Python爬虫【urllib模块】

Python基本语法 专栏收录该内容
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通用爬虫

爬虫的一般流程
1 初始化一批URL,将这些URL放入队列
2 从队列中取出这些URL,通过DNS解析IP,对IP对应的网站下载HTML页面,保存到本地服务器中,爬取完的URL放到已爬取队列。
3 分析这些网页得内容,找出网页里面得其他关心的URL连接,继续执行第2步,知道爬取条件结束

搜素引擎如何获取一个新网站的URL
1 新网站主动提交搜索引擎
2 通过其它网站页面中设置的外链
3搜索引擎和DNS服务商合作,获取最新收录的网站


聚焦爬虫

有针对的编写特定领域数据的爬虫程序,针对某些类别数据采集的爬虫,是面向主题的爬虫

Robots协议

制定一个robots.txt,告诉爬虫引擎什么可以爬取;什么不让爬取(所以可以在robots协议里可以看到它们的重要数据)

例如:

淘宝:http://www.taobao.com/robots.txt 必须用搜索引擎(索引库),绝对不是Mysql的搜索匹配

user-agent:Baiduspider  "百度搜索引擎"
Allow: /article
Allow: /oshtml
Allow: /ershou
Disallow: /product/ "product下面的内容不允许爬虫 "
Disallow: /  "根下面的内容不允许爬虫 "

user-agent:Googlebot
Allow: /article
Allow: /oshtml
Allow: /ershou
Allow: /product
Allow: /spu
Allow: /dianpu
Allow: /oversea
Allow: /list
Disallow: /

user-agent:Bingbot
Allow: /article
Allow: /oshtml
Allow: /ershou
Allow: /product
Allow: /spu
Allow: /dianpu
Allow: /oversea
Allow: /list
Disallow: /

user-agent:Yahoo! Slurp
Allow: /ershou
Allow: /product
Allow: /spu
Allow: /dianpu
Allow: /oversea
Allow: /list
Disallow: /

user-agent:* “对于其他所以搜索引擎都是不允许的”,比如我们写的爬虫

Disallow: /

马蜂窝:http://www.mafengwo.cn/robots.txt

User-agent: Baiduspider
Disallow: /music/
Disallow: /booking/discount_booking.php
Disallow: /secrect/
Disallow: /rank/
Disallow: /hotel/s.php
Disallow: /order_center/
Disallow: /hotel_zx/order/detail.php
Disallow: /sales/order/

User-agent: Googlebot
Disallow: /music/
Disallow: /booking/discount_booking.php
Disallow: /secrect/
Disallow: /rank/
Disallow: /hotel/s.php
Disallow: /order_center/
Disallow: /hotel_zx/order/detail.php
Disallow: /sales/order/

User-agent: Bingbot
Disallow: /music/
Disallow: /booking/discount_booking.php
Disallow: /secrect/
Disallow: /rank/
Disallow: /hotel/s.php
Disallow: /order_center/
Disallow: /hotel_zx/order/detail.php
Disallow: /sales/order/

####
这里删除了一部分
####
User-agent:YisouSpider
Disallow: /music/
Disallow: /booking/discount_booking.php
Disallow: /secrect/
Disallow: /rank/
Disallow: /hotel/s.php
Disallow: /order_center/
Disallow: /hotel_zx/order/detail.php
Disallow: /sales/order/

User-agent: *
Disallow: /
Disallow: /poi/detail.php

Sitemap: http://www.mafengwo.cn/sitemapIndex.xml 

如果你想知道网站的信息,"Sitemap: http://www.mafengwo.cn/sitemapIndex.xml" 请点击该链接:点进去之后是个二级连接。这里面就是它提供的让你爬取得站点地图信息,友好的访问指向。


HTTP请求和响应处理

其实爬去网页就是通过HTTP协议访问网页,不过通过浏览器访问往往是人的行为,把这种行为变成使用程序来访问。

urllib包:
urllib是标准库,它是一个工具包模块,包含下面模块处理URL:
1 urllib.request 用于打开和读写url  “最重要的”
2 urllib.error 包含由urllib.request引起的异常
3 urllib.parse 用于解析url
4 urllib.robotparser 分析robots.txt文件

python2中提供了urllib和urllib2,urllib提供较为底层的接口,urllib2对urllib进行了进一步的封装。
python3将urllib合并到了urllib2,并且只提供了标准库urllib包。

urllib.request模块
模块定义了在基本和摘要式身份认证,重定向,cookies等应用中打开url(主要是http)的函数和类

  •  urllib.request.Request(url,data = None,headers = {})

    url是链接地址的字符串或者reuqest类的实例(urllib.request.Request)
    data是get或post;如果data = None,则发起get请求,否则发起post请求。

    headers默认是个字典,里面存的是键值对。请求头里包括的内容有:

    Accept; Cookie; User-Agent:告诉服务器,自己的版本,为了让服务器给自己返回合适的响应。

  •  urllib.request.urlopen(url,data = None)

    url是链接地址的字符串或者reuqest类的实例(urllib.request.Request)
    data是get或post;如果data = None,则发起get请求,否则发起post请求。
    返回:http.client.HTTPResponse类的响应对象,这是一个类文件对象。

