LeetCode算法题之8. String to Integer (atoi)(medium)

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题目描述:
Implement atoi which converts a string to an integer.

The function first discards as many whitespace characters as necessary until the first non-whitespace character is found. Then, starting from this character, takes an optional initial plus or minus sign followed by as many numerical digits as possible, and interprets them as a numerical value.

The string can contain additional characters after those that form the integral number, which are ignored and have no effect on the behavior of this function.

If the first sequence of non-whitespace characters in str is not a valid integral number, or if no such sequence exists because either str is empty or it contains only whitespace characters, no conversion is performed.

If no valid conversion could be performed, a zero value is returned.

Note:

Only the space character ' ' is considered as whitespace character.
Assume we are dealing with an environment which could only store integers within the 32-bit signed integer range: [−231,  231 − 1]. If the numerical value is out of the range of representable values, INT_MAX (231 − 1) or INT_MIN (−231) is returned.

Example 1:

Input: “42”
Output: 42

Example 2:

Input: " -42"
Output: -42
Explanation: The first non-whitespace character is ‘-’, which is the minus sign.
Then take as many numerical digits as possible, which gets 42.

Example 3:

Input: “4193 with words”
Output: 4193
Explanation: Conversion stops at digit ‘3’ as the next character is not a numerical digit.

Example 4:

Input: “words and 987”
Output: 0
Explanation: The first non-whitespace character is ‘w’, which is not a numerical
digit or a +/- sign. Therefore no valid conversion could be performed.

Example 5:

Input: “-91283472332”
Output: -2147483648
Explanation: The number “-91283472332” is out of the range of a 32-bit signed integer.
Thefore INT_MIN (−231) is returned.

解题思路:

  • 如题所述,找出空格后的最长的有符号整数字符
  • 介绍两个方便解决此题的巧妙字符串函数,strip()和isdigit()
  • strip()函数可完成在字符串首尾开始,去除所有的空格,直至遇到非空格元素结束,函数详解见本人另一篇博客《Python字符串的strip()函数用法》
  • isdigit()函数,见名思意,可判断某一个元素是否为数字
  • 实施,见代码即可

少废话,上代码:

class Solution:
    def myAtoi(self, s: str) -> int:
        answer = ""

        s = s.strip()#将s中,从最前面和最后面开始,所有的空格去除,直至遇到非空格元素结束
        for i in range(len(s)):#开始遍历前后都已去除空格的字符串
            if i == 0 and (s[i] == "+" or s[i] == "-" or s[i].isdigit()):#首位是符号的,或者是数字,记录
                answer += s[i]
            elif s[i].isdigit():#遇到数字,记录
                answer += s[i]
            else:
                break
        if len(answer) == 1 and (answer[0] == "+" or answer[0] == "-"):#以防特殊情况,只有一个符号时,此时也是无效
            return 0
        if answer == "":#特殊情况,返回0
            return 0

        answer = int(answer)

        if answer >= (2 ** 31):
            answer = (2 ** 31) - 1
        if answer <= -(2 ** 31):
            answer = -(2 ** 31)

        return answer

时间空间复杂度:

  • Runtime: 28 ms, faster than 88.56% of Python3 online submissions for String to Integer (atoi).
  • Memory Usage: 12.9 MB, less than 100.00% of Python3 online submissions for String to Integer (atoi).
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