用 C 语言开发一门编程语言 — 变量元素设计

目录

前文列表

用 C 语言开发一门编程语言 — 交互式解析器
用 C 语言开发一门编程语言 — 跨平台的可移植性
用 C 语言开发一门编程语言 — 语法解析器
用 C 语言开发一门编程语言 — 抽象语法树
用 C 语言开发一门编程语言 — 异常处理
用 C 语言开发一门编程语言 — S-表达式
用 C 语言开发一门编程语言 — Q-表达式

变量

我们先前实现的 S-Expression 和 Q-Expression 都是直接为了运算求值,但并没有考虑到变量是什么类型。显然的,一门好的编程语言,需要支持多种类型的变量,让程序员可以灵活的命名变量、声明变量类型。

从代码实现的角度来看,我们需要一个新的数据结构来支撑对变量元素进行设计,这个结构将存储所有的变量名和值,我们将这个数据结构称为 Environment(环境)。每次打开一个新的交互式解析器,就会创建一个新的 Environment,让程序员可以存储和再次调用已经定义好的变量。

变量语法规则

首先,我们需要设计好针对变量的语法规则,使得编程语言可以拥有更多的合法符号(关键字)。区别于 C 语言在变量定义上设计了限制性的语法,我们将编程语言的变量语法设计得更加开放一些,支持多样化的操作,为此而使用了正则表达式:

/[a-zA-Z0-9_+\\-*\\/\\\\=<>!]+/

使得变量名称将可以由数字,字母,加减乘除等符合组成:

mpca_lang(MPCA_LANG_DEFAULT,
  "                                                     \
    number : /-?[0-9]+/ ;                               \
    symbol : /[a-zA-Z0-9_+\\-*\\/\\\\=<>!&]+/ ;         \
    sexpr  : '(' <expr>* ')' ;                          \
    qexpr  : '{' <expr>* '}' ;                          \
    expr   : <number> | <symbol> | <sexpr> | <qexpr> ;  \
    lispy  : /^/ <expr>* /$/ ;                          \
  ",
  Number, Symbol, Sexpr, Qexpr, Expr, Lispy);

变量的读取和存储

如此定义了语法规则之后,在我们的编程语言中,符号(Symbol)就不再仅仅代表操作符了,它们现在只是一个名字而已。因此我们还需要一些新标识来区分具有特殊含义的 操作符(lval) 以及 环境(lenv)

首先添加 lenv 结构体类型,我们将 lenv 结构体类型定义为由一系列的变量名和值组成的。所以使用两个二重指针变量来处理:

struct lenv {
  int count;
  char** syms;
  lval** vals;
};

在定义 lenv 结构体的构造函数和析构函数,用于存储变量:

lenv* lenv_new(void) {
  lenv* e = malloc(sizeof(lenv));
  e->count = 0;
  e->syms = NULL;
  e->vals = NULL;
  return e;
}

void lenv_del(lenv* e) {
  for (int i = 0; i < e->count; i++) {
    free(e->syms[i]);
    lval_del(e->vals[i]);
  }
  free(e->syms);
  free(e->vals);
  free(e);
}

接下来将创建两个函数在环境中获取和赋予值:

  • 在获取值的函数 lenv_get 中:我们需要检索数据是不是我们需要的值,如果符合我们的标准就返回值的拷贝,如果不符合就返回一个错误信息。
  • 在赋予值的函数 lenv_put 中:代码相对要复杂一些。我们首先要检查变量名之前是否存在,如果存在就会替换掉原先的内容。如果不存在,我们需要申请一些新的内存资源来存储数据,使用 realloc 并存储 lval 的拷贝。
lval* lenv_get(lenv* e, lval* k) {

  /* Iterate over all items in environment */
  for (int i = 0; i < e->count; i++) {
    /* Check if the stored string matches the symbol string */
    /* If it does, return a copy of the value */
    if (strcmp(e->syms[i], k->sym) == 0) {
      return lval_copy(e->vals[i]);
    }
  }
  /* If no symbol found return error */
  return lval_err("unbound symbol!");
}

void lenv_put(lenv* e, lval* k, lval* v) {

  /* Iterate over all items in environment */
  /* This is to see if variable already exists */
  for (int i = 0; i < e->count; i++) {

    /* If variable is found delete item at that position */
    /* And replace with variable supplied by user */
    if (strcmp(e->syms[i], k->sym) == 0) {
      lval_del(e->vals[i]);
      e->vals[i] = lval_copy(v);
      return;
    }
  }

