Python编程:从入门到实践-项目一;外星人打飞机

先附上网址,是整本书的资源网址:Python Crash Course

先看下我生成的工程:


C:.
│  tree.txt
│  
└─Alien_war
    │  alien.py
    │  alien_invasion.py
    │  bullet.py
    │  game_function.py
    │  game_stats.py
    │  mytest.py
    │  settings.py
    │  ship.py
    │  
    ├─.idea
    │      Alien_war.iml
    │      misc.xml
    │      modules.xml
    │      workspace.xml
    │      
    ├─image
    │      alien.bmp
    │      ship.bmp
    │      
    └─__pycache__
            alien.cpython-36.pyc
            bullet.cpython-36.pyc
            game_function.cpython-36.pyc
            game_stats.cpython-36.pyc
            settings.cpython-36.pyc
            ship.cpython-36.pyc
            

如何生成树状的路径图呢?当然是文件管理指令 Tree 啦;


第一份代码也就是创建一个pygame的实现模块,也就是主函数吧这样说。

alien_incasion:

import pygame
from pygame.sprite import Group#用于管理外星人实体的容器

from settings import Settings
from game_stats import GameStats
from ship import Ship
import game_function as gf


def run_game():
    # Initialize pygame, settings, and screen object.
    pygame.init()
    ai_settings = Settings()
    screen = pygame.display.set_mode(
        (ai_settings.screen_width, ai_settings.screen_height))
    pygame.display.set_caption("Alien Invasion")

    # Create an instance to store game statistics.
    stats = GameStats(ai_settings)

    # Set the background color.
    bg_color = (230, 230, 230)

    # Make a ship, a group of bullets, and a group of aliens.
    ship = Ship(ai_settings, screen)
    bullets = Group()
    aliens = Group()

    # Create the fleet of aliens.
    gf.create_fleet(ai_settings, screen, ship, aliens)

    # Start the main loop for the game.#用一个循环来画,不解释
    while True:
        gf.check_events(ai_settings, screen, ship, bullets)

        if stats.game_active:
            ship.update()
            gf.update_bullets(ai_settings, screen, ship, aliens, bullets)
            gf.update_aliens(ai_settings, stats, screen, ship, aliens, bullets)

        gf.update_screen(ai_settings, screen, ship, aliens, bullets)


run_game()

下面是三个实体:飞机,外星人,子弹;放代码:

import pygame


class Ship():

    def __init__(self, ai_settings, screen):
        """Initialize the ship, and set its starting position."""
        self.screen = screen
        self.ai_settings = ai_settings

        # Load the ship image, and get its rect.
        self.image = pygame.image.load('image/ship.bmp')
        self.rect = self.image.get_rect()
        self.screen_rect = screen.get_rect()

        # Start each new ship at the bottom center of the screen.
        self.rect.centerx = self.screen_rect.centerx
        self.rect.bottom = self.screen_rect.bottom

        # Store a decimal value for the ship's center.
        self.center = float(self.rect.centerx)

        # Movement flags.
        self.moving_right = False
        self.moving_left = False

    def center_ship(self):
        """Center the ship on the screen."""
        self.center = self.screen_rect.centerx

    def update(self):
        """Update the ship's position, based on movement flags."""
        # Update the ship's center value, not the rect.
        if self.moving_right and self.rect.right < self.screen_rect.right:
            self.center += self.ai_settings.ship_speed_factor
        if self.moving_left and self.rect.left > 0:
            self.center -= self.ai_settings.ship_speed_factor

        # Update rect object from self.center.
        self.rect.centerx = self.center

    def blitme(self):
        """Draw the ship at its current location."""
        self.screen.blit(self.image, self.rect)

这里提一下就是,pygame里面很方便的把这里的所有图形块设置成矩形:

def get_rect(self, **kwargs): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__
    """
    get_rect(**kwargs) -> Rect
    get the rectangular area of the Surface
    """

方法有得到左边距,右边距,上下的坐标,很方便;

外星人:
import pygame
from pygame.sprite import Sprite
class Alien(Sprite):
    """A class to represent a single alien in the fleet."""

    def __init__(self, ai_settings, screen):
        """Initialize the alien, and set its starting position."""
        super(Alien, self).__init__()
        self.screen = screen
        self.ai_settings = ai_settings

        # Load the alien image, and set its rect attribute.
        self.image = pygame.image.load('image/alien.bmp')
        self.rect = self.image.get_rect()

