用 C 语言开发一门编程语言 — Q-表达式

目录

前文列表

用 C 语言开发一门编程语言 — 交互式解析器l
用 C 语言开发一门编程语言 — 跨平台的可移植性
用 C 语言开发一门编程语言 — 语法解析器
用 C 语言开发一门编程语言 — 抽象语法树
用 C 语言开发一门编程语言 — 异常处理
用 C 语言开发一门编程语言 — S-表达式

Q-表达式

Q-表达式(Quoted Expression,Q-Expression)跟 S-Expression 一样,也是 Lisp 表达式的一种。但 Q-Expression 不受到 Lisp 的求值机制的作用,这是通过应用 C 语言的宏特性来实现的。宏看起来类似于普通的函数,但不会对参数进行求值。有一个叫做 “引用” 的宏(`)可以用来禁止几乎所有表达式的求值,这个宏也是 Q-Expression 的灵感来源。

也就是说,当受到函数的作用时,Q-Expression 不会被求值,而是保持原样。这一特性让 Q-Expression 有着广泛的应用。Lisp 程序员经常使用 Q-Expression 来存储和管理其他的 Lisp 数据类型,例如:数字、符号或 S-Expression 等等。

读取并存储输入

实现 Q-Expression 语法解析器

Q-Expression 的语法和 S-Expression 非常相似,唯一的不同是 Q-Expression 包裹在大括号 {} 中,而 S-Expression 包裹在小括号 () 中,Q-Expression 的语法规则如下:

mpc_parser_t* Number = mpc_new("number");
mpc_parser_t* Symbol = mpc_new("symbol");
mpc_parser_t* Sexpr  = mpc_new("sexpr");
mpc_parser_t* Qexpr  = mpc_new("qexpr");
mpc_parser_t* Expr   = mpc_new("expr");
mpc_parser_t* Lispy  = mpc_new("lispy");

mpca_lang(MPCA_LANG_DEFAULT,
  "                                                    \
    number : /-?[0-9]+/ ;                              \
    symbol : '+' | '-' | '*' | '/' ;                   \
    sexpr  : '(' <expr>* ')' ;                         \
    qexpr  : '{' <expr>* '}' ;                         \
    expr   : <number> | <symbol> | <sexpr> | <qexpr> ; \
    lispy  : /^/ <expr>* /$/ ;                         \
  ",
  Number, Symbol, Sexpr, Qexpr, Expr, Lispy);

mpc_cleanup(6, Number, Symbol, Sexpr, Qexpr, Expr, Lispy);

读取 Q-Expression

由于 Q-Expression 和 S-Expression 的形式基本一致,所以它们内部实现也大致是相同的。我们考虑重用 S-Expression 的数据结构来表示 Q-Expression。

同样的,首先在 lval 枚举类型中添加一个标识 Q-Expression 的类型:

enum { LVAL_ERR, LVAL_NUM, LVAL_SYM, LVAL_SEXPR, LVAL_QEXPR };

另外,还需为其编写一个构造函数:

/* A pointer to a new empty Qexpr lval */
lval* lval_qexpr(void) {
  lval* v = malloc(sizeof(lval));
  v->type = LVAL_QEXPR;
  v->count = 0;
  v->cell = NULL;
  return v;
}

Q-Expression 的打印和删除逻辑也和 S-Expression 别无二致,我们只需照葫芦画瓢即可:

void lval_print(lval* v) {
  switch (v->type) {
    case LVAL_NUM:   printf("%li", v->num); break;
    case LVAL_ERR:   printf("Error: %s", v->err); break;
    case LVAL_SYM:   printf("%s", v->sym); break;
    case LVAL_SEXPR: lval_expr_print(v, '(', ')'); break;
    case LVAL_QEXPR: lval_expr_print(v, '{', '}'); break;
  }
}

void lval_del(lval* v) {

  switch (v->type) {
    case LVAL_NUM: break;
    case LVAL_ERR: free(v->err); break;
    case LVAL_SYM: free(v->sym); break;