  /* If no existing entry found allocate space for new entry */
  e->count++;
  e->vals = realloc(e->vals, sizeof(lval*) * e->count);
  e->syms = realloc(e->syms, sizeof(char*) * e->count);

  /* Copy contents of lval and symbol string into new location */
  e->vals[e->count-1] = lval_copy(v);
  e->syms[e->count-1] = malloc(strlen(k->sym)+1);
  strcpy(e->syms[e->count-1], k->sym);
}

将变量加入 Lisp Value 体系

在先前的章节中,我们实现了很多接受 lval* 类型实参并返回 lval* 类型结果的函数,现在对其进行改造,添加一个形参指向我们的 “环境”,我们将这个新的函数称为 lbuildin,并且为了提高代码效率,我们还将这个函数定义为一个函数指针,并作为 Lisp Value 的类型之一,用于处理变量、操作符、数字、符合的分发。

typedef lval* (*lbuiltin)(lenv*, lval*);
  • typedef 关键字:为变量取一个别名。
  • lbuiltin:函数指针名

这行代码的含义是:为了获取 lval* 类型结果,我们创建了 lbuiltin 函数指针变量,并带有 lenv* 和 lval* 两个形参。如此的,我们就可以在继续沿用 Lisp Value 体系的情况下,区分完成针对 环境(lenv) 的操作了。

/* Forward Declarations */

struct lval;
struct lenv;
typedef struct lval lval;
typedef struct lenv lenv;

/* Lisp Value */

enum { LVAL_ERR, LVAL_NUM,   LVAL_SYM,
       LVAL_FUN, LVAL_SEXPR, LVAL_QEXPR };

typedef lval*(*lbuiltin)(lenv*, lval*);

struct lval {
  int type;

  long num;
  char* err;
  char* sym;
  lbuiltin fun;

  int count;
  lval** cell;
};

LVAL_FUN 类型的构造函数:

lval* lval_fun(lbuiltin func) {
  lval* v = malloc(sizeof(lval));
  v->type = LVAL_FUN;
  v->fun = func;
  return v;
}

在析构函数中,不需要对 LVAL_FUN 做特殊处理:

case LVAL_FUN: break;

打印函数也要做相应的修改:

case LVAL_FUN:   printf("<function>"); break;

实现一个新的函数用于拷贝 lval,完成从环境中读取并存储数据。对于数字和字符串,我们只需要拷贝值就好了,但是对于字符串,我们还需要考虑分配内存资源,需要使用到 malloc 和 strcpy。对于数组的拷贝,首先需要分配好资源,然后将数组元素一个一个进行拷贝。

lval* lval_copy(lval* v) {

  lval* x = malloc(sizeof(lval));
  x->type = v->type;

  switch (v->type) {

    /* Copy Functions and Numbers Directly */
    case LVAL_FUN: x->fun = v->fun; break;
    case LVAL_NUM: x->num = v->num; break;

    /* Copy Strings using malloc and strcpy */
    case LVAL_ERR:
      x->err = malloc(strlen(v->err) + 1);
      strcpy(x->err, v->err); break;

    case LVAL_SYM:
      x->sym = malloc(strlen(v->sym) + 1);
      strcpy(x->sym, v->sym); break;

    /* Copy Lists by copying each sub-expression */
    case LVAL_SEXPR:
    case LVAL_QEXPR:
      x->count = v->count;
      x->cell = malloc(sizeof(lval*) * x->count);
      for (int i = 0; i < x->count; i++) {
        x->cell[i] = lval_copy(v->cell[i]);
      }
    break;
  }

  return x;
}

变量的计算

因为 Lisp Value 引入了 lenv “变量” 结构体,所以整个运算的逻辑都要进行相应的修改,好在整体的框架不需要变化。

lval* lval_eval(lenv* e, lval* v) {
  if (v->type == LVAL_SYM) {
    lval* x = lenv_get(e, v);
    lval_del(v);
    return x;
  }
  if (v->type == LVAL_SEXPR) { return lval_eval_sexpr(e, v); }
  return v;
}

lval* lval_eval_sexpr(lenv* e, lval* v) {

  for (int i = 0; i < v->count; i++) {
    v->cell[i] = lval_eval(e, v->cell[i]);
  }

  for (int i = 0; i < v->count; i++) {
    if (v->cell[i]->type == LVAL_ERR) { return lval_take(v, i); }
  }

  if (v->count == 0) { return v; }
  if (v->count == 1) { return lval_take(v, 0); }