  • urllib.parse({'id':1, 'name':'tom}) 必须是字典的形式

    用于解析模块

以下是个实例

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
"""
Created on Wed Nov 14 11:09:46 2018

@author: DELL
"""

from urllib.request import urlopen
from http.client import HTTPResponse 

#打开一个url返回一个响应对象,类文件对象
url = "http://www.bing.com"

response =  urlopen(url)  #get方法
print(response.closed)   #类文件对象:支持上下文管理

with response:          #with语法
    print(type(response))   #http.client.HTTPResponse 类对象文件
    print(response.status,response.reason)  #状态
    print(response._method)  #返回方法是get还是post
    print(response.read())  #返回读取的内容
    print(response.info())  #返回headers
    print(response.geturl()) #重定向之后返回真正的url
print(response.closed)

下面是返回结果

runfile('C:/Users/DELL/Desktop/python/spyder_test1.py', wdir='C:/Users/DELL/Desktop/python')
False
<class 'http.client.HTTPResponse'>
200 OK
GET
b'<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd"><html lang="zh" xml:lang="zh" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"><script type="text/javascript" >//<![CDATA[\r\nsi_ST=new Date\r\n//]]></script><head><meta content="text/html; charset=utf-8" http-equiv="content-type"/><script type="text/javascript">//<![CDATA[\n/*!DisableJavascriptProfiler*/\n0;/*!DisableJavascriptProfiler*/\n0;/*!DisableJavascriptProfiler*/\n0;_G={ST:(si_ST?si_ST:new Date),Mkt:"zh-CN",RTL:false,Ver:"46",IG:"B242DF30B9A04B6FA7C977999361A85D",EventID:"AF2F6BBE92A14BC5A05C9A9B04F06838",V:"homepage",P:"SERP",DA:"HK2",CID:"0CD0C497736D6F510D23C83072436EFF",SUIH:"lnca18clTNbvr3VHV3Ml1A",adc:"b_ad",gpUrl:"\\/fd\\/ls\\/GLinkPing.aspx?" }; _G.lsUrl="/fd/ls/l?IG="+_G.IG+"&CID="+_G.CID ;curUrl="http:\\/\\/cn.bing.com\\/";function si_T(a){ if(document.images){_G.GPImg=new Image;_G.GPImg.src=_G.gpUrl+\'IG=\'+_G.IG+\'&CID=\'+_G.CID+\'&\'+a;}return true;};\n//]]></script><style type="text/css">html{overflow:auto}a,body{font-family:"Segoe UI",Segoe,Tahoma,Arial,Verdana,sans-serif;font-size:small;text-decoration:none}a:hover{text-decoration:underline}ul{padding:0}html,body,#hp_table,#hp_cellCenter{height:100%;width:100%;border-collapse:collapse;margin:0;padding:0;background-color:#333;border:0}#hp_cellCenter{vertical-align:middle;overflow:hidden}#hp_sw_hdr{position:absolute;top:0;width:100%}#hp_sw_hdr #sc_hdu,#hp_id_hdr #id_h{z-index:11}#sc_hdu{position:absolute;top:0;height:43px;line-height:39px;bottom:0;left:0;margin-left:28px}#sc_hdu li{zoom:1;display:inline}#sc_hdu li a{vertical-align:middle;line-height:39px !important;display:inline-block}#hp_bottomCell{position:absolute;bottom:0;width:100%}#hp_container{min-width:1115px;max-width:1366px;width:100%;min-height:599px;max-height:768px;height:100%;position:relative;margin:auto}*+html #hp_container{overflow:hidden}table,td{border-spacing:0;border:0;padding:0}#bgDiv{position:absolute;top:0;overflow:hidden;width:100%;height:100%;background-repeat:no-repeat;background-color:#666;background-size:cover}.hp_text,.sc_pc li a,ul.hp_head_nav li a{font-weight:400}.hp_text{font-size:13px}#hp_sw_hdr{width:100%;position:relative;border:0;padding:0}#hp_sw_hdr{background:none;height:43px}#sc_hdu div,.sw_tb h3.sc_hl1,.sw_tb li{display:inline}.sw_tb{padding:0;width:100%;height:43px;margin:0;font-size:13px}.sw_tb ul{margin:0;padding:0}.sw_tb ul.sc_hl1 li a{zoom:1}.sc_pc{top:33px !important}#hdr_spl{margin:0 15px;color:#fff}#hp_sw_hdr ul#sc_hdu li a{opacity:.8}#hp_sw_hdr ul#sc_hdu li a:hover{opacity:1}#hp_sw_hdr ul li a:hover{text-decoration:none;color:#fff}#hp_sw_hdr li.sc_active{font-weight:700;border-left:solid 1px #a8b1b7;border-right:solid 1px #a8b1b7;margin:0;border:none}#hp_sw_hdr li.sc_active>a{border-bottom:1px solid #fff}ul.hp_head_nav{padding-left:3px}ul.hp_head_nav li a{margin-left:18px;margin-right:18px;color:#fff}.sh_hst{position:absolute;z-index:4;visibility:hidden}.sh_hto{width:39px;height:39px;opacity:.4;filter:alpha(opacity=40);background:#000;padding:1px}.sh_hto div{height:37px;width:37px;border:1px solid #fff;float:left}a.sh_hs{color:#fff;text-decoration:none;position:absolute;display:block;cursor:pointer;z-index:6;line-height:1.4em;width:205px;padding:3px 