Django+Vue开发生鲜电商平台之6.使用Vue实现商品类别和商品数据前台显示

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——马云

Github和Gitee代码同步更新
https://github.com/PythonWebProject/Django_Fresh_Ecommerce
https://gitee.com/Python_Web_Project/Django_Fresh_Ecommerce

现在将DRF数据接口与前端显示相结合。

一、商品类别数据接口

由之前的效果图和需求分析可知,首页全部商品分类需要展示一级、二级和三级分类,而在搜索结果页只展示一级和二级分类,分类有两个Vue组件,即Header中的全部商品分类和左侧的某以及类别对应的分类导航栏,也对应两个数据接口。

先在apps/goods/views.py中定义商品类别数据View如下:

from rest_framework import mixins, viewsets, filters
from rest_framework.pagination import PageNumberPagination
from django_filters.rest_framework import DjangoFilterBackend

from .models import Goods, GoodsCategory
from .serializers import GoodsSerializer, CategorySerializer
from .filters import GoodsFilter


# Create your views here.

class GoodsPagination(PageNumberPagination):
    page_size = 10
    page_size_query_param = 'page_size'
    page_query_param = 'p'
    max_page_size = 100

class GoodsListViewSet(mixins.ListModelMixin, viewsets.GenericViewSet):
    '''商品列表页,并实现分页、搜索、过滤、排序'''

    queryset = Goods.objects.all()
    serializer_class = GoodsSerializer
    pagination_class = GoodsPagination
    filter_backends = [DjangoFilterBackend, filters.SearchFilter, filters.OrderingFilter]
    filter_class = GoodsFilter
    search_fields = ['name', 'goods_brief', 'goods_desc']
    ordering_fields = ['sold_num', 'market_price']


class CategoryViewSet(mixins.ListModelMixin, viewsets.GenericViewSet):
    '''商品分类列表数据'''

    queryset = GoodsCategory.objects.all()
    serializer_class = CategorySerializer

再在urls.py中配置路由如下:

from django.conf.urls import url, include
from django.views.static import serve
from rest_framework.documentation import include_docs_urls
from rest_framework.routers import DefaultRouter

import xadmin
from .settings import MEDIA_ROOT
from goods.views import GoodsListViewSet, CategoryViewSet

# Create a router and register our viewsets with it.

router = DefaultRouter()

# 配置goods的路由
router.register(r'goods', GoodsListViewSet, basename='goods')

# 配置categories的路由
router.register(r'categories', CategoryViewSet, basename='categories')

访问http://127.0.0.1:8000/categories/,显示:
django goodscategory serialize simple

显然,将所有的数据都发送到前端,但是根据前端的要求,不同级之间的类别具有附属和依赖的关系,而不是平级的关系,显然还没有达到效果,需要进行改进。

此时需要用到才定义模型GoodsCategory的字段parent_category时指定的related_name属性,即related_name='sub_cat',此属性表示可以反向引用,即通过夫类别可以通过该属性查询子类别,利用该属性实现Serializer的三层嵌套引用,从而实现类别的嵌套显示,serializers.py 如下:

from rest_framework import serializers

from .models import Goods, GoodsCategory


class TerCategorySerializer(serializers.ModelSerializer):
    '''三级商品子类别序列化'''

    class Meta:
        model = GoodsCategory
        fields = '__all__'


class SecCategorySerializer(serializers.ModelSerializer):
    '''二级商品子类别序列化'''

    sub_cat = TerCategorySerializer(many=True)
    class Meta:
        model = GoodsCategory
        fields = '__all__'


class CategorySerializer(serializers.ModelSerializer):
    '''一级商品类别序列化'''

    sub_cat = SecCategorySerializer(many=True)
    class Meta:
        model = GoodsCategory
        fields = '__all__'


class GoodsSerializer(serializers.ModelSerializer):
    '''商品序列化'''
    category = CategorySerializer()
    class Meta:
        model = Goods
        fields = '__all__'