  /* Ensure first element is a function after evaluation */
  lval* f = lval_pop(v, 0);
  if (f->type != LVAL_FUN) {
    lval_del(v); lval_del(f);
    return lval_err("first element is not a function");
  }

  /* If so call function to get result */
  lval* result = f->fun(e, v);
  lval_del(f);
  return result;
}

因为引入 lenv 结构的同事也重新定义了符号的语法规则,所以还需要重新定义 builtin 函数:

lval* builtin_add(lenv* e, lval* a) {
  return builtin_op(e, a, "+");
}

lval* builtin_sub(lenv* e, lval* a) {
  return builtin_op(e, a, "-");
}

lval* builtin_mul(lenv* e, lval* a) {
  return builtin_op(e, a, "*");
}

lval* builtin_div(lenv* e, lval* a) {
  return builtin_op(e, a, "/");
}

完成了上面的部分后,就可以编写函数进行注册,将上面的函数作为函数指针在内建函数的关键部分进行调用:

void lenv_add_builtin(lenv* e, char* name, lbuiltin func) {
  lval* k = lval_sym(name);
  lval* v = lval_fun(func);
  lenv_put(e, k, v);
  lval_del(k); lval_del(v);
}

void lenv_add_builtins(lenv* e) {
  /* List Functions */
  lenv_add_builtin(e, "list", builtin_list);
  lenv_add_builtin(e, "head", builtin_head);
  lenv_add_builtin(e, "tail", builtin_tail);
  lenv_add_builtin(e, "eval", builtin_eval);
  lenv_add_builtin(e, "join", builtin_join);

  /* Mathematical Functions */
  lenv_add_builtin(e, "+", builtin_add);
  lenv_add_builtin(e, "-", builtin_sub);
  lenv_add_builtin(e, "*", builtin_mul);
  lenv_add_builtin(e, "/", builtin_div);
}

最后我们需要在交互环境启动之前调用这些函数,当然在用完了之后还需要删除这些函数:

lenv* e = lenv_new();
lenv_add_builtins(e);

while (1) {

  char* input = readline("lispy> ");
  add_history(input);

  mpc_result_t r;
  if (mpc_parse("<stdin>", input, Lispy, &r)) {

    lval* x = lval_eval(e, lval_read(r.output));
    lval_println(x);
    lval_del(x);

    mpc_ast_delete(r.output);
  } else {
    mpc_err_print(r.error);
    mpc_err_delete(r.error);
  }

  free(input);

}

lenv_del(e);

变量的定义与赋值

现在,我们的编程语言就可以计算变量了,但是用户依旧无法定义自己的变量,无法给变量赋值,所以我们需要继续实现这部分逻辑。让程序员可以使用 {} 来定义自己的变量,如果用户的定义有问题,将返回一个错误,如果定义是对的,将打印一个 ()

lval* builtin_def(lenv* e, lval* a) {
  LASSERT(a, a->cell[0]->type == LVAL_QEXPR,
    "Function 'def' passed incorrect type!");

  /* First argument is symbol list */
  lval* syms = a->cell[0];

  /* Ensure all elements of first list are symbols */
  for (int i = 0; i < syms->count; i++) {
    LASSERT(a, syms->cell[i]->type == LVAL_SYM,
      "Function 'def' cannot define non-symbol");
  }

  /* Check correct number of symbols and values */
  LASSERT(a, syms->count == a->count-1,
    "Function 'def' cannot define incorrect "
    "number of values to symbols");

  /* Assign copies of values to symbols */
  for (int i = 0; i < syms->count; i++) {
    lenv_put(e, syms->cell[i], a->cell[i+1]);
  }

  lval_del(a);
  return lval_sexpr();
}

异常处理优化

此外,现在我们的异常处理还不完善,所以我们需要添加新的错误处理的代码,把 lval_err 修改得像 printf 一样,具有输出功能。为了灵活的实现,我们采用了 C 语言中的 可变长形参列表 的特性,C 语言提供了 stdarg.h 头文件,该文件提供了实现可变参数功能的函数和宏。

lval* lval_err(char* fmt, ...);
  • 第一步是创建 va_list 类型变量
  • 然后使用 va_start 宏来初始化 va_list 变量为一个参数列表
  • 使用 va_arg 宏和 va_list 变量来访问参数列表中的每个项
  • 使用宏 va_end 来清理赋予 va_list 变量的内存。

此外,还使用了 vsnprintf 内建函数,vsnprintf 类似于 printf,默认输出字符串,因为我们不知道字符串的大小,默认分配了 512 个字节,当输出的字符串小于这个值,就会重新分配资源,如果大于这个值,就会报错,希望不会出现这个问题:

lval* lval_err(char* fmt, ...) {
  lval* v = malloc(sizeof(lval));
  v->type = LVAL_ERR;