8px 6px;visibility:hidden}a.sh_hs:hover{text-decoration:none}a.sh_hs p,a:visited.sh_hs p{margin:0 0 .2em}.sh_hq{text-decoration:underline}.sh_hi{display:inline;font-size:medium;color:#0c8484}.sh_ho{width:100%;position:absolute;top:0;left:0;z-index:-1;opacity:.6;filter:alpha(opacity=60);padding:1px;background:#000}.sh_ho div{border:1px solid #fff}#hp_tbar,#hp_bk{display:none}#thp_notf_div{position:fixed}.hidden{display:none !important}#langChange{display:none}#hp_sw_hdr #langChange{vertical-align:top}#hp_sw_hdr #langChange a{line-height:43px}#hp_sw_hdr .sw_mktsw a,#hp_sw_hdr .sw_mktsw span{color:#fff;margin:0 10px 0 9px;height:43px;line-height:39px}#hp_container .sa_as,#hp_container .pp_tile{border-color:#e5e5e5}.hpcBkP,.hpcLogoWhite,.hpcNext,.hpcCopyInfo,.hpcPlay,.hpcPause,.hpcPrevious,.hpcFull,.hpcSmall,.sw_qbtn,.hpcExpand,.hpcClose,.hpcDown,.pref,.img_uparrow,.img_rwds_sml,.img_downarrow,.hpcCaroNavRight,.hpcCaroNavLeft,.hpcSharedCaroNavLeft,.hpcSharedCaroNavRight,.sw_qbtn,#sc_closer>div,#sc_opener>div,#sc_hide>div,#sc_interests_edit>div{background:transparent url(/sa/simg/hpc26.png) no-repeat;overflow:hidden}.ie8l .hpcBkP,.ie8l #sh_igl>div,.ie8l #sh_igr>div,.ie8l .hpcCopyInfo,.ie8l .hpcPlay,.ie8l .hpcPause,.ie8l .hpcFull,.ie8l .hpcSmall,.ie8l #sc_closer>div,.ie8l #sc_opener>div,.ie8l #sc_hide>div,.ie8l #sc_interests_edit>div,.ie8l .hpcDown{background-color:#222;filter:alpha(opacity=75);opacity:.75}.hpcBkP,.hpcCopyInfo,.hpcPlay,.hpcPause,.hpcFull,.hpcSmall,#sc_closer>div,#sc_opener>div,#sc_hide>div,#sc_interests_edit>div,.hpcDown{width:40px;height:40px;background-color:rgba(34,34,34,.75)}.hpcPrevious,.hpcNext{width:40px;height:40px}#sh_igl>div,#sh_igr>div{background-color:rgba(34,34,34,.75)}.hpcLogoWhite{background-position:0 0;margin:-7px 21px 0 0;width:132px;height:52px}.hpcNext{background-position:-84px -57px}.hpcCopyInfo{background-position:-83px -99px}.hpcCopyInfo{display:inline-block;background-position:-84px -98px;*display:inline;*zoom:1}.hpcInfoText{display:inline-block;min-width:40px;height:40px;vertical-align:top;background-color:rgba(34,34,34,.75);font:normal 13px Segoe UI,Arial;line-height:39px;color:rgba(255,255,255,.75)}#hphdl{padding-right:12px;max-width:320px;overflow:hidden;margin:0}.ie8l .hpcInfoText{color:#fff;background-color:#222;opacity:.75;filter:alpha(opacity=75);*display:inline;*zoom:1}.hpcPlay{background-position:-2px -98px}.hpcSmall{background-position:-48px -177px}.hpcDown{background-position:0 -53px}.hpcFull{background-position:-48px -138px}.hpcPause{background-position:-42px -98px}.hpcPrevious{background-position:-123px -57px}.sw_qbtn{background-position:-224px -53px}.hpcCaroNavLeft,.hpcCaroNavRight,.hpcSharedCaroNavLeft,.hpcSharedCaroNavRight{position:absolute;width:17px;height:26px}.hpcCaroNavRight,.hpcSharedCaroNavRight{background-position:-177px -106px}.hpcCaroNavLeft,.hpcSharedCaroNavLeft{background-position:-206px -106px}.hpcExpand,.hpcClose{width:32px;height:32px}.hpcExpand{background-position:-128px -53px}.hpcClose{background-position:-96px -53px}.pref:hover{background-position:-187px -18px}.pref{background-position:-169px -18px;width:18px;height:18px}.img_uparrow{background-position:-174px -36px;width:20px;height:12px !important}.img_rwds_sml{background-position:-167px 0;width:18px;height:18px !important}.img_downarrow{background-position:-165px -36px;width:9px;height:6px}.hpcBkP{display:inline-block;background-position:-84px -98px;*display:inline;*zoom:1;overflow:hidden;width:35px;height:40px;cursor:pointer}.sc_lightdis #sh_lt,.sc_lightdis #sh_rt{cursor:default;opacity:.3}#sc_hdu .sc_pc{margin:.82em 0 0 -46px}#hp_bottomCell{z-index:5}b{padding:0}@media only screen and (min-height:806px) and (orientation:landscape),screen and (min-width:1433px) and (orientation:landscape){#hp_container,#bgDiv,#hp_vidwrp,#vid{max-height:1080px;max-width:1920px}#vid{min-width:100%;min-height:100%;width:auto;height:auto}#hp_tbar{max-width:1920px !important}#sc_mdCrs{width:100% !important}}body #hp_cellCenter #hp_container{max-width:100%;max-height:100%}body #hp_cellCenter #bgDiv,body #hp_cellCenter #hp_vidwrp,body #hp_cellCenter #vid{max-width:none;max-height:none}body #hp_cellCenter #hp_tbar,body #hp_cellCenter #sc_mdCrs{width:100% !important;max-width:100% !important}@media screen and (min-width:1366px) and (max-width:1439px){#hp_container .b_searchboxForm .b_searchboxSubmit{height:49px;width:49px;border-width:10px}#hp_container .b_searchbox{width:540px;margin-top:8px}#hp_container .hpcLogoWhite{margin-top:-3px}}@media screen and (min-width:1440px) and (max-width:1919px){#hp_container .b_searchboxForm .b_searchboxSubmit{height:51px;width:51px;border-width:11px}#hp_container .b_searchbox{width:557px;margin-top:10px;margin-left:12px}#hp_container .hpcLogoWhite{margin-top:-1px}}@media screen and (min-width:1920px) and (max-width:2559px){#hp_container .b_searchboxForm .b_searchboxSubmit{height:53px;width:53px;border-width:12px}#hp_container .b_searchbox{width:581px;margin-top:11px;margin-left:12px}#hp_container .hpcLogoWhite{margin-top:0}}@media screen and (min-width:2560px){#hp_container .b_searchboxForm .b_searchboxSubmit{height:57px;width:57px;border-width:14px}#hp_container .b_searchbox{width:627px;margin-top:13px;margin-left:15px}#hp_container .hpcLogoWhite{margin-top:2px}}div#focus_ovr{position:absolute;top:0;left:0;width:100%;background:#000;z-index:300;opacity:0;-ms-filter:"progid:DXImageTransform.Microsoft.Alpha(Opacity=0)";filter:alpha(opacity=0)}.focus_hi{z-index:301 !important}#DownloadHPImage:focus,#musCardImageLink:focus,#b_footerItems li a:focus{text-decoration:underline}#sc_hdu li a:focus,#id_l:focus,#id_rh:focus{color:#fff}#b_footer span:hover,#b_footer a:hover,#sb_feedback:hover,#b_footer span:focus,#b_footer a:focus,.disabled#DownloadHPImage:focus,.disabled#DownloadHPImage:hover{color:#9a9a9a}#crs_pane a:focus>.crs_item>img{opacity:1}.hp_sw_logo{float:left;text-indent:-20em;_padding-right:8px;_height:50px}.hp_logo_svg{float:left;margin:-7px 21px 0 0}.hp_logo_svg .st0{fill:white}.sw_sform{position:absolute;top:20%;left:8%;margin:0;z-index:9}.search_controls{display:inline-block;*zoom:1;*display:inline}body .b_searchboxForm .b_searchboxSubmit{height:45px;width:45px;border:8px solid #fff;background:#fff url(/sa/simg/hpc26.png) no-repeat;background-position:-169px -63px;overflow:hidden;vertical-align:top}body.focus_expand .b_searchboxForm .b_searchboxSubmit{width:60px;height:60px;border-width:14px}*+html .b_searchboxSubmit{color:#010101;filter:progid:DXImageTransform.Microsoft.Chroma(color=black);_margin:3px 5px -3px;_border:none}body .b_searchbox{background-color:#fff;margin:6px 1px 0 10px;width:486px;border-right:0;padding-right:4px;*top:3px;*left:5px;_height:20px}body.focus_expand .b_searchbox{width:650px;max-height:50px;height:60px;margin-top:3px}body .b_searchboxForm{background-color:#fff;border:1px #ccc solid;_border:0;padding:0;box-shadow:0 2px 4px rgba(0,0,0,.3)}body .b_searchboxForm:hover{box-shadow:0 4px 6px rgba(0,0,0,.18),0 2px 4px rgba(0,0,0,.1)}body.focus_expand .sw_box{margin-top:-10px}body .beta,body .beta a{color:#bbb}.beta{position:absolute;top:45px;left:54px;width:55px;height:18px;overflow:hidden}.beta a{font-size:12px}#sw_clx{position:absolute;right:40px;top:5px;padding:12px;cursor:pointer}.sw_tpcbk{background-position:-176px -32px;height:10px;width:10px;background-image:url(/sa/simg/sw_mg_l_4d_brandw2.png);background-repeat:no-repeat}div#sbox.sw_sform{left:88px}@media only screen and (min-width:1601px) and (max-width:1919px){div#sbox.sw_sform{left:calc(50vw - 688px)}}@media only screen and (min-width:1920px) and (max-width:2559px){div#sbox.sw_sform{left:calc(50vw - 768px)}}@media only screen and (min-width:2560px){div#sbox.sw_sform{left:calc(50vw - 896px)}}.nonhd:not(.noBg) div#sbox.sw_sform{left:88px}#est_switch{position:absolute;margin-top:-36px;margin-left:153px;z-index:2}#est_cn,#est_en{position:relative;display:inline-block;height:26px;line-height:26px;font-size:16px;text-align:center;cursor:pointer;padding:5px 17px;color:#464646;font-family:\'Microsoft 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http://cn.bing.com/?setmkt=zh-CN&setmkt=zh-CN
True