此时再访问http://127.0.0.1:8000/categories/,显示:
django goodscategory serialize nesting

此时,以嵌套的形式在父类别中显示出子类别,并且属于三层嵌套。

现在需要实现获取某一个具体类别的详情(包括其基本信息和子类别),此时需要在路由中加入商品对应的id,只要使CategoryViewSet继承自mixins.RetrieveModelMixin,即可自动配置路由,无需再额外配置,即views.py如下:

class CategoryViewSet(mixins.ListModelMixin, mixins.RetrieveModelMixin, viewsets.GenericViewSet):
    '''商品分类列表数据'''

    queryset = GoodsCategory.objects.all()
    serializer_class = CategorySerializer

显示:
django goodscategory serialize single

显然,此时地址中传入指定的id,只显示该id对应的类别的信息和其子类别的信息。

二、Vue展示商品分类

在测试前需要先在fresh_online目录下执行命令cnpm run dev启动前端项目,启动后访问http://127.0.0.1:8080,可以看到:
django goodscategory frontend preview

显然,商品分类展示完整。

为了只是单独测试某一类数据而不影响其他数据的显示,因此其他数据都通过线上接口显示、待测试的数据通过本地接口测试。

在前端项目fresh_online中,在src/api/api.js中定义了数据API接口:

import axios from 'axios';


let host = 'http://shop.projectsedu.com';
let local_host = 'http://127.0.0.1:8000';

//获取商品类别信息
export const queryCategorygoods = params => { return axios.get(`${host}/indexgoods/`) }

//获取首页中的新品
export const newGoods = params => { return axios.get(`${host}/newgoods/`) }

//获取轮播图
export const bannerGoods = params => { return axios.get(`${host}/banners/`) }

//获取商品类别信息
export const getCategory = params => {
  if('id' in params){
    return axios.get(`${local_host}/categorys/`+params.id+'/');
  }
  else {
    return axios.get(`${local_host}/categorys/`, params);
  }
};


//获取热门搜索关键词
export const getHotSearch = params => { return axios.get(`${host}/hotsearchs/`) }

//获取商品列表
export const getGoods = params => { return axios.get(`${host}/goods/`, { params: params }) }

//商品详情
export const getGoodsDetail = goodId => { return axios.get(`${host}/goods/${goodId}`+'/') }

//获取购物车商品
export const getShopCarts = params => { return axios.get(`${host}/shopcarts/`) }
// 添加商品到购物车
export const addShopCart = params => { return axios.post(`${host}/shopcarts/`, params) }
//更新购物车商品信息
export const updateShopCart = (goodsId, params) => { return axios.patch(`${host}/shopcarts/`+goodsId+'/', params) }
//删除某个商品的购物记录
export const deleteShopCart = goodsId => { return axios.delete(`${host}/shopcarts/`+goodsId+'/') }

//收藏
export const addFav = params => { return axios.post(`${host}/userfavs/`, params) }

//取消收藏
export const delFav = goodsId => { return axios.delete(`${host}/userfavs/`+goodsId+'/') }

export const getAllFavs = () => { return axios.get(`${host}/userfavs/`) }

//判断是否收藏
export const getFav = goodsId => { return axios.get(`${host}/userfavs/`+goodsId+'/') }

//登录
export const login = params => {
  return axios.post(`${host}/login/`, params)
}

//注册

export const register = parmas => { return axios.post(`${host}/users/`, parmas) }

//短信
export const getMessage = parmas => { return axios.post(`${host}/code/`, parmas) }


//获取用户信息
export const getUserDetail = () => { return axios.get(`${host}/users/1/`) }

//修改用户信息
export const updateUserInfo = params => { return axios.patch(`${host}/users/1/`, params) }


//获取订单
export const getOrders = () => { return axios.get(`${host}/orders/`) }
//删除订单
export const delOrder = orderId => { return axios.delete(`${host}/orders/`+orderId+'/') }
//添加订单
export const createOrder = params => {return axios.post(`${host}/orders/`, params)}
//获取订单详情
export const getOrderDetail = orderId => {return axios.get(`${host}/orders/`+orderId+'/')}