    /* If Qexpr or Sexpr then delete all elements inside */
    case LVAL_QEXPR:
    case LVAL_SEXPR:
      for (int i = 0; i < v->count; i++) {
        lval_del(v->cell[i]);
      }
      /* Also free the memory allocated to contain the pointers */
      free(v->cell);
    break;
  }

  free(v);
}

最后,再更新一下读取函数 lval_read,使其可以正确读取 Q-Expression:

if (strstr(t->tag, "qexpr"))  { x = lval_qexpr(); }

因为 Q-Expression 重用了所有 S-Expression 的数据类型,所以我们也自然可以重用所有 S-Expression 的函数,例如 lval_add。在 lval_read 中添加一下代码识别花括号::

if (strcmp(t->children[i]->contents, "(") == 0) { continue; }
if (strcmp(t->children[i]->contents, ")") == 0) { continue; }
if (strcmp(t->children[i]->contents, "}") == 0) { continue; }
if (strcmp(t->children[i]->contents, "{") == 0) { continue; }

注意,因为 Q-Expression 没有任何求值方式,所以无需改动任何已有的求值函数。

实现 Q-Expression 的函数

在添加 Q-Expression 之后,我们还需要定义一系列的操作来管理它。类似于数学操作,这些操作定义了 Q-Expression 具体的行为:

  • list 函数:接收一个或者多个参数,返回一个包含所有参数的 Q-Expression。
  • head 函数:接受一个 Q-Expression,返回一个包含其第一个元素的 Q-Expression。
  • tail 函数:接受一个 Q-Expression,返回一个除首元素外的 Q-Expression。
  • join 函数:接受一个或者多个 Q-Expression,返回一个将其连在一起的 Q-Expression。
  • eval 函数:接受一个 Q-Expression,将其看做一个 S-Expression,并运行。

如同我们前面加的数学运算符一样,这些新的操作符也需要加入到 symbol 语法规则中:

mpca_lang(MPCA_LANG_DEFAULT,
  "                                                        \
    number : /-?[0-9]+/ ;                                  \
    symbol : \"list\" | \"head\" | \"tail\"                \
           | \"join\" | \"eval\" | '+' | '-' | '*' | '/' ; \
    sexpr  : '(' <expr>* ')' ;                             \
    qexpr  : '{' <expr>* '}' ;                             \
    expr   : <number> | <symbol> | <sexpr> | <qexpr> ;     \
    lispy  : /^/ <expr>* /$/ ;                             \
  ",
  Number, Symbol, Sexpr, Qexpr, Expr, Lispy)

Head & Tail

注意,head 和 tail 函数在某些条件下是不能执行的。首先要保证输入的参数只有一个,并且类型为 Q-Expression。其次这个输入的 Q-Expression 不能为空。

  • head 函数:接受一个 Q-Expression,返回一个包含其第一个元素的 Q-Expression。可以重复执行 pop 并 delete 在第二个数组元素上,直到数组为空。
  • tail 函数:接受一个 Q-Expression,返回一个除首元素外的 Q-Expression。只需要 pop 并 delete 第一个数组元素,剩余元素组成的数组则为我们所需要的。
lval* builtin_head(lval* a) {
  /* Check Error Conditions */
  if (a->count != 1) {
    lval_del(a);
    return lval_err("Function 'head' passed too many arguments!");
  }

  if (a->cell[0]->type != LVAL_QEXPR) {
    lval_del(a);
    return lval_err("Function 'head' passed incorrect types!");
  }

  if (a->cell[0]->count == 0) {
    lval_del(a);
    return lval_err("Function 'head' passed {}!");
  }

  /* Otherwise take first argument */
  lval* v = lval_take(a, 0);

  /* Delete all elements that are not head and return */
  while (v->count > 1) { lval_del(lval_pop(v, 1)); }
  return v;
}

lval* builtin_tail(lval* a) {
  /* Check Error Conditions */
  if (a->count != 1) {
    lval_del(a);
    return lval_err("Function 'tail' passed too many arguments!");
  }

  if (a->cell[0]->type != LVAL_QEXPR) {
    lval_del(a);
    return lval_err("Function 'tail' passed incorrect types!");
  }

  if (a->cell[0]->count == 0) {
    lval_del(a);
    return lval_err("Function 'tail' passed {}!");
  }

  /* Take first argument */
  lval* v = lval_take(a, 0);

  /* Delete first element and return */
  lval_del(lval_pop(v, 0));
  return v;
}

使用 C 语言的宏特性对上述代码进行优化

虽然上述实现的 head 和 tail 函数能够实现我们所需要的功能,但是代码难懂且长。有大段的代码是进行错误处理,使得真正逻辑的实现部分不那么明显。要解决这个问题,我们可以使用 C 语言的宏。

这里我们定义一个宏名为 LASSERT 的宏来帮助处理异常。注意,通常宏名都是全大写,这样能够和 C 函数名区分开来。LASSERT 宏有三个参数:args,cond 和 err。宏名定义如下:

#define LASSERT(args, cond, err) \
  if (!(cond)) { lval_del(args); return lval_err(err); }

如此的,我们就可以通过定义这三个参数来生成代码了。

对 head 和 tail 函数进行优化:

lval* builtin_head(lval* a) {
  LASSERT(a, a->count == 1,
    "Function 'head' passed too many arguments!");
  LASSERT(a, a->cell[0]->type == LVAL_QEXPR,
    "Function 'head' passed incorrect type!");
  LASSERT(a, a->cell[0]->count != 0,
    "Function 'head' passed {}!");

  lval* v = lval_take(a, 0);
  while (v->count > 1) { lval_del(lval_pop(v, 1)); }
  return v;
}

lval* builtin_tail(lval* a) {
  LASSERT(a, a->count == 1,
    "Function 'tail' passed too many arguments!");
  LASSERT(a, a->cell[0]->type == LVAL_QEXPR,
    "Function 'tail' passed incorrect type!");
  LASSERT(a, a->cell[0]->count != 0,
    "Function 'tail' passed {}!");

  lval* v = lval_take(a, 0);
  lval_del(lval_pop(v, 0));
  return v;
}

List & Eval

  • list 函数比较简单。它只需将输入的一个或多个 S-Expression 转化为一个 Q-Expression。
  • eval 函数更像是转化。它将一个 Q-Expression 转化为 S-Expression,然后使用 lval_eval 运行。
lval* builtin_list(lval* a) {
  a->type = LVAL_QEXPR;
  return a;
}

lval* builtin_eval(lval* a) {
  LASSERT(a, a->count == 1,
    "Function 'eval' passed too many arguments!");
  LASSERT(a, a->cell[0]->type == LVAL_QEXPR,
    "Function 'eval' passed incorrect type!");

  lval* x = lval_take(a, 0);
  x->type = LVAL_SEXPR;
  return lval_eval(x);
}

Join

join 函数需要多个参数,其结构看起来更像先前定义的 builtin_op 函数。首先确保所有的参数都是 Q-Expression,然后将它们拼接起来。我们定义了 lval_join 函数,它将 y 中元素依次弹出并添加进 x 中,然后将 y 删除,返回 x。

lval* builtin_join(lval* a) {

  for (int i = 0; i < a->count; i++) {
    LASSERT(a, a->cell[i]->type == LVAL_QEXPR,
      "Function 'join' passed incorrect type.");
  }

  lval* x = lval_pop(a, 0);

  while (a->count) {
    x = lval_join(x, lval_pop(a, 0));
  }

  lval_del(a);
  return x;
}
lval* lval_join(lval* x, lval* y) {

  /* For each cell in 'y' add it to 'x' */
  while (y->count) {
    x = lval_add(x, lval_pop(y, 0));
  }

  /* Delete the empty 'y' and return 'x' */
  lval_del(y);
  return x;
}

函数索引

最后,还需要一个函数,根据提供的 Symbol 来调用相应的方法。这里我们可以用 strcmp 和 strstr 函数来实现。

lval* builtin(lval* a, char* func) {
  if (strcmp("list", func) == 0) { return builtin_list(a); }
  if (strcmp("head", func) == 0) { return builtin_head(a); }
  if (strcmp("tail", func) == 0) { return builtin_tail(a); }
  if (strcmp("join", func) == 0) { return builtin_join(a); }
  if (strcmp("eval", func) == 0) { return builtin_eval(a); }
  if (strstr("+-/*", func)) { return builtin_op(a, func); }
  lval_del(a);
  return lval_err("Unknown Function!");
}

同时修改早先 lval_eval_sexpr 函数来调用新的 buildin:

/* Call builtin with operator */
lval* result = builtin(v, f->sym);
lval_del(f);
return result;

源代码

#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include "mpc.h"

#define LASSERT(args, cond, err) \
    if (!(cond)) { lval_del(args); return lval_err(err); }

#ifdef _WIN32
#include <string.h>

static char buffer[2048];

char *readline(char *prompt) {
    fputs(prompt, stdout);
    fgets(buffer, 2048, stdin);

    char *cpy = malloc(strlen(buffer) + 1);

    strcpy(cpy, buffer);
    cpy[strlen(cpy) - 1] = '\0';

    return cpy;
}

void add_history(char *unused) {}

#else

#ifdef __linux__
#include <readline/readline.h>
#include <readline/history.h>
#endif