上面的例子,其实就是通过urllib.request.urlopen的方法,发起了一个HTTP的GET请求,WEB服务器返回了网页内容。响应的数据被封装到类文件对象中,可以通过read()方法,readline()方法和readlines()的方法获取数据,status和reason属性表示返回的状态吗,info方法返回头信息等。


User-Agent 问题

很多网站其实是不想让大家用python爬虫去爬的,比如上面的淘宝网站也是,只允许百度,谷歌等部分搜索引擎对其进行搜索。而如果我们用python去爬的时候,它的User-agent是python,被爬的网站会采取一种反爬虫的方法,禁止python等爬虫方式的访问。因此,在这里就需要所谓的伪装User-agent

urlopen(url,data)只能传递URL和data这样的数据,不能构造HTTP的请求,例如User-Agent。在python源码中构造useragent的方法如下:在openerDirector里面

#urllib.request.OpenerDirector
class openerDirector:
    def __init__(self):
        client_version = "python-urliib/%s"%__version__
        self.addheaders = [("User-agent",client_version)]

当前显示的是python-urllib/3.6

而urllib.request.Request(url,data = None,headers = {})可以修改User-Agent 到headers里,伪装~主要有以下两种方式:

其思路都是一致的,也就是:将User-Agent封装在Request的类对象里,再对其使用urlopen。

  • req = Request(url,headers = {'User-Agent':ua})
  • req = Request(url) 
  • req.add_header('User-Agent',ua)

代码变化为:

from urllib.request import urlopen,Request
import random
#from http.client import HTTPResponse 

#伪造一个user-agent的列表分别是:谷歌,火狐,IE;
url = "http://www.bing.com/"
ua_list = ["Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 10.0; Win64; x64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/42.0.2311.135 Safari/537.36 Edge/12.10240",
           "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 10.0; WOW64; rv:46.0) Gecko/20100101 Firefox/46.0",
           "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 10.0; WOW64; Trident/7.0; rv:11.0) like Gecko"]
           

ua = random.choice(ua_list)#随机选择一个user-agent
req = Request(url,headers = {'User-Agent':ua})

#req.add_header('User-Agent',ua)

response =  urlopen(req)  #get方法
print(response.closed)   #类文件对象:支持上下文管理
print(type(response))   #http.client.HTTPResponse 类对象文件

with response:          #with语法   
    print(1, response.status,response.getcode(),response.reason)  #状态
    print(2, response.geturl()) #返回真正的url
    print(3, response.read())  #返回读取的内容
    print(4, response.info())  #返回headers

print(5,req.get_header('User-agent'))

至于如何让在谷歌浏览器中,找到切换搜索引擎(也就是我们这里写的ua_list的内容)的地方:见https://jingyan.baidu.com/article/0bc808fc0b66621bd485b926.html