//获取留言
export const getMessages = () => {return axios.get(`${host}/messages/`)}

//添加留言
export const addMessage = params => {return axios.post(`${host}/messages/`, params, {headers:{ 'Content-Type': 'multipart/form-data' }})}

//删除留言
export const delMessages = messageId => {return axios.delete(`${host}/messages/`+messageId+'/')}

//添加收货地址
export const addAddress = params => {return axios.post(`${host}/address/`, params)}

//删除收货地址
export const delAddress = addressId => {return axios.delete(`${host}/address/`+addressId+'/')}

//修改收货地址
export const updateAddress = (addressId, params) => {return axios.patch(`${host}/address/`+addressId+'/', params)}

//获取收货地址
export const getAddress = () => {return axios.get(`${host}/address/`)}

其中,获取商品分类的接口为:

export const getCategory = params => {
  if('id' in params){
    return axios.get(`${host}/categorys/`+params.id+'/');
  }
  else {
    return axios.get(`${host}/categorys/`, params);
  }
};

显然,可以看到,如果参数中传入了id,则返回单个类别,否则返回所有类别。

而负责将类别数据显示到前端的是head.vue组件,位于src/views/head目录下,其通过赋值和循环将类别遍历出来:

<div class="main_cata" id="J_mainCata" v-show="showAllmenu">
    <ul>
        <li class="first" v-for="(item,index) in allMenuLabel" @mouseover="overChildrenmenu(index)" @mouseout="outChildrenmenu(index)">
          <h3 style="background:url(../images/1449088788518670880.png) 20px center no-repeat;">
            <router-link :to="'/app/home/list/'+item.id">{{item.name}}</router-link> </h3>
            <div class="J_subCata" id="J_subCata" v-show="showChildrenMenu ===index"  style=" left: 215px; top: 0px;">
                <div class="J_subView" >
                  <div v-for="list in item.sub_cat">
                    <dl>
                      <dt>
                        <router-link :to="'/app/home/list/'+list.id">{{list.name}}</router-link>
                      </dt>

                      <dd>
                        <router-link  v-for="childrenList in list.sub_cat" :key="childrenList.id" :to="'/app/home/list/'+childrenList.id">{{childrenList.name}}</router-link>
                      </dd>
                    </dl>
                    <div class="clear"></div>
                  </div>
                </div>
            </div>
        </li>
    </ul>
</div>

// ...

getMenu(){//获取菜单
    getCategory({
      params:{}
    }).then((response)=> {
              console.log(response)
              this.allMenuLabel = response.data
          })
          .catch(function (error) {
            console.log(error);
          });
},

为了让数据在前端正常显示,还需要过滤类别数据、只显示一级类别,修改views.py如下:

class CategoryViewSet(mixins.ListModelMixin, mixins.RetrieveModelMixin, viewsets.GenericViewSet):
    '''
    List: 显示商品所有分类列表数据
    Retrieve: 获取单个商品分类详情
    '''

    queryset = GoodsCategory.objects.filter(category_type=1)
    serializer_class = CategorySerializer

此时再访问http://127.0.0.1:8080,显示:
django goodscategory frontend nocategory

此时再访问,却访问不到商品分类,查看控制台提示很明显,同源策略禁止读取位于 http://127.0.0.1:8000/categorys/ 的远程资源。,即禁止跨域访问,当前端口是 8080,而数据接口端口是8000,因此被浏览器自动拒绝,一种方式是对服务器进行设置,还有一种是通过前端代理解决,这里采用第一种方式:
首先在虚拟环境中执行pip install django-cors-headers命令安装库,然后在后端settings.py中配置Cors:

INSTALLED_APPS = [
    'django.contrib.auth',
    'django.contrib.contenttypes',
    'django.contrib.sessions',
    'django.contrib.messages',
    'django.contrib.staticfiles',
    'apps.users.apps.UsersConfig',
    'goods.apps.GoodsConfig',
    'trade.apps.TradeConfig',
    'user_operation.apps.UserOperationConfig',
    'DjangoUeditor',
    'xadmin',
    'crispy_forms',
    'django.contrib.admin',
    'rest_framework',
    'django_filters',
    'corsheaders',
]

MIDDLEWARE = [
    'corsheaders.middleware.CorsMiddleware',
    'django.middleware.security.SecurityMiddleware',
    'django.contrib.sessions.middleware.SessionMiddleware',
    'django.middleware.common.CommonMiddleware',
    'django.middleware.csrf.CsrfViewMiddleware',
    'django.contrib.auth.middleware.AuthenticationMiddleware',
    'django.contrib.messages.middleware.MessageMiddleware',
    'django.middleware.clickjacking.XFrameOptionsMiddleware',
]

# 跨域访问设置
CORS_ORIGIN_ALLOW_ALL = True

此时再访问,显示:
django goodscategory frontend corssolved

此时不再报错,商品的各级分类也显示出来,但是可以看出来,全部分类右侧并未显示商品分类,这是因为一级分类的is_tab属性默认为False,改为True即可,可以在数据库中修改,也可以直接在后台管理系统修改。

head.vue中显示商品分类的逻辑也是通过循环实现,如下:

<template v-for="(item,index) in allMenuLabel">
    <li>
        <div v-if="item.is_tab">
            <router-link :to="'/app/home/list/'+item.id" >{{item.name}}</router-link>
        </div>
    </li>
</template>

后台修改商品分类is_tab属性并刷新页面如下:
django goodscategory frontend modify is_tab

此时已经显示出商品分类。

三、Vue展示商品列表页数据和搜索

现在进一步实现点击某一个商品分类下面显示出商品详情,具体包括分类显示、价格筛选、分页和排序等功能。
通过项目可以看到,通过搜索和点击Tab页左侧显示的导航栏是不同的,其数据接口也不一样,head.vue如下:

<div class="head_search_hot">
  <span>热搜榜:</span>
  <router-link v-for="item in hotSearch" :to="'/app/home/search/'+item.keywords" :key="item.keywords">
    {{item.keywords}}
  </router-link>
</div>

// ...

<div class="main_nav_link" @mouseover="overAllmenu" @mouseout="outAllmenu">
    <a class="meunAll">全部商品分类
        <i class="iconfont">&#xe643;</i>
    </a>
    <div class="main_cata" id="J_mainCata" v-show="showAllmenu">
        <ul>
            <li class="first" v-for="(item,index) in allMenuLabel" @mouseover="overChildrenmenu(index)" @mouseout="outChildrenmenu(index)">
              <h3 style="background:url(../images/1449088788518670880.png) 20px center no-repeat;">
                <router-link :to="'/app/home/list/'+item.id">{{item.name}}</router-link> </h3>
                <div class="J_subCata" id="J_subCata" v-show="showChildrenMenu ===index"  style=" left: 215px; top: 0px;">
                    <div class="J_subView" >
                      <div v-for="list in item.sub_cat">
                        <dl>
                          <dt>
                            <router-link :to="'/app/home/list/'+list.id">{{list.name}}</router-link>
                          </dt>

                          <dd>
                            <router-link  v-for="childrenList in list.sub_cat" :key="childrenList.id" :to="'/app/home/list/'+childrenList.id">{{childrenList.name}}</router-link>
                          </dd>
                        </dl>
                        <div class="clear"></div>
                      </div>
                    </div>
                </div>
            </li>
        </ul>
    </div>
</div>

可以看到,跳转路由不同,搜索跳转到/app/home/search/,而点击导航栏跳转到/app/home/list/

再查看src/router/index.js如下:

{
  path: 'list/:id',
  name: 'list',
  component: list,
  meta: {
    title: '列表',
    need_log: false
  }
},
{
  path: 'search/:keyword',
  name: 'search',
  component: list,
  meta: {
    title: '搜索',
    need_log: false
  }
},

可以看到,两个路由绑定的组件是相同的,都是list,而在src/views/list/list.vue中:

getAllData () {
    console.log(this.$route.params)
    if(this.$route.params.id){
        this.top_category = this.$route.params.id;
        this.getMenu(this.top_category); // 获取左侧菜单列表
    }else{
        this.getMenu(null); // 获取左侧菜单列表
        this.pageType = 'search'
        this.searchWord = this.$route.params.keyword;
    }

    this.getCurLoc(); // 获取当前位置
    this.getListData(); //获取产品列表
    this.getPriceRange(); // 获取价格区间
},
getListData() {
    if(this.pageType=='search'){
      getGoods({
        search: this.searchWord, //搜索关键词
      }).then((response)=> {
        this.listData = response.data.results;
        this.proNum = response.data.count;
      }).catch(function (error) {
        console.log(error);
      });
    }else {
      getGoods({
        page: this.curPage, //当前页码
        top_category: this.top_category, //商品类型
        ordering: this.ordering, //排序类型
        pricemin: this.pricemin, //价格最低 默认为‘’ 即为不选价格区间
        pricemax: this.pricemax // 价格最高 默认为‘’
      }).then((response)=> {

        this.listData = response.data.results;
        this.proNum = response.data.count;
      }).catch(function (error) {
        console.log(error);
      });
    }

},
getMenu(id) {
    if(id != null){
      getCategory({
        id:this.$route.params.id
      }).then((response)=> {
        this.cateMenu = response.data.sub_cat;
        this.currentCategoryName = response.data.name
      }).catch(function (error) {
        console.log(error);
      });
    }else {
      getCategory({}).then((response)=> {
        this.cateMenu = response.data;
        this.isObject = false
      }).catch(function (error) {
        console.log(error);
      });
    }

},

可以看到,针对不同的参数有不同的请求方法和参数。

请求商品列表数据使用的是getListData()方法,调用了getGoods()方法,为了测试获取商品,将getGoodsAPI进行修改如下:

//获取商品列表
export const getGoods = params => { return axios.get(`${local_host}/goods/`, { params: params }) }

同时,向后端请求的参数有一个为top_category,即表示一级类别,请求该参数则返回这一类别下的所有类别,需要在后端定义一个过滤器,需要找到该一级分类下的所有二级分及其对应的商品,后端apps/goods/filters.py如下:

import django_filters
from django.db.models import Q

from .models import Goods

class GoodsFilter(django_filters.rest_framework.FilterSet):
    '''商品过滤类'''
    name = django_filters.CharFilter(field_name="name", lookup_expr='contains')
    pricemin = django_filters.NumberFilter(field_name="market_price", lookup_expr='gte')
    pricemax = django_filters.NumberFilter(field_name="market_price", lookup_expr='lte')
    top_category = django_filters.NumberFilter(method='top_category_filter')

    def top_category_filter(self, queryset, name, value):
        '''自定义过滤'''
        return queryset.filter(Q(category_id=value)|Q(category__parent_category_id=value)|Q(category__parent_category__parent_category_id=value))

    class Meta:
        model = Goods
        fields = ['name', 'pricemin', 'pricemax']

显示:
django goodscategory  topcategory

此时,可以根据top_category进行筛选,再查看前端:
django goodscategory  frontend goodslist

可以看到,已经实现了价格筛选、排序、分页等功能。

从之前的代码还可以看到搜索功能的实现:

if(this.pageType=='search'){
  getGoods({
    search: this.searchWord, //搜索关键词
  }).then((response)=> {
    this.listData = response.data.results;
    this.proNum = response.data.count;
  }).catch(function (error) {
    console.log(error);
  });
}

再测试搜索功能如下:
django goodscategory  frontend search
显然,已经实现了搜索功能。

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