#ifdef __MACH__
#include <readline/readline.h>
#endif

#endif

/* Create Enumeration of Possible lval Types */
enum {
    LVAL_NUM,
    LVAL_ERR,
    LVAL_SYM,
    LVAL_SEXPR,
    LVAL_QEXPR
};

/* Declare New lval Struct */
typedef struct lval {
    int type;
    long num;

    /* Count and Pointer to a list of "lval*" */
    struct lval** cell;
    int count;

    /* Error and Symbol types have some string data */
    char *err;
    char *sym;
} lval;

/* Construct a pointer to a new Number lval */
lval *lval_num(long x) {
    lval *v = malloc(sizeof(lval));
    v->type = LVAL_NUM;
    v->num = x;
    return v;
}

/* Construct a pointer to a new Error lval */
lval *lval_err(char *msg) {
    lval *v = malloc(sizeof(lval));
    v->type = LVAL_ERR;
    v->err = malloc(strlen(msg) + 1);
    strcpy(v->err, msg);
    return v;
}

/* Construct a pointer to a new Symbol lval */
lval *lval_sym(char *sym) {
    lval *v = malloc(sizeof(lval));
    v->type = LVAL_SYM;
    v->sym = malloc(strlen(sym) + 1);
    strcpy(v->sym, sym);
    return v;
}

/* A pointer to a new empty Sexpr lval */
lval *lval_sexpr(void) {
    lval *v = malloc(sizeof(lval));
    v->type = LVAL_SEXPR;
    v->count = 0;
    v->cell = NULL;
    return v;
}

/* A pointer to a new empty Qexpr lval */
lval *lval_qexpr(void) {
    lval *v = malloc(sizeof(lval));
    v->type = LVAL_QEXPR;
    v->count = 0;
    v->cell = NULL;
    return v;
}


void lval_del(lval *v) {
    switch (v->type) {
        /* Do nothing special for number type */
        case LVAL_NUM:
            break;

        /* For Err or Sym free the string data */
        case LVAL_ERR:
            free(v->err);
            break;
        case LVAL_SYM:
            free(v->sym);
            break;

        /* If Qexpr or Sexpr then delete all elements inside */
        case LVAL_QEXPR:
        case LVAL_SEXPR:
            for (int i = 0; i < v->count; i++) {
                lval_del(v->cell[i]);
            }
            /* Also free the memory allocated to contain the pointers */
            free(v->cell);
            break;
    }
    /* Free the memory allocated for the "lval" struct itself */
    free(v);
}

lval *lval_add(lval *v, lval *x) {
    v->count++;
    v->cell = realloc(v->cell, sizeof(lval*) * v->count);
    v->cell[v->count-1] = x;
    return v;
}

lval *lval_read_num(mpc_ast_t *t) {
    errno = 0;
    long x = strtol(t->contents, NULL, 10);
    return errno != ERANGE
        ? lval_num(x)
        : lval_err("invalid number");
}

lval *lval_read(mpc_ast_t *t) {
     /* If Symbol or Number return conversion to that type */
    if (strstr(t->tag, "number")) {
        return lval_read_num(t);
    }
    if (strstr(t->tag, "symbol")) {
        return lval_sym(t->contents);
    }

    /* If root (>) or sexpr then create empty list */
    lval *x = NULL;
    if (strcmp(t->tag, ">") == 0) {
        x = lval_sexpr();
    }
    if (strstr(t->tag, "sexpr"))  {
        x = lval_sexpr();
    }
    if (strstr(t->tag, "qexpr")) {
        x = lval_qexpr();
    }

    /* Fill this list with any valid expression contained within */
    for (int i = 0; i < t->children_num; i++) {
        if (strcmp(t->children[i]->contents, "(") == 0) { continue; }
        if (strcmp(t->children[i]->contents, ")") == 0) { continue; }
        if (strcmp(t->children[i]->contents, "}") == 0) { continue; }
        if (strcmp(t->children[i]->contents, "{") == 0) { continue; }
        if (strcmp(t->children[i]->tag,  "regex") == 0) { continue; }
        x = lval_add(x, lval_read(t->children[i]));
    }
    return x;
}

void lval_print(lval *v);

void lval_expr_print(lval *v, char open, char close) {
    putchar(open);
    for (int i = 0; i < v->count; i++) {

        /* Print Value contained within */
        lval_print(v->cell[i]);

        /* Don't print trailing space if last element */
        if (i != (v->count-1)) {
            putchar(' ');
        }
    }
    putchar(close);

