32-SpringBoot——核心-企业级开发-异步消息

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Spring Boot核心-企业级开发-异步消息


【博文目录>>>】


【项目源码>>>】


异步消息


异步消息主要目的是为了系统与系统之间的通信。所谓异步消息即消息发送者无须等待消息接收者的处理及返回,甚至无须关心消息是否发送成功。在异步消息中有两个很重要的概念,即消息代理( message broker )和目的地( destination )。

当消息发送者发送消息后,消息将由消息代理接管,消息代理保证消息传递到指定的目的地。异步消息主要有两种形式的目的地:队列( queue )和主题( topic )。队列用于点对点式(point-to-point )的消息通信:主题用于发布/订阅式( publish/subscribe )的消息通信。

点对点式


当消息发送者发送消息,消息代理获得消息后将消息放进一个队列( queue )里,当有消息接收者来接收消息的时候,消息将从队列里取出来传递给接收者,这时候队列里就没有了这条消息。

点对点式确保的是每一条消息只有唯一的发送者和接收者,但这并不能说明只有一个接收者可以从队列里接收消息。因为队列里有多个消息,点对点式只保证每一条消息只有唯一的发送者和接收者。

发布/订阅式


发布/订阅式是消息发送者发地消息到主题(topic),而多个消息接收者监听这个主题。此时的消息发送者和接收者分别叫做发布者和订阅者。

企业级消息代理


JMS( Java Message Service) 即 Java 消息服务,是基于JVM 消息代理的规范,而ActiveMQ,HometQ 是一个JMS 消息代理的实现。

AMQP (Advanced Message Queuing Protocol )也是一个消息代理的规范,但它不仅兼容JMS ,还支持跨语言和平台。AMQP 的主要实现有RabbitMQ。

Spring 的支持


Spring 对JMS 和AMQP 的支持分别来自于spring-jms 和Spring-rabbit 。
它们分别需要ConnectionFactory 的实现来连接消息代理,并分别提供了JmsTemplate 、RabbitTemplate 来发送消息。

Spring 为JMS 、AMQP 提供了@JmsListeper、@RabbitListener 注解在方法上监听消息、代理发布的消息。我们需要分别通过@EnableJms 、@EnableRabbit 开启支持。

Spring Boot 的支持


Spring Boot 对JMS 的自动配置支持位于org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.jms 下,支持JMS 的实现有ActiveMQ 、HometQ 、Artemis (由HometQ 捐赠给ActiveMQ 的代码库形成的ActiveMQ 的子项目)。这里我们以ActiveMQ 为例, Spring Boot 为我们定义了ActiveMQConnectionFactory的Bean 作为连接,并通过“ spring.activemq ”为前缀的属性米配置ActiveMQ 的连接属性。

# ----------------------------------------
# INTEGRATION PROPERTIES
# ----------------------------------------

# ACTIVEMQ (ActiveMQProperties)
spring.activemq.broker-url= # URL of the ActiveMQ broker. Auto-generated by default.
spring.activemq.close-timeout=15000 # Time to wait, in milliseconds, before considering a close complete.
spring.activemq.in-memory=true # Specify if the default broker URL should be in memory. Ignored if an explicit broker has been specified.
spring.activemq.non-blocking-redelivery=false # Do not stop message delivery before re-delivering messages from a rolled back transaction. This implies that message order will not be preserved when this is enabled.
spring.activemq.password= # Login password of the broker.
spring.activemq.send-timeout=0 # Time to wait, in milliseconds, on Message sends for a response. Set it to 0 to indicate to wait forever.
spring.activemq.user= # Login user of the broker.
spring.activemq.packages.trust-all= # Trust all packages.
spring.activemq.packages.trusted= # Comma-separated list of specific packages to trust (when not trusting all packages).
spring.activemq.pool.block-if-full=true # Block when a connection is requested and the pool is full. Set it to false to throw a "JMSException" instead.
spring.activemq.pool.block-if-full-timeout=-1 # Blocking period, in milliseconds, before throwing an exception if the pool is still full.
spring.activemq.pool.create-connection-on-startup=true # Create a connection on startup. Can be used to warm-up the pool on startup.
spring.activemq.pool.enabled=false # Whether a PooledConnectionFactory should be created instead of a regular ConnectionFactory.
spring.activemq.pool.expiry-timeout=0 # Connection expiration timeout in milliseconds.
spring.activemq.pool.idle-timeout=30000 # Connection idle timeout in milliseconds.
spring.activemq.pool.max-connections=1 # Maximum number of pooled connections.
spring.activemq.pool.maximum-active-session-per-connection=500 # Maximum number of active sessions per connection.
spring.activemq.pool.reconnect-on-exception=true # Reset the connection when a "JMXException" occurs.
spring.activemq.pool.time-between-expiration-check=-1 # Time to sleep, in milliseconds, between runs of the idle connection eviction thread. When negative, no idle connection eviction thread runs.
spring.activemq.pool.use-anonymous-producers=true # Use only one anonymous "MessageProducer" instance. Set it to false to create one "MessageProducer" every time one is required.