  /* Create a va list and initialize it */
  va_list va;
  va_start(va, fmt);

  /* Allocate 512 bytes of space */
  v->err = malloc(512);

  /* printf the error string with a maximum of 511 characters */
  vsnprintf(v->err, 511, fmt, va);

  /* Reallocate to number of bytes actually used */
  v->err = realloc(v->err, strlen(v->err)+1);

  /* Cleanup our va list */
  va_end(va);

  return v;
}

现在我们可以更新错误信息的提示,让它更加的完整:

LASSERT(a, a->count == 1,
  "Function 'head' passed too many arguments. "
  "Got %i, Expected %i.",
  a->count, 1);

现在我们提高错误信息的内容:

char* ltype_name(int t) {
  switch(t) {
    case LVAL_FUN: return "Function";
    case LVAL_NUM: return "Number";
    case LVAL_ERR: return "Error";
    case LVAL_SYM: return "Symbol";
    case LVAL_SEXPR: return "S-Expression";
    case LVAL_QEXPR: return "Q-Expression";
    default: return "Unknown";
  }
}

LASSERT(a, a->cell[0]->type == LVAL_QEXPR,
  "Function 'head' passed incorrect type for argument 0. "
  "Got %s, Expected %s.",
  ltype_name(a->cell[0]->type), ltype_name(LVAL_QEXPR));

我们把错误审查做的很详细是为了后面的编写,一旦出错,有 log 可以查看,这是良好的编程风格。并且使用宏可以减少很多代码的编写。

源代码

#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include "mpc.h"

#define LASSERT(args, cond, fmt, ...) \
    if (!(cond)) { lval* err = lval_err(fmt, ##__VA_ARGS__); lval_del(args); return err; }

#define LASSERT_TYPE(func, args, index, expect) \
    LASSERT(args, args->cell[index]->type == expect, \
            "Function '%s' passed incorrect type for argument %i. Got %s, Expected %s.", \
            func, index, ltype_name(args->cell[index]->type), ltype_name(expect))

#define LASSERT_NUM(func, args, num) \
    LASSERT(args, args->count == num, \
            "Function '%s' passed incorrect number of arguments. Got %i, Expected %i.", \
            func, args->count, num)

#define LASSERT_NOT_EMPTY(func, args, index) \
    LASSERT(args, args->cell[index]->count != 0, \
            "Function '%s' passed {} for argument %i.", func, index);

#ifdef _WIN32
#include <string.h>

static char buffer[2048];

char *readline(char *prompt) {
    fputs(prompt, stdout);
    fgets(buffer, 2048, stdin);

    char *cpy = malloc(strlen(buffer) + 1);

    strcpy(cpy, buffer);
    cpy[strlen(cpy) - 1] = '\0';

    return cpy;
}

void add_history(char *unused) {}

#else

#ifdef __linux__
#include <readline/readline.h>
#include <readline/history.h>
#endif

#ifdef __MACH__
#include <readline/readline.h>
#endif

#endif

/* Forward Declarations */
struct lval;
struct lenv;
typedef struct lval lval;
typedef struct lenv lenv;

/* Lisp Value Type Enumeration */
enum {
    LVAL_NUM,
    LVAL_ERR,
    LVAL_SYM,
    LVAL_FUN,
    LVAL_SEXPR,
    LVAL_QEXPR
};

typedef lval *(*lbuiltin)(lenv*, lval*);

/* Declare lisp lval Struct */
struct lval {
    int type;
    long num;

    /* Count and Pointer to a list of "lval*" */
    struct lval **cell;
    int count;

    /* Error and Symbol types have some string data */
    char *err;
    char *sym;

    lbuiltin fun;
};


/* Construct a pointer to a new Number lval */
lval *lval_num(long x) {
    lval *v = malloc(sizeof(lval));
    v->type = LVAL_NUM;
    v->num = x;
    return v;
}

char *ltype_name(int t) {
    switch(t) {
        case LVAL_FUN: return "Function";
        case LVAL_NUM: return "Number";
        case LVAL_ERR: return "Error";
        case LVAL_SYM: return "Symbol";
        case LVAL_SEXPR: return "S-Expression";
        case LVAL_QEXPR: return "Q-Expression";
        default: return "Unknown";
    }
}

/* Construct a pointer to a new Error lval */
lval *lval_err(char *fmt, ...) {
    lval *v = malloc(sizeof(lval));
    v->type = LVAL_ERR;
    /* Create a va list and initialize it */
    va_list va;
    va_start(va, fmt);