}

/* Print an "lval*" */
void lval_print(lval *v) {
    switch (v->type) {
        case LVAL_NUM:   printf("%li", v->num); break;
        case LVAL_ERR:   printf("Error: %s", v->err); break;
        case LVAL_SYM:   printf("%s", v->sym); break;
        case LVAL_SEXPR: lval_expr_print(v, '(', ')'); break;
        case LVAL_QEXPR: lval_expr_print(v, '{', '}'); break;
    }
}

/* Print an "lval" followed by a newline */
void lval_println(lval *v) {
    lval_print(v);
    putchar('\n');
}

lval *lval_pop(lval *v, int i) {

    /* Find the item at "i" */
    lval *x = v->cell[i];

    /* Shift memory after the item at "i" over the top */
    memmove(&v->cell[i], &v->cell[i+1],
            sizeof(lval*) * (v->count-i-1));

    /* Decrease the count of items in the list */
    v->count--;

    /* Reallocate the memory used */
    v->cell = realloc(v->cell, sizeof(lval*) * v->count);
    return x;
}

lval *lval_take(lval *v, int i) {
    lval *x = lval_pop(v, i);
    lval_del(v);
    return x;
}

lval *builtin_op(lval *a, char *op) {

    /* Ensure all arguments are numbers */
    for (int i = 0; i < a->count; i++) {
        if (a->cell[i]->type != LVAL_NUM) {
            lval_del(a);
            return lval_err("Cannot operate on non-number!");
        }
    }

    /* Pop the first element */
    lval *x = lval_pop(a, 0);

    /* If no arguments and sub then perform unary negation */
    if ((strcmp(op, "-") == 0) && a->count == 0) {
        x->num = -x->num;
    }

    /* While there are still elements remaining */
    while (a->count > 0) {
        /* Pop the next element */
        lval *y = lval_pop(a, 0);

        if (strcmp(op, "+") == 0) { x->num += y->num; }
        if (strcmp(op, "-") == 0) { x->num -= y->num; }
        if (strcmp(op, "*") == 0) { x->num *= y->num; }
        if (strcmp(op, "/") == 0) {
            if (y->num == 0) {
                lval_del(x);
                lval_del(y);
                x = lval_err("Division By Zero!");
                break;
            }
            x->num /= y->num;
        }
        lval_del(y);
    }
    lval_del(a);
    return x;
}

lval *lval_eval(lval *v);
lval *builtin(lval* a, char* func);

lval *lval_eval_sexpr(lval *v) {
    /* Evaluate Children */
    for (int i = 0; i < v->count; i++) {
        v->cell[i] = lval_eval(v->cell[i]);
    }

    /* Error Checking */
    for (int i = 0; i < v->count; i++) {
        if (v->cell[i]->type == LVAL_ERR) {
            return lval_take(v, i);
        }
    }

    /* Empty Expression */
    if (v->count == 0) { return v; }

    /* Single Expression */
    if (v->count == 1) { return lval_take(v, 0); }

    /* Ensure First Element is Symbol */
    lval *f = lval_pop(v, 0);

    if (f->type != LVAL_SYM) {
        lval_del(f);
        lval_del(v);

        return lval_err("S-expression Does not start with symbol!");
    }

     /* Call builtin with operator */
    lval *result = builtin(v, f->sym);
    lval_del(f);
    return result;
}

lval *lval_eval(lval *v) {
    /* Evaluate Sexpressions */
    if (v->type == LVAL_SEXPR) {
        return lval_eval_sexpr(v);
    }

    /* All other lval types remain the same */
    return v;
}

lval *builtin_head(lval *a) {
    LASSERT(a, a->count == 1,
            "Function 'head' passed too many arguments!");
    LASSERT(a, a->cell[0]->type == LVAL_QEXPR,
            "Function 'head' passed incorrect type!");
    LASSERT(a, a->cell[0]->count != 0,
            "Function 'head' passed {}!");

    /* Otherwise take first argument */
    lval *v = lval_take(a, 0);

    /* Delete all elements that are not head and return */
    while (v->count > 1) {
        lval_del(lval_pop(v, 1));
    }

    return v;
}

lval *builtin_tail(lval *a) {
    LASSERT(a, a->count == 1,
            "Function 'tail' passed too many arguments!");
    LASSERT(a, a->cell[0]->type == LVAL_QEXPR,
            "Function 'tail' passed incorrect type!");
    LASSERT(a, a->cell[0]->count != 0,
            "Function 'tail' passed {}!");