结果如下

False
<class 'http.client.HTTPResponse'>
1 200 200 OK
2 http://cn.bing.com/
3 b'<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd"><html lang="zh" xml:lang="zh" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"><script type="text/javascript" >//<![CDATA[\r\nsi_ST=new Date\r\n//]]></script><head><meta content="text/html; charset=utf-8" http-equiv="content-type"/><script type="text/javascript">//<![CDATA[\n/*!DisableJavascriptProfiler*/\n0;/*!DisableJavascriptProfiler*/\n0;/*!DisableJavascriptProfiler*/\n0;_G={ST:(si_ST?si_ST:new Date),Mkt:"zh-CN",RTL:false,Ver:"46",IG:"F2BA9A62D4B84677BB836AA29533A8AB",EventID:"B40C4664EFC0492AB68074587A220624",V:"homepage",P:"SERP",DA:"HK2",CID:"28962DA146236EF4189E2106470D6F86",SUIH:"xTqB7LyFFbzpQgQLbGLLww",adc:"b_ad",gpUrl:"\\/fd\\/ls\\/GLinkPing.aspx?" }; _G.lsUrl="/fd/ls/l?IG="+_G.IG+"&CID="+_G.CID ;curUrl="http:\\/\\/cn.bing.com\\/";function si_T(a){ if(document.images){_G.GPImg=new Image;_G.GPImg.src=_G.gpUrl+\'IG=\'+_G.IG+\'&CID=\'+_G.CID+\'&\'+a;}return true;};\n//]]></script><style type="text/css">html{overflow:auto}a,body{font-family:"Segoe UI",Segoe,Tahoma,Arial,Verdana,sans-serif;font-size:small;text-decoration:none}a:hover{text-decoration:underline}ul{padding:0}html,body,#hp_table,#hp_cellCenter{height:100%;width:100%;border-collapse:collapse;margin:0;padding:0;background-color:#333;border:0}#hp_cellCenter{vertical-align:middle;overflow:hidden}#hp_sw_hdr{position:absolute;top:0;width:100%}#hp_sw_hdr #sc_hdu,#hp_id_hdr #id_h{z-index:11}#sc_hdu{position:absolute;top:0;height:43px;line-height:39px;bottom:0;left:0;margin-left:28px}#sc_hdu li{zoom:1;display:inline}#sc_hdu li a{vertical-align:middle;line-height:39px !important;display:inline-block}#hp_bottomCell{position:absolute;bottom:0;width:100%}#hp_container{min-width:1115px;max-width:1366px;width:100%;min-height:599px;max-height:768px;height:100%;position:relative;margin:auto}*+html #hp_container{overflow:hidden}table,td{border-spacing:0;border:0;padding:0}#bgDiv{position:absolute;top:0;overflow:hidden;width:100%;height:100%;background-repeat:no-repeat;background-color:#666;background-size:cover}.hp_text,.sc_pc li a,ul.hp_head_nav li a{font-weight:400}.hp_text{font-size:13px}#hp_sw_hdr{width:100%;position:relative;border:0;padding:0}#hp_sw_hdr{background:none;height:43px}#sc_hdu div,.sw_tb h3.sc_hl1,.sw_tb li{display:inline}.sw_tb{padding:0;width:100%;height:43px;margin:0;font-size:13px}.sw_tb ul{margin:0;padding:0}.sw_tb ul.sc_hl1 li a{zoom:1}.sc_pc{top:33px !important}#hdr_spl{margin:0 15px;color:#fff}#hp_sw_hdr ul#sc_hdu li a{opacity:.8}#hp_sw_hdr ul#sc_hdu li a:hover{opacity:1}#hp_sw_hdr ul li a:hover{text-decoration:none;color:#fff}#hp_sw_hdr li.sc_active{font-weight:700;border-left:solid 1px #a8b1b7;border-right:solid 1px #a8b1b7;margin:0;border:none}#hp_sw_hdr li.sc_active>a{border-bottom:1px solid #fff}ul.hp_head_nav{padding-left:3px}ul.hp_head_nav li 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span{color:#fff;margin:0 10px 0 9px;height:43px;line-height:39px}#hp_container .sa_as,#hp_container .pp_tile{border-color:#e5e5e5}.hpcBkP,.hpcLogoWhite,.hpcNext,.hpcCopyInfo,.hpcPlay,.hpcPause,.hpcPrevious,.hpcFull,.hpcSmall,.sw_qbtn,.hpcExpand,.hpcClose,.hpcDown,.pref,.img_uparrow,.img_rwds_sml,.img_downarrow,.hpcCaroNavRight,.hpcCaroNavLeft,.hpcSharedCaroNavLeft,.hpcSharedCaroNavRight,.sw_qbtn,#sc_closer>div,#sc_opener>div,#sc_hide>div,#sc_interests_edit>div{background:transparent url(/sa/simg/hpc26.png) no-repeat;overflow:hidden}.ie8l .hpcBkP,.ie8l #sh_igl>div,.ie8l #sh_igr>div,.ie8l .hpcCopyInfo,.ie8l .hpcPlay,.ie8l .hpcPause,.ie8l .hpcFull,.ie8l .hpcSmall,.ie8l #sc_closer>div,.ie8l #sc_opener>div,.ie8l #sc_hide>div,.ie8l #sc_interests_edit>div,.ie8l 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4 Cache-Control: private, max-age=0
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Vary: Accept-Encoding
P3P: CP="NON UNI COM NAV STA LOC CURa DEVa PSAa PSDa OUR IND"
Set-Cookie: SRCHD=AF=NOFORM; domain=.bing.com; expires=Sat, 14-Nov-2020 08:43:04 GMT; path=/
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Date: Wed, 14 Nov 2018 08:43:04 GMT
Connection: close

5 Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 10.0; Win64; x64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/42.0.2311.135 Safari/537.36 Edge/12.10240

总结以上:

弄清楚urlopen和Request两个模块的不同使用。


urllib.parse模块

  • parse.urlencode(u) 编码

  • parse.unquote(u)  解码

该模块可以完成对url的编码和解码。

parse.urlencode({})的第一个参数要求的是一个字典或者二元组序列。将该序列进行编码。汉字的话采用UTF-8的格式,转化成%XX%XX%XX的形式。(6个字节)

先看一段代码,进行编码

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
"""
Created on Wed Nov 14 16:56:58 2018

@author: DELL
"""

from urllib import parse


body = {'id':1,
        'name':'tom',
        'Sub':'语文',
        'url':'http://www.magedu.com/python'}
u1 = parse.urlencode(body)

u2 = parse.urlencode({'url':'http://www.magedu.com/python',
                      'p_url':'http://www.magedu.com/python?id&name=张三'})
print(u1)

print(u2)

实验结果是:每一个key和value用等号表示,items之间用&连接

runfile('C:/Users/DELL/Desktop/python/spyder_test2.py', wdir='C:/Users/DELL/Desktop/python')
id=1&name=tom&Sub=%E8%AF%AD%E6%96%87&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.magedu.com%2Fpython

url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.magedu.com%2Fpython&p_url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.magedu.com%2Fpython%3Fid%26name%3D%E5%BC%A0%E4%B8%89

