

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        ReentrantLock reentrantLock = new ReentrantLock();
        Condition condition = reentrantLock.newCondition();
        new Thread(() -> {
            try {
                reentrantLock.lock();
                log.info("wait signal"); // 1.等待信号    
                condition.await();
            } catch (InterruptedException e) {
                e.printStackTrace();
            }
            log.info("get signal"); // 4 得到信号
            reentrantLock.unlock();
        }).start();

        new Thread(() -> {
            reentrantLock.lock();
            log.info("get lock"); // 2 
            try {
                Thread.sleep(3000);
            } catch (InterruptedException e) {
                e.printStackTrace();
            }
            condition.signalAll();
            log.info("send signal ~ "); // 3 发送信号
            reentrantLock.unlock();
        }).start();
    }
}

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