    /* Allocate 512 bytes of space */
    v->err = malloc(512);

    /* printf the error string with a maximum of 511 characters */
    vsnprintf(v->err, 511, fmt, va);

    /* Reallocate to number of bytes actually used */
    v->err = realloc(v->err, strlen(v->err)+1);

    /* Cleanup our va list */
    va_end(va);

    return v;
}

/* Construct a pointer to a new Symbol lval */
lval *lval_sym(char *sym) {
    lval *v = malloc(sizeof(lval));
    v->type = LVAL_SYM;
    v->sym = malloc(strlen(sym) + 1);
    strcpy(v->sym, sym);
    return v;
}

/* A pointer to a new empty Sexpr lval */
lval *lval_sexpr(void) {
    lval *v = malloc(sizeof(lval));
    v->type = LVAL_SEXPR;
    v->count = 0;
    v->cell = NULL;
    return v;
}

/* A pointer to a new empty Qexpr lval */
lval *lval_qexpr(void) {
    lval *v = malloc(sizeof(lval));
    v->type = LVAL_QEXPR;
    v->count = 0;
    v->cell = NULL;
    return v;
}

lval *lval_fun(lbuiltin func) {
    lval *v = malloc(sizeof(lval));
    v->type = LVAL_FUN;
    v->fun = func;
    return v;
}


void lval_del(lval *v) {
    switch (v->type) {
        /* Do nothing special for number type */
        case LVAL_NUM:
            break;

        /* For Err or Sym free the string data */
        case LVAL_ERR:
            free(v->err);
            break;
        case LVAL_SYM:
            free(v->sym);
            break;

        case LVAL_FUN:
            break;

        /* If Qexpr or Sexpr then delete all elements inside */
        case LVAL_QEXPR:
        case LVAL_SEXPR:
            for (int i = 0; i < v->count; i++) {
                lval_del(v->cell[i]);
            }
            /* Also free the memory allocated to contain the pointers */
            free(v->cell);
            break;
    }
    /* Free the memory allocated for the "lval" struct itself */
    free(v);
}


struct lenv {
    int count;
    char **syms;
    lval **vals;
};

lenv *lenv_new(void) {
    lenv *e = malloc(sizeof(lenv));
    e->count = 0;
    e->syms = NULL;
    e->vals = NULL;
    return e;
}

void lenv_del(lenv *e) {
    for (int i = 0; i < e->count; i++) {
        free(e->syms[i]);
        lval_del(e->vals[i]);
    }
    free(e->syms);
    free(e->vals);
    free(e);
}

lval *lval_copy(lval *v) {
    lval *x = malloc(sizeof(lval));
    x->type = v->type;

    switch (v->type) {
        /* Copy Functions and Numbers Directly */
        case LVAL_FUN: x->fun = v->fun; break;
        case LVAL_NUM: x->num = v->num; break;

        /* Copy Strings using malloc and strcpy */
        case LVAL_ERR:
            x->err = malloc(strlen(v->err) + 1);
            strcpy(x->err, v->err);
            break;

        case LVAL_SYM:
            x->sym = malloc(strlen(v->sym) + 1);
            strcpy(x->sym, v->sym);
            break;

         /* Copy Lists by copying each sub-expression */
        case LVAL_SEXPR:
        case LVAL_QEXPR:
            x->count = v->count;
            x->cell = malloc(sizeof(lval*) * x->count);
            for (int i = 0; i < x->count; i++) {
                x->cell[i] = lval_copy(v->cell[i]);
            }
            break;
    }
    return x;
}

lval *lenv_get(lenv *e, lval *k) {
    /* Iterate over all items in environment */
    for (int i = 0; i < e->count; i++) {
        /* Check if the stored string matches the symbol string */
        /* If it does, return a copy of the value */
        if (strcmp(e->syms[i], k->sym) == 0) {
            return lval_copy(e->vals[i]);
        }
    }

    /* If no symbol found return error */
    return lval_err("Unbound Symbol '%s'", k->sym);
}


void lenv_put(lenv *e, lval *k, lval *v) {
    /* Iterate over all items in environment */
    /* This is to see if variable already exists */
    for (int i = 0; i < e->count; i++) {
        /* If variable is found delete item at that position */
        /* And replace with variable supplied by user */
        if (strcmp(e->syms[i], k->sym) == 0) {
            lval_del(e->vals[i]);
            e->vals[i] = lval_copy(v);
            return;
        }
    }

