HiveSQL——统计当前时间段的有客人在住的房间数量

注:参考文章:

HiveSQL一天一个小技巧:如何统计当前时间点状态情况【辅助变量+累计变换思路】_sql查询统计某状态出现的次数及累计时间-CSDN博客文章浏览阅读2k次,点赞6次,收藏8次。本文总结了一种当前时间点状态统计的思路和方法,对于此类问题主要采用构造辅助计数变量及累加变换思路进行求解。常见的场景有:直播同时在线人数、服务器实时并发数、公家车当前时间段人数、某个仓库的货物积压数量,某一段时间内的同时处于服务过程中的最大订单量等_sql查询统计某状态出现的次数及累计时间https://blog.csdn.net/godlovedaniel/article/details/129881211

0 需求描述

 

 1 数据准备

create table if not exists table23
(
    user_id     int comment '用户id',
    room_num    string comment '房间号',
    in_time     string comment '入住时间',
    out_time    string comment '离店时间'
)
    comment '旅客入住离店表';

insert overwrite table table23
values (7, '2004', '2021-03-05','2021-03-07'),
       (23,'2010', '2021-03-05','2021-03-06'),
       (7, '1003', '2021-03-07','2021-03-08'),
       (8, '2014', '2021-03-07','2021-03-08'),
       (14, '3001','2021-03-07','2021-03-10'),
       (18, '3002','2021-03-08','2021-03-10'),
       (23, '3020','2021-03-08','2021-03-09'),
       (25, '2006','2021-03-09','2021-03-12');

2 数据分析

   需求:求出每个时间段,有客人在住的房间数量。

   如果只考虑一人一房,可以借助于【直播间同时在线人数】统计的思路,相关sql逻辑指路:

HiveSQL题——聚合函数(sum/count/max/min/avg)-CSDN博客文章浏览阅读1.1k次,点赞19次,收藏19次。HiveSQL题——聚合函数(sum/count/max/min/avg)https://blog.csdn.net/SHWAITME/article/details/135918264?ops_request_misc=%257B%2522request%255Fid%2522%253A%2522170804307516800211583058%2522%252C%2522scm%2522%253A%252220140713.130102334.pc%255Fblog.%2522%257D&request_id=170804307516800211583058&biz_id=0&utm_medium=distribute.pc_search_result.none-task-blog-2~blog~first_rank_ecpm_v1~rank_v31_ecpm-1-135918264-null-null.nonecase&utm_term=%E7%9B%B4%E6%92%AD%E9%97%B4&spm=1018.2226.3001.4450  入住时间加辅助标记记为1,离店时间加辅助标记记为-1,并按照时间进行顺序排序,求当前累计值,具体SQL如下

select
    start_time,
    end_time,
    acc_cnt
from (select
          `time`                               as start_time,
          lead(`time`) over ( order by `time`) as end_time,
          acc_cnt
      from (select
                `time`,
                sum(flag) over (order by `time`) as acc_cnt
            from (
                     select
                         in_time as `time`,
                         1   as flag
                     from table23
                     union all
                     select
                         out_time as `time`,
                         -1   as flag
                     from table23
                 ) t1
           ) t2
      group by `time`, acc_cnt
     ) t
where end_time is not null;

   上述代码需要考虑一个问题:如果有多个人共住一房间,今天退了一个人,明天又退了一个人,后天的时候才退完,虽然这期间一直有人在退,但房间还是有人住的,这种情况是不是也算【有客人在住的房间】? 如果考虑上述情况,需要对累加的状态进行调整,此时需要考虑每个房间中截止当前时间的人数情况

第一步:先求出每个房间截至当前时间人数累计值,作为状态判断辅助条件

select
    `time`,
    room_num,
    sum( user_cnt) over (partition by room_num order by `time`) user_cnt
from (
         select
             in_time as  `time`,
             room_num,
             count(user_id) user_cnt
         from table23
         group by in_time, room_num
         union all
         select
             out_time as   `time`,
             room_num,
             -1 * count(user_id) user_cnt
         from table23
         group by out_time, room_num
     ) t1

第二步:基于累计的每个房间人数进行判断:如果房间有人就标记1,没有人时候就标记为-1。代码为:case when user_cnt > 0 时标记1,否则标记-1

select
    `time`,
     room_num,
     user_cnt,
    case when user_cnt > 0 then 1 else -1 end flag
from (select
         `time`,
          room_num,
          sum(user_cnt) over (partition by room_num order by `time`) user_cnt
      from (
               select
                   in_time as `time`,
                   room_num,
                   count(user_id) user_cnt
               from table23
               group by in_time, room_num
               union all
               select
                   out_time as `time`,
                   room_num,
                   -1 * count(user_id) user_cnt
               from table23
               group by out_time, room_num
           ) t1
     ) t2;