        # Start each new alien near the top left of the screen.
        self.rect.x = self.rect.width
        self.rect.y = self.rect.height

        # Store the alien's exact position.
        self.x = float(self.rect.x)

    def check_edges(self):
        """Return True if alien is at edge of screen."""
        screen_rect = self.screen.get_rect()
        if self.rect.right >= screen_rect.right:
            return True
        elif self.rect.left <= 0:
            return True

    def update(self):
        """Move the alien right or left."""
        self.x += (self.ai_settings.alien_speed_factor *
                   self.ai_settings.fleet_direction)
        self.rect.x = self.x

    def blitme(self):
        """Draw the alien at its current location."""
        self.screen.blit(self.image, self.rect)

子弹:
import pygame
from pygame.sprite import Sprite


class Bullet(Sprite):
    """A class to manage bullets fired from the ship."""

    def __init__(self, ai_settings, screen, ship):
        """Create a bullet object, at the ship's current position."""
        super(Bullet, self).__init__()
        self.screen = screen

        # Create bullet rect at (0, 0), then set correct position.
        self.rect = pygame.Rect(0, 0, ai_settings.bullet_width,
                                ai_settings.bullet_height)
        self.rect.centerx = ship.rect.centerx
        self.rect.top = ship.rect.top

        # Store a decimal value for the bullet's position.
        self.y = float(self.rect.y)

        self.color = ai_settings.bullet_color
        self.speed_factor = ai_settings.bullet_speed_factor

    def update(self):
        """Move the bullet up the screen."""
        # Update the decimal position of the bullet.
        self.y -= self.speed_factor
        # Update the rect position.
        self.rect.y = self.y

    def draw_bullet(self):
        """Draw the bullet to the screen."""
        pygame.draw.rect(self.screen, self.color, self.rect)

程序的核心:实体运动的实现和一些事件函数,都在这个Function内:

game-function.py

import sys
from time import sleep

import pygame

from bullet import Bullet
from alien import Alien


def check_keydown_events(event, ai_settings, screen, ship, bullets):
    """Respond to keypresses."""
    if event.key == pygame.K_RIGHT:
        ship.moving_right = True
    elif event.key == pygame.K_LEFT:
        ship.moving_left = True
    elif event.key == pygame.K_SPACE:
        fire_bullet(ai_settings, screen, ship, bullets)
    elif event.key == pygame.K_q:
        sys.exit()


def check_keyup_events(event, ship):
    """Respond to key releases."""
    if event.key == pygame.K_RIGHT:
        ship.moving_right = False
    elif event.key == pygame.K_LEFT:
        ship.moving_left = False


def check_events(ai_settings, screen, ship, bullets):
    """Respond to keypresses and mouse events."""
    for event in pygame.event.get():
        if event.type == pygame.QUIT:
            sys.exit()
        elif event.type == pygame.KEYDOWN:
            check_keydown_events(event, ai_settings, screen, ship, bullets)
        elif event.type == pygame.KEYUP:
            check_keyup_events(event, ship)


def fire_bullet(ai_settings, screen, ship, bullets):
    """Fire a bullet, if limit not reached yet."""
    # Create a new bullet, add to bullets group.
    if len(bullets) < ai_settings.bullets_allowed:
        new_bullet = Bullet(ai_settings, screen, ship)
        bullets.add(new_bullet)


def update_screen(ai_settings, screen, ship, aliens, bullets):
    """Update images on the screen, and flip to the new screen."""
    # Redraw the screen, each pass through the loop.
    screen.fill(ai_settings.bg_color)

    # Redraw all bullets, behind ship and aliens.
    for bullet in bullets.sprites():
        bullet.draw_bullet()
    ship.blitme()
    aliens.draw(screen)

    # Make the most recently drawn screen visible.
    pygame.display.flip()


def update_bullets(ai_settings, screen, ship, aliens, bullets):
    """Update position of bullets, and get rid of old bullets."""
    # Update bullet positions.
    bullets.update()