    /* If no existing entry found allocate space for new entry */
    e->count++;
    e->vals = realloc(e->vals, sizeof(lval*) * e->count);
    e->syms = realloc(e->syms, sizeof(char*) * e->count);

    /* Copy contents of lval and symbol string into new location */
    e->vals[e->count-1] = lval_copy(v);
    e->syms[e->count-1] = malloc(strlen(k->sym)+1);
    strcpy(e->syms[e->count-1], k->sym);
}



lval *lval_add(lval *v, lval *x) {
    v->count++;
    v->cell = realloc(v->cell, sizeof(lval*) * v->count);
    v->cell[v->count-1] = x;
    return v;
}

lval *lval_read_num(mpc_ast_t *t) {
    errno = 0;
    long x = strtol(t->contents, NULL, 10);
    return errno != ERANGE
        ? lval_num(x)
        : lval_err("invalid number");
}

lval *lval_read(mpc_ast_t *t) {
     /* If Symbol or Number return conversion to that type */
    if (strstr(t->tag, "number")) {
        return lval_read_num(t);
    }
    if (strstr(t->tag, "symbol")) {
        return lval_sym(t->contents);
    }

    /* If root (>) or sexpr then create empty list */
    lval *x = NULL;
    if (strcmp(t->tag, ">") == 0) {
        x = lval_sexpr();
    }
    if (strstr(t->tag, "sexpr"))  {
        x = lval_sexpr();
    }
    if (strstr(t->tag, "qexpr")) {
        x = lval_qexpr();
    }

    /* Fill this list with any valid expression contained within */
    for (int i = 0; i < t->children_num; i++) {
        if (strcmp(t->children[i]->contents, "(") == 0) { continue; }
        if (strcmp(t->children[i]->contents, ")") == 0) { continue; }
        if (strcmp(t->children[i]->contents, "}") == 0) { continue; }
        if (strcmp(t->children[i]->contents, "{") == 0) { continue; }
        if (strcmp(t->children[i]->tag,  "regex") == 0) { continue; }
        x = lval_add(x, lval_read(t->children[i]));
    }
    return x;
}


void lval_print(lval *v);

void lval_expr_print(lval *v, char open, char close) {
    putchar(open);
    for (int i = 0; i < v->count; i++) {

        /* Print Value contained within */
        lval_print(v->cell[i]);

        /* Don't print trailing space if last element */
        if (i != (v->count-1)) {
            putchar(' ');
        }
    }
    putchar(close);

}

/* Print an "lval*" */
void lval_print(lval *v) {
    switch (v->type) {
        case LVAL_NUM:   printf("%li", v->num); break;
        case LVAL_ERR:   printf("Error: %s", v->err); break;
        case LVAL_SYM:   printf("%s", v->sym); break;
        case LVAL_FUN:   printf("<function>"); break;
        case LVAL_SEXPR: lval_expr_print(v, '(', ')'); break;
        case LVAL_QEXPR: lval_expr_print(v, '{', '}'); break;
    }
}

/* Print an "lval" followed by a newline */
void lval_println(lval *v) {
    lval_print(v);
    putchar('\n');
}


lval *lval_pop(lval *v, int i) {

    /* Find the item at "i" */
    lval *x = v->cell[i];

    /* Shift memory after the item at "i" over the top */
    memmove(&v->cell[i], &v->cell[i+1],
            sizeof(lval*) * (v->count-i-1));

    /* Decrease the count of items in the list */
    v->count--;

    /* Reallocate the memory used */
    v->cell = realloc(v->cell, sizeof(lval*) * v->count);
    return x;
}

lval *lval_take(lval *v, int i) {
    lval *x = lval_pop(v, i);
    lval_del(v);
    return x;
}

lval *lval_eval(lenv *e, lval *v);
lval *builtin(lval* a, char* func);

lval *lval_eval_sexpr(lenv *e, lval *v) {
    /* Evaluate Children */
    for (int i = 0; i < v->count; i++) {
        v->cell[i] = lval_eval(e, v->cell[i]);
    }

    /* Error Checking */
    for (int i = 0; i < v->count; i++) {
        if (v->cell[i]->type == LVAL_ERR) {
            return lval_take(v, i);
        }
    }