从运行结果来看:冒号,斜杠,&,等号,问号等符号全部被编码了,%之后的实际上是单个字节十六进制表示的值。

一般来说,URL地质部份,一般不需要中文路径,但是参数部分,无论是GET还是POST,提交的数据中,都有可能含有斜杠,等号,问号等符号,这些字符表示数据,不表示元字符。如果直接发给服务器端,就会导致接收方无法判断谁是元字符,谁是数据。为了安全,一般会将数据部分的字符做URL编码,这样就不会有歧义了。

总之,要看哪些需要编码,哪些已经编码,不再需要编码,再使用urlencode;需要注意的是urlencode()和encode()的区别

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
"""
Created on Wed Nov 14 16:56:58 2018

@author: DELL
"""

from urllib import parse


u = parse.urlencode({'wd':'中'})
#后面的url就不需要加到encode里面再编码一次了
url="https://www.baidu.com/s?{}".format(u)

print(url)
print('中'.encode('utf-8'))

#########解码###############
print(parse.unquote(u))
print(parse.unquote(url))

结果:

runfile('C:/Users/DELL/Desktop/python/spyder_test2.py', wdir='C:/Users/DELL/Desktop/python')
https://www.baidu.com/s?wd=%E4%B8%AD
b'\xe4\xb8\xad'
wd=中
https://www.baidu.com/s?wd=中

 


提交方法method

GET:数据是通过URL传递的,也就是说数据实在HTTP报文的header部分

POST:数据是放在HTTP报文的body部分提交的

数据都是键值对的形式,多个参数之间使用&连接。如a=1&b=2

GET:连接必应搜索引擎,获取一个搜索URL的需求:实例用get方法获取以下界面的内容:

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
"""
Created on Wed Nov 14 22:31:20 2018

@author: DELL
"""

from urllib.parse import urlencode
from urllib.request import Request,urlopen



u = parse.urlencode({'q':'python',
                     't':'blog',
                     'u':'Strive_0902'})
base_url="https://so.csdn.net/so/search/s.do"
url = "{}?{}".format(base_url,u)

print(url)
print(parse.unquote(url))

ua = "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 10.0; Win64; x64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/42.0.2311.135 Safari/537.36 Edge/12.10240"

req = Request(url,headers={
        'User-agent':ua
        })

#动态的异步数据
with urlopen(req) as res:
    with open(r'C:\Users\DELL\Desktop\python\get_url.html','wb+') as f:
        f.write(res.read())
        f.flush()
        

运行结果为

runfile('C:/Users/DELL/Desktop/python/spyder_test3.py', wdir='C:/Users/DELL/Desktop/python')
https://so.csdn.net/so/search/s.do?q=python&t=blog&u=Strive_0902
https://so.csdn.net/so/search/s.do?q=python&t=blog&u=Strive_0902

还有本地生成的一个html文件

 

POST方法:测试网站:http://httpbin.org/传递的内容在urlopen的data里面

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
"""
Created on Thu Nov 15 10:13:43 2018

@author: DELL
"""

from urllib import parse
from urllib.request import Request,urlopen
import json

url = 'http://httpbin.org/post'
data = parse.urlencode({'name':'张三,@#¥/*',
                     'age':'6'
                     })
ua = "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 10.0; Win64; x64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/42.0.2311.135 Safari/537.36 Edge/12.10240"
req = Request(url,headers = {'User-agent':ua})

#因为这里的data需要二进制,而我们前面的data是字符串,所以需要编码成二进制
with urlopen(url,data = data.encode()) as res:
    text = res.read()
    print(type(text))
    d = json.loads(text)
    print(d)
    print(type(d))

结果是:

runfile('C:/Users/DELL/Desktop/python/spyder_post.py', wdir='C:/Users/DELL/Desktop/python')
<class 'bytes'>
{'args': {}, 'data': '', 'files': {}, 'form': {'age': '6', 'name': '张三,@#¥/*'}, 'headers': {'Accept-Encoding': 'identity', 'Connection': 'close', 'Content-Length': '59', 'Content-Type': 'application/x-www-form-urlencoded', 'Host': 'httpbin.org', 'User-Agent': 'Python-urllib/3.6'}, 'json': None, 'origin': '202.121.146.127', 'url': 'http://httpbin.org/post'}
<class 'dict'>

处理json数据:python爬虫Ajax数据爬取

测试网站:豆瓣网站:https://movie.douban.com/  右键打开检查之后一点更要刷新!!!

谷歌浏览器:右键——检查——network——XHR(XMLHttpReques)点击第五条就可以看到,我们需要的信息。右键可以复制link(https://movie.douban.com/j/search_subjects?type=movie&tag=热门&page_limit=10&page_start=10)在浏览器中打开该link显示的内容为:

所以,我们可以用python脚本去爬去该链接对应的内容。下面写python脚本

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
"""
Created on Thu Nov 15 11:07:00 2018

@author: DELL
"""

from urllib.parse import urlencode
from urllib.request import Request,urlopen



u = parse.urlencode({'type':'movie',
                     'tag':'热门',
                     'page_limit':10,
                     'page_start':10})
base_url='https://movie.douban.com/j/search_subjects'
url = "{}?{}".format(base_url,u)

print(url)
print(parse.unquote(url))

ua = "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 10.0; Win64; x64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/42.0.2311.135 Safari/537.36 Edge/12.10240"

req = Request(url,headers={
        'User-agent':ua
        })


with urlopen(req) as res:
    text = res.read()
    print(type(text))
    d = json.loads(text)
    print(d)
    print(len(d['subjects']))
    print(type(d))