    # Get rid of bullets that have disappeared.
    for bullet in bullets.copy():
        if bullet.rect.bottom <= 0:
            bullets.remove(bullet)

    check_bullet_alien_collisions(ai_settings, screen, ship, aliens, bullets)


def check_bullet_alien_collisions(ai_settings, screen, ship, aliens, bullets):
    """Respond to bullet-alien collisions."""
    # Remove any bullets and aliens that have collided.
    collisions = pygame.sprite.groupcollide(bullets, aliens, True, True)

    if len(aliens) == 0:
        # Destroy existing bullets, and create new fleet.
        bullets.empty()
        create_fleet(ai_settings, screen, ship, aliens)


def check_fleet_edges(ai_settings, aliens):
    """Respond appropriately if any aliens have reached an edge."""
    for alien in aliens.sprites():
        if alien.check_edges():
            change_fleet_direction(ai_settings, aliens)
            break


def change_fleet_direction(ai_settings, aliens):
    """Drop the entire fleet, and change the fleet's direction."""
    for alien in aliens.sprites():
        alien.rect.y += ai_settings.fleet_drop_speed
    ai_settings.fleet_direction *= -1


def ship_hit(ai_settings, stats, screen, ship, aliens, bullets):
    """Respond to ship being hit by alien."""
    if stats.ships_left > 0:
        # Decrement ships_left.
        stats.ships_left -= 1
    else:
        stats.game_active = False

    # Empty the list of aliens and bullets.
    aliens.empty()
    bullets.empty()

    # Create a new fleet, and center the ship.
    create_fleet(ai_settings, screen, ship, aliens)
    ship.center_ship()

    # Pause.
    sleep(0.5)


def check_aliens_bottom(ai_settings, stats, screen, ship, aliens, bullets):
    """Check if any aliens have reached the bottom of the screen."""
    screen_rect = screen.get_rect()
    for alien in aliens.sprites():
        if alien.rect.bottom >= screen_rect.bottom:
            # Treat this the same as if the ship got hit.
            ship_hit(ai_settings, stats, screen, ship, aliens, bullets)
            break


def update_aliens(ai_settings, stats, screen, ship, aliens, bullets):
    """
    Check if the fleet is at an edge,
      then update the postions of all aliens in the fleet.
    """
    check_fleet_edges(ai_settings, aliens)
    aliens.update()

    # Look for alien-ship collisions.
    if pygame.sprite.spritecollideany(ship, aliens):
        ship_hit(ai_settings, stats, screen, ship, aliens, bullets)

    # Look for aliens hitting the bottom of the screen.
    check_aliens_bottom(ai_settings, stats, screen, ship, aliens, bullets)


def get_number_aliens_x(ai_settings, alien_width):
    """Determine the number of aliens that fit in a row."""
    available_space_x = ai_settings.screen_width - 2 * alien_width
    number_aliens_x = int(available_space_x / (2 * alien_width))
    return number_aliens_x


def get_number_rows(ai_settings, ship_height, alien_height):
    """Determine the number of rows of aliens that fit on the screen."""
    available_space_y = (ai_settings.screen_height -
                         (3 * alien_height) - ship_height)
    number_rows = int(available_space_y / (2 * alien_height))
    return number_rows


def create_alien(ai_settings, screen, aliens, alien_number, row_number):
    """Create an alien, and place it in the row."""
    alien = Alien(ai_settings, screen)
    alien_width = alien.rect.width
    alien.x = alien_width + 2 * alien_width * alien_number
    alien.rect.x = alien.x
    alien.rect.y = alien.rect.height + 2 * alien.rect.height * row_number
    aliens.add(alien)


def create_fleet(ai_settings, screen, ship, aliens):
    """Create a full fleet of aliens."""
    # Create an alien, and find number of aliens in a row.
    alien = Alien(ai_settings, screen)
    number_aliens_x = get_number_aliens_x(ai_settings, alien.rect.width)
    number_rows = get_number_rows(ai_settings, ship.rect.height,
                                  alien.rect.height)

    # Create the fleet of aliens.
    for row_number in range(number_rows):
        for alien_number in range(number_aliens_x):
            create_alien(ai_settings, screen, aliens, alien_number,
                         row_number)
如何在游戏中添加大量相同的元素,如创建一群外星人;如何使用嵌
套循环来创建元素网格,还通过调用每个元素的方法
update()移动了大量的元素;如何控制对象
在屏幕上移动的方向,以及如何响应事件,如有外星人到达屏幕边缘;如何检测和响应子弹和外
星人碰撞以及外星人和飞船碰撞;如何在游戏中跟踪统计信息,以及如何使用标志
game_active
来判断游戏是否结束了


python库真好玩啊!


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