    /* Empty Expression */
    if (v->count == 0) { return v; }

    /* Single Expression */
    if (v->count == 1) { return lval_take(v, 0); }

    /* Ensure first element is a function after evaluation */
    lval *f = lval_pop(v, 0);
    if (f->type != LVAL_FUN) {
        lval_del(f);
        lval_del(v);

        return lval_err("first element is not a function");
    }

    /* If so call function to get result */
    lval *result = f->fun(e, v);
    lval_del(f);
    return result;
}

lval *lval_eval(lenv *e, lval *v) {
    if (v->type == LVAL_SYM) {
        lval *x = lenv_get(e, v);
        lval_del(v);
        return x;
    }

    /* Evaluate Sexpressions */
    if (v->type == LVAL_SEXPR) {
        return lval_eval_sexpr(e, v);
    }

    /* All other lval types remain the same */
    return v;
}

lval *builtin_op(lenv* e, lval *a, char *op) {

    /* Ensure all arguments are numbers */
    for (int i = 0; i < a->count; i++) {
        LASSERT_TYPE(op, a, i, LVAL_NUM);
    }

    /* Pop the first element */
    lval *x = lval_pop(a, 0);

    /* If no arguments and sub then perform unary negation */
    if ((strcmp(op, "-") == 0) && a->count == 0) {
        x->num = -x->num;
    }

    /* While there are still elements remaining */
    while (a->count > 0) {
        /* Pop the next element */
        lval *y = lval_pop(a, 0);

        if (strcmp(op, "+") == 0) { x->num += y->num; }
        if (strcmp(op, "-") == 0) { x->num -= y->num; }
        if (strcmp(op, "*") == 0) { x->num *= y->num; }
        if (strcmp(op, "/") == 0) {
            if (y->num == 0) {
                lval_del(x);
                lval_del(y);
                x = lval_err("Division By Zero!");
                break;
            }
            x->num /= y->num;
        }
        lval_del(y);
    }
    lval_del(a);
    return x;
}


lval *builtin_head(lenv* e, lval *a) {
    LASSERT_NUM("head", a, 1);
    LASSERT_TYPE("head", a, 0, LVAL_QEXPR);
    LASSERT_NOT_EMPTY("head", a, 0);

    /* Otherwise take first argument */
    lval *v = lval_take(a, 0);

    /* Delete all elements that are not head and return */
    while (v->count > 1) {
        lval_del(lval_pop(v, 1));
    }

    return v;
}

lval *builtin_tail(lenv *e, lval *a) {
    LASSERT_NUM("tail", a, 1);
    LASSERT_TYPE("tail", a, 0, LVAL_QEXPR);
    LASSERT_NOT_EMPTY("tail", a, 0);

    /* Take first argument */
    lval *v = lval_take(a, 0);

    /* Delete first element and return */
    lval_del(lval_pop(v, 0));

    return v;

}

lval *builtin_list(lenv* e, lval *a) {
    a->type = LVAL_QEXPR;
    return a;
}

lval *builtin_eval(lenv* e, lval *a) {
    LASSERT_NUM("eval", a, 1);
    LASSERT_TYPE("eval", a, 0, LVAL_QEXPR);

    lval *x = lval_take(a, 0);
    x->type = LVAL_SEXPR;
    return lval_eval(e, x);
}

lval *lval_join(lval *x, lval *y) {

    /* For each cell in 'y' add it to 'x' */
    while (y->count) {
         x = lval_add(x, lval_pop(y, 0));
    }

    /* Delete the empty 'y' and return 'x' */
    lval_del(y);
    return x;
}

lval *builtin_join(lenv *e, lval *a) {
    for (int i = 0; i < a->count; i++) {
        LASSERT_TYPE("join", a, i, LVAL_QEXPR);
    }

    lval *x = lval_pop(a, 0);

    while (a->count) {
        x = lval_join(x, lval_pop(a, 0));
    }

    lval_del(a);
    return x;
}

lval *builtin_add(lenv *e, lval *a) {
    return builtin_op(e, a, "+");
}

lval *builtin_sub(lenv *e, lval *a) {
    return builtin_op(e, a, "-");
}

lval *builtin_mul(lenv *e, lval *a) {
    return builtin_op(e, a, "*");
}

lval *builtin_div(lenv *e, lval *a) {
    return builtin_op(e, a, "/");
}

void lenv_add_builtin(lenv *e, char *name, lbuiltin func) {
  lval *k = lval_sym(name);
  lval *v = lval_fun(func);
  lenv_put(e, k, v);
  lval_del(k); lval_del(v);
}

lval *builtin_def(lenv *e, lval *a) {
    LASSERT_TYPE("def", a, 0, LVAL_QEXPR);

     /* First argument is symbol list */
    lval *syms = a->cell[0];