Spring Boot 在JmsAutoConfiguration 还为我们配置好了JmsTemplate ,且为我们开启了注解式消息监听的支持,即自动开启@EnableJms。

Spring Boot 对AMQP 的自动配置支持位于org.springframework. boot.autoconfigure.amqp下,它为我们自己置了连接的ConnectionFactory 和RabbitTemplate,且为我们开启了注解式消息监听,还自动开启@EnableRabbito RabbitMQ 的配置可通过“ spring.rabbitmq ”来配置RabbitMQ,主要包含:‘

# RABBIT (RabbitProperties)
spring.rabbitmq.addresses= # Comma-separated list of addresses to which the client should connect.
spring.rabbitmq.cache.channel.checkout-timeout= # Number of milliseconds to wait to obtain a channel if the cache size has been reached.
spring.rabbitmq.cache.channel.size= # Number of channels to retain in the cache.
spring.rabbitmq.cache.connection.mode=channel # Connection factory cache mode.
spring.rabbitmq.cache.connection.size= # Number of connections to cache.
spring.rabbitmq.connection-timeout= # Connection timeout, in milliseconds; zero for infinite.
spring.rabbitmq.dynamic=true # Create an AmqpAdmin bean.
spring.rabbitmq.host=localhost # RabbitMQ host.
spring.rabbitmq.listener.simple.acknowledge-mode= # Acknowledge mode of container.
spring.rabbitmq.listener.simple.auto-startup=true # Start the container automatically on startup.
spring.rabbitmq.listener.simple.concurrency= # Minimum number of consumers.
spring.rabbitmq.listener.simple.default-requeue-rejected= # Whether or not to requeue delivery failures; default `true`.
spring.rabbitmq.listener.simple.idle-event-interval= # How often idle container events should be published in milliseconds.
spring.rabbitmq.listener.simple.max-concurrency= # Maximum number of consumers.
spring.rabbitmq.listener.simple.prefetch= # Number of messages to be handled in a single request. It should be greater than or equal to the transaction size (if used).
spring.rabbitmq.listener.simple.retry.enabled=false # Whether or not publishing retries are enabled.
spring.rabbitmq.listener.simple.retry.initial-interval=1000 # Interval between the first and second attempt to deliver a message.
spring.rabbitmq.listener.simple.retry.max-attempts=3 # Maximum number of attempts to deliver a message.
spring.rabbitmq.listener.simple.retry.max-interval=10000 # Maximum interval between attempts.
spring.rabbitmq.listener.simple.retry.multiplier=1.0 # A multiplier to apply to the previous delivery retry interval.
spring.rabbitmq.listener.simple.retry.stateless=true # Whether or not retry is stateless or stateful.
spring.rabbitmq.listener.simple.transaction-size= # Number of messages to be processed in a transaction. For best results it should be less than or equal to the prefetch count.
spring.rabbitmq.password= # Login to authenticate against the broker.
spring.rabbitmq.port=5672 # RabbitMQ port.
spring.rabbitmq.publisher-confirms=false # Enable publisher confirms.
spring.rabbitmq.publisher-returns=false # Enable publisher returns.
spring.rabbitmq.requested-heartbeat= # Requested heartbeat timeout, in seconds; zero for none.
spring.rabbitmq.ssl.enabled=false # Enable SSL support.
spring.rabbitmq.ssl.key-store= # Path to the key store that holds the SSL certificate.
spring.rabbitmq.ssl.key-store-password= # Password used to access the key store.
spring.rabbitmq.ssl.trust-store= # Trust store that holds SSL certificates.
spring.rabbitmq.ssl.trust-store-password= # Password used to access the trust store.
spring.rabbitmq.ssl.algorithm= # SSL algorithm to use. By default configure by the rabbit client library.
spring.rabbitmq.template.mandatory=false # Enable mandatory messages.
spring.rabbitmq.template.receive-timeout=0 # Timeout for `receive()` methods.
spring.rabbitmq.template.reply-timeout=5000 # Timeout for `sendAndReceive()` methods.
spring.rabbitmq.template.retry.enabled=false # Set to true to enable retries in the `RabbitTemplate`.
spring.rabbitmq.template.retry.initial-interval=1000 # Interval between the first and second attempt to publish a message.
spring.rabbitmq.template.retry.max-attempts=3 # Maximum number of attempts to publish a message.
spring.rabbitmq.template.retry.max-interval=10000 # Maximum number of attempts to publish a message.
spring.rabbitmq.template.retry.multiplier=1.0 # A multiplier to apply to the previous publishing retry interval.
spring.rabbitmq.username= # Login user to authenticate to the broker.
spring.rabbitmq.virtual-host= # Virtual host to use when connecting to the broker.