第三步:基于第二步的结果,计算截止当前时间点的有人入住的房间数量 acc_cnt,SQL如下:

select
    `time`,
    room_num,
    user_cnt,
    case when user_cnt > 0 then 1 else -1 end flag,
    sum(case when user_cnt > 0 then 1 else -1 end) over (order by `time`) acc_cnt
from (select
          `time`,
          room_num,
          sum(user_cnt) over (partition by room_num order by `time`) user_cnt
      from (
               select
                   in_time as `time`,
                   room_num,
                   count(user_id) user_cnt
               from table23
               group by in_time, room_num
               union all
               select
                   out_time as `time`,
                   room_num,
                   -1 * count(user_id) user_cnt
               from table23
               group by out_time, room_num
           ) t1
     ) t2;

 第四步:基于第三步的结果,对时间time 和截止当前时间点的有人入住的房间数量acc_cnt这两个字段进行去重,SQL如下:

select
    `time`,
    acc_cnt
from (
         select
             `time`,
             room_num,
             user_cnt,
             case when user_cnt > 0 then 1 else -1 end                             flag,
             sum(case when user_cnt > 0 then 1 else -1 end) over (order by `time`) acc_cnt
         from (select
                   `time`,
                   room_num,
                   sum(user_cnt) over (partition by room_num order by `time`) user_cnt
               from (
                        select
                            in_time as     `time`,
                            room_num,
                            count(user_id) user_cnt
                        from table23
                        group by in_time, room_num
                        union all
                        select
                            out_time as         `time`,
                            room_num,
                            -1 * count(user_id) user_cnt
                        from table23
                        group by out_time, room_num
                    ) t1
              ) t2
     ) t3
group by `time`, acc_cnt

 

  第五步:基于第四步的结果,通过lead函数(对time字段往后偏移一行)求出当前数据的结束时间end_time,SQL如下:

select
   `time` as start_time,
    lead(`time`, 1) over (order by `time`) as end_time,
    acc_cnt
from (
         select
             `time`,
             acc_cnt
         from (
                  select
                      `time`,
                      room_num,
                      user_cnt,
                      case when user_cnt > 0 then 1 else -1 end                             flag,
                      sum(case when user_cnt > 0 then 1 else -1 end) over (order by `time`) acc_cnt
                  from (select
                            `time`,
                            room_num,
                            sum(user_cnt) over (partition by room_num order by `time`) user_cnt
                        from (
                                 select
                                     in_time as     `time`,
                                     room_num,
                                     count(user_id) user_cnt
                                 from table23
                                 group by in_time, room_num
                                 union all
                                 select
                                     out_time as         `time`,
                                     room_num,
                                     -1 * count(user_id) user_cnt
                                 from table23
                                 group by out_time, room_num
                             ) t1
                       ) t2
              ) t3
         group by `time`, acc_cnt
     ) t4

   

  :基于第五步的结果,过滤掉end_time 是null的数据,SQL如下:

select
    start_time,
    end_time,
    acc_cnt
from (
         select
             `time`  as start_time,
             lead(`time`, 1) over (order by `time`) as end_time,
             acc_cnt
         from (
                  select
                      `time`,
                      acc_cnt
                  from (
                           select
                               `time`,
                               room_num,
                               user_cnt,
                               case when user_cnt > 0 then 1 else -1 end as  flag,
                               sum(case when user_cnt > 0 then 1 else -1 end) over (order by `time`) acc_cnt
                           from (select
                                     `time`,
                                     room_num,
                                     sum(user_cnt) over (partition by room_num order by `time`) user_cnt
                                 from (
                                          select
                                               in_time as `time`,
                                               room_num,
                                               count(user_id) user_cnt
                                          from table23
                                          group by in_time, room_num
                                          union all
                                          select
                                               out_time as `time`,
                                               room_num,
                                               -1 * count(user_id) user_cnt
                                          from table23
                                          group by out_time, room_num
                                      ) t1
                                ) t2
                       ) t3
                  group by `time`, acc_cnt
              ) t4
     ) t5
where end_time is not null;

3 小结

   针对【每个时间段的直播同时在线人数】 【每个时间段有客人在住的房间数量】这种类型的题目,本质是对(截至)当前时间点的状态统计。这种问题常见的解决思路是:对当前时间点的状态打标记flag,之后基于标记flag做开窗计算(结合窗口函数)或聚合计算

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