    /* Ensure all elements of first list are symbols */
    for (int i = 0; i < syms->count; i++) {
        LASSERT(a, syms->cell[i]->type == LVAL_SYM,
                "Function 'def' cannot define non-symbol");
    }

    /* Check correct number of symbols and values */
    LASSERT(a, syms->count == a->count-1,
            "Function 'def' cannot define incorrect "
            "number of values to symbols");

    /* Assign copies of values to symbols */
    for (int i = 0; i < syms->count; i++) {
        lenv_put(e, syms->cell[i], a->cell[i+1]);
    }

    lval_del(a);
    return lval_sexpr();
}


void lenv_add_builtins(lenv *e) {
  /* Variable Functions */
  lenv_add_builtin(e, "def", builtin_def);

  /* List Functions */
  lenv_add_builtin(e, "list", builtin_list);
  lenv_add_builtin(e, "head", builtin_head);
  lenv_add_builtin(e, "tail", builtin_tail);
  lenv_add_builtin(e, "eval", builtin_eval);
  lenv_add_builtin(e, "join", builtin_join);

  /* Mathematical Functions */
  lenv_add_builtin(e, "+", builtin_add);
  lenv_add_builtin(e, "-", builtin_sub);
  lenv_add_builtin(e, "*", builtin_mul);
  lenv_add_builtin(e, "/", builtin_div);
}


int main(int argc, char *argv[]) {

    /* Create Some Parsers */
    mpc_parser_t *Number   = mpc_new("number");
    mpc_parser_t* Symbol   = mpc_new("symbol");
    mpc_parser_t* Sexpr    = mpc_new("sexpr");
    mpc_parser_t *Qexpr    = mpc_new("qexpr");
    mpc_parser_t *Expr     = mpc_new("expr");
    mpc_parser_t *Lispy    = mpc_new("lispy");

    /* Define them with the following Language */
    mpca_lang(MPCA_LANG_DEFAULT,
            "                                                       \
            number   : /-?[0-9]+/ ;                                 \
            symbol   : /[a-zA-Z0-9_+\\-*\\/\\\\=<>!&]+/ ;           \
            sexpr    : '(' <expr>* ')' ;                            \
            qexpr    : '{' <expr>* '}' ;                            \
            expr     : <number> | <symbol> | <sexpr> | <qexpr> ;    \
            lispy    : /^/ <expr>* /$/ ;                            \
            ",
            Number, Symbol, Sexpr, Qexpr, Expr, Lispy);

    puts("Lispy Version 0.1");
    puts("Press Ctrl+c to Exit\n");

    lenv *e = lenv_new();
    lenv_add_builtins(e);

    while(1) {

        char *input = readline("lispy> ");
        add_history(input);

        /* Attempt to parse the user input */
        mpc_result_t r;

        if (mpc_parse("<stdin>", input, Lispy, &r)) {
            /* On success print and delete the AST */
            lval *x = lval_eval(e, lval_read(r.output));
            lval_println(x);
            lval_del(x);
            mpc_ast_delete(r.output);
        } else {
            /* Otherwise print and delete the Error */
            mpc_err_print(r.error);
            mpc_err_delete(r.error);
        }

        free(input);

    }

    lenv_del(e);

    /* Undefine and delete our parsers */
    mpc_cleanup(6, Number, Symbol, Sexpr, Qexpr, Expr, Lispy);

    return 0;
}

编译:

gcc -g -std=c99 -Wall parsing.c mpc.c -lreadline -lm -o parsing

运行:

$ ./parsing
Lispy Version 0.1
Press Ctrl+c to Exit

lispy> +
<function>
lispy> eval (head {5 10 11 15})
5
lispy> (head {5 10 11 15})
{5}
lispy> eval (head {+ - + - * / }) 10 20
Error: Function 'eval' passed too many arguments!Got 3, Expected 1.
lispy> (eval (head {+ - + - * /})) 10 20
30
lispy> hello
Error: Unbound Symbol 'hello'
lispy> def {x} 100
()
lispy> def {y} 200
()
lispy> x
100
lispy> y
200
lispy> + x y
300
lispy> def {a b} 5 6
()
lispy> + a b
11
lispy> def {arglist} {a b c d}
()
lispy> arglist
{a b c d}
lispy> def arglist 1 2 3 4
()
lispy> arglist
{a b c d}
lispy> list a b c d
{1 2 3 4}
lispy> + 1 {5 6 7}
Error: Cannot operate on non-number!
lispy> head {1 2 3} {4 5 6}
Error: Function 'head' passed too many arguments. Got 2, Expected 1.
lispy> + 1 1
2
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