【代码实现】


JMS


application.properties

# ActiveMQ地址
spring.activemq.broker-url=tcp://192.168.241.150:53531
package com.example.spring.boot.message.jms;

import org.springframework.jms.core.MessageCreator;

import javax.jms.JMSException;
import javax.jms.Message;
import javax.jms.Session;

/**
 * Author: 王俊超
 * Date: 2017-07-23 10:55
 * All Rights Reserved !!!
 */
public class Msg implements MessageCreator {

    @Override
    public Message createMessage(Session session) throws JMSException {
        return session.createTextMessage("测试消息");
    }

}
package com.example.spring.boot.message.jms;

import org.springframework.jms.annotation.JmsListener;
import org.springframework.stereotype.Component;

/**
 * Author: 王俊超
 * Date: 2017-07-23 10:57
 * All Rights Reserved !!!
 */
@Component
public class Receiver {
    @JmsListener(destination = "my-destination")
    public void receiveMessage(String message) {
        System.out.println("接受到: <" + message + ">");
    }

}
package com.example.spring.boot.message;

import com.example.spring.boot.message.jms.Msg;
import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired;
import org.springframework.boot.CommandLineRunner;
import org.springframework.boot.SpringApplication;
import org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.SpringBootApplication;
import org.springframework.jms.core.JmsTemplate;

/**
 * Author: 王俊超
 * Date: 2017-07-23 11:14
 * All Rights Reserved !!!
 */
@SpringBootApplication
public class SampleApplication implements CommandLineRunner {
    @Autowired
    JmsTemplate jmsTemplate; //2

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        SpringApplication.run(SampleApplication.class, args);

    }

    @Override
    public void run(String... args) throws Exception {
        jmsTemplate.send("my-destination", new Msg()); //3

    }
}

AMQP

package com.example.spring.boot.message.ampq;

import org.springframework.amqp.rabbit.annotation.RabbitListener;
import org.springframework.stereotype.Component;

/**
 * Author: 王俊超
 * Date: 2017-07-23 11:46
 * All Rights Reserved !!!
 */
@Component
public class Receiver {

    @RabbitListener(queues = "my-queue")
    public void receiveMessage(String message) {
        System.out.println("Received <" + message + ">");
    }


}
package com.example.spring.boot.message;

import org.springframework.amqp.core.Queue;
import org.springframework.amqp.rabbit.core.RabbitTemplate;
import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired;
import org.springframework.boot.CommandLineRunner;
import org.springframework.boot.SpringApplication;
import org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.SpringBootApplication;
import org.springframework.context.annotation.Bean;

/**
 * Author: 王俊超
 * Date: 2017-07-23 11:47
 * All Rights Reserved !!!
 */
@SpringBootApplication
public class SampleApplication implements CommandLineRunner {
    @Autowired
    private RabbitTemplate rabbitTemplate;

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        SpringApplication.run(SampleApplication.class, args);
    }

    @Bean //2
    public Queue wiselyQueue() {
        return new Queue("my-queue");
    }


    @Override
    public void run(String... args) throws Exception {
        rabbitTemplate.convertAndSend("my-queue", "来自RabbitMQ的问候"); //3
    }
}
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