结果是

https://movie.douban.com/j/search_subjects?type=movie&tag=%E7%83%AD%E9%97%A8&page_limit=10&page_start=10
https://movie.douban.com/j/search_subjects?type=movie&tag=热门&page_limit=10&page_start=10
<class 'bytes'>
{'subjects': [{'rate': '5.6', 'cover_x': 2953, 'title': '反贪风暴3', 'url': 'https://movie.douban.com/subject/26996640/', 'playable': True, 'cover': 'https://img3.doubanio.com/view/photo/s_ratio_poster/public/p2531887203.jpg', 'id': '26996640', 'cover_y': 4134, 'is_new': False}, {'rate': '8.2', 'cover_x': 2048, 'title': '碟中谍6:全面瓦解', 'url': 'https://movie.douban.com/subject/26336252/', 'playable': False, 'cover': 'https://img3.doubanio.com/view/photo/s_ratio_poster/public/p2529365085.jpg', 'id': '26336252', 'cover_y': 3034, 'is_new': False}, {'rate': '5.9', 'cover_x': 2764, 'title': '修女', 'url': 'https://movie.douban.com/subject/26825664/', 'playable': False, 'cover': 'https://img3.doubanio.com/view/photo/s_ratio_poster/public/p2528357976.jpg', 'id': '26825664', 'cover_y': 4096, 'is_new': False}, {'rate': '6.9', 'cover_x': 2143, 'title': '镰仓物语', 'url': 'https://movie.douban.com/subject/26916229/', 'playable': True, 'cover': 'https://img1.doubanio.com/view/photo/s_ratio_poster/public/p2532008868.jpg', 'id': '26916229', 'cover_y': 2993, 'is_new': False}, {'rate': '8.1', 'cover_x': 1383, 'title': '克里斯托弗·罗宾', 'url': 'https://movie.douban.com/subject/26359235/', 'playable': False, 'cover': 'https://img3.doubanio.com/view/photo/s_ratio_poster/public/p2523016274.jpg', 'id': '26359235', 'cover_y': 2048, 'is_new': False}, {'rate': '8.0', 'cover_x': 1900, 'title': '超人总动员2', 'url': 'https://movie.douban.com/subject/25849049/', 'playable': True, 'cover': 'https://img3.doubanio.com/view/photo/s_ratio_poster/public/p2522880251.jpg', 'id': '25849049', 'cover_y': 2663, 'is_new': False}, {'rate': '7.9', 'cover_x': 694, 'title': '解除好友:暗网', 'url': 'https://movie.douban.com/subject/26725678/', 'playable': False, 'cover': 'https://img1.doubanio.com/view/photo/s_ratio_poster/public/p2525020357.jpg', 'id': '26725678', 'cover_y': 1000, 'is_new': False}, {'rate': '6.7', 'cover_x': 1063, 'title': '精灵旅社3:疯狂假期', 'url': 'https://movie.douban.com/subject/26630714/', 'playable': True, 'cover': 'https://img3.doubanio.com/view/photo/s_ratio_poster/public/p2530591543.jpg', 'id': '26630714', 'cover_y': 1488, 'is_new': False}, {'rate': '7.3', 'cover_x': 2999, 'title': '动物世界', 'url': 'https://movie.douban.com/subject/26925317/', 'playable': True, 'cover': 'https://img1.doubanio.com/view/photo/s_ratio_poster/public/p2525528688.jpg', 'id': '26925317', 'cover_y': 4181, 'is_new': False}, {'rate': '6.5', 'cover_x': 1000, 'title': '阿尔法:狼伴归途', 'url': 'https://movie.douban.com/subject/26810318/', 'playable': True, 'cover': 'https://img1.doubanio.com/view/photo/s_ratio_poster/public/p2530871439.jpg', 'id': '26810318', 'cover_y': 1400, 'is_new': False}]}
10
<class 'dict'>

HTTPS访问

HTTPS分为两种:信任的网站(百度)和不信任的网站(12306)。对于没有不可信任的HTTPS网站,怎么爬去它的页面信息。看一个例子,比如12306网站。没有使用CA认证。但是自己给自己颁发了证书。就是所谓的安装12306的根证书。所以如果针对这种不可信任的网站,需要导入ssl库。

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
"""
Created on Thu Nov 15 11:07:00 2018

@author: DELL
"""

from urllib.parse import urlencode
from urllib.request import Request,urlopen
import ssl


url_1 = 'https://www.baidu.com/'     #信任的网站
url_2 = 'http://www.12306.cn/mormhweb/' #信任的网站
url='https://www.12306.cn/mormhweb/'  #报SSL认证异常


ua = "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 10.0; Win64; x64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/42.0.2311.135 Safari/537.36 Edge/12.10240"

req = Request(url,headers={
        'User-agent':ua
        })
context = ssl._create_unverified_context()

with urlopen(req,context = context) as res:
    text = res.read()
    print(type(text))
    print(res._method)
    print(res.geturl())

结果如下

runfile('C:/Users/DELL/Desktop/python/spyder_ssl.py', wdir='C:/Users/DELL/Desktop/python')
<class 'bytes'>
GET
https://www.12306.cn/index/

待续~

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