    /* Take first argument */
    lval *v = lval_take(a, 0);

    /* Delete first element and return */
    lval_del(lval_pop(v, 0));

    return v;

}

lval *builtin_list(lval *a) {
    a->type = LVAL_QEXPR;
    return a;
}

lval *builtin_eval(lval *a) {
    LASSERT(a, a->count == 1,
            "Function 'eval' passed too many arguments!");
    LASSERT(a, a->cell[0]->type == LVAL_QEXPR,
            "Function 'eval' passed incorrect type!");

    lval *x = lval_take(a, 0);
    x->type = LVAL_SEXPR;
    return lval_eval(x);
}

lval *lval_join(lval *x, lval *y) {

    /* For each cell in 'y' add it to 'x' */
    while (y->count) {
         x = lval_add(x, lval_pop(y, 0));
    }

    /* Delete the empty 'y' and return 'x' */
    lval_del(y);
    return x;
}

lval *builtin_join(lval *a) {
    for (int i = 0; i < a->count; i++) {
        LASSERT(a, a->cell[i]->type == LVAL_QEXPR,
                "Function 'join' passed incorrect type.");
    }

    lval *x = lval_pop(a, 0);

    while (a->count) {
        x = lval_join(x, lval_pop(a, 0));
    }

    lval_del(a);
    return x;
}

lval *builtin(lval* a, char* func) {
    if (strcmp("list", func) == 0) { return builtin_list(a); }
    if (strcmp("head", func) == 0) { return builtin_head(a); }
    if (strcmp("tail", func) == 0) { return builtin_tail(a); }
    if (strcmp("join", func) == 0) { return builtin_join(a); }
    if (strcmp("eval", func) == 0) { return builtin_eval(a); }
    if (strstr("+-/*", func)) { return builtin_op(a, func); }
    lval_del(a);
    return lval_err("Unknown Function!");

}

int main(int argc, char *argv[]) {

    /* Create Some Parsers */
    mpc_parser_t *Number   = mpc_new("number");
    mpc_parser_t* Symbol   = mpc_new("symbol");
    mpc_parser_t* Sexpr    = mpc_new("sexpr");
    mpc_parser_t *Qexpr    = mpc_new("qexpr");
    mpc_parser_t *Expr     = mpc_new("expr");
    mpc_parser_t *Lispy    = mpc_new("lispy");

    /* Define them with the following Language */
    mpca_lang(MPCA_LANG_DEFAULT,
            "                                                       \
            number   : /-?[0-9]+/ ;                                 \
            symbol   : \"list\" | \"head\" | \"tail\"               \
                     | \"join\" | \"eval\"                          \
                     | '+' | '-' | '*' | '/' ;                      \
            sexpr    : '(' <expr>* ')' ;                            \
            qexpr    : '{' <expr>* '}' ;                            \
            expr     : <number> | <symbol> | <sexpr> | <qexpr> ;    \
            lispy    : /^/ <expr>* /$/ ;                            \
            ",
            Number, Symbol, Sexpr, Qexpr, Expr, Lispy);

    puts("Lispy Version 0.1");
    puts("Press Ctrl+c to Exit\n");

    while(1) {
        char *input = NULL;

        input = readline("lispy> ");
        add_history(input);

        /* Attempt to parse the user input */
        mpc_result_t r;

        if (mpc_parse("<stdin>", input, Lispy, &r)) {
            /* On success print and delete the AST */
            lval *x = lval_eval(lval_read(r.output));
            lval_println(x);
            lval_del(x);
            mpc_ast_delete(r.output);
        } else {
            /* Otherwise print and delete the Error */
            mpc_err_print(r.error);
            mpc_err_delete(r.error);
        }

        free(input);

    }

    /* Undefine and delete our parsers */
    mpc_cleanup(6, Number, Symbol, Sexpr, Qexpr, Expr, Lispy);

    return 0;
}

编译

gcc -g -std=c99 -Wall parsing.c mpc.c -lreadline -lm -o parsing

运行:

$ ./parsing
Lispy Version 0.1
Press Ctrl+c to Exit

lispy> list 1 2 3 4
{1 2 3 4}
lispy> {head (list 1 2 3 4)}
{head (list 1 2 3 4)}
lispy> eval {head (list 1 2 3 4)}
{1}
lispy> tail {tail tail tail}
{tail tail}
lispy> eval (tail {tail tail {5 6 7}})
{6 7}
lispy> eval (head {(+ 1 2) (+ 10 20)})
3
lispy> ^C
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