Postgresql发布与订阅

重点

1、当Subscriber创建时会在对应的Publisher上创建一个slot,因为每一个订阅,都要消耗掉一个replication slot,需要消耗一个wal sender。
2、Publisher发生的改变都保存为wal文件,由walsender进程发送,然后Subscriber的apply进程应用后,才会删除对应的wal文件。所以断网恢复后可以自动同步。

配置

On the publisher side, wal_level must be set to logical, and max_replication_slots must be set to at least the number of subscriptions expected to connect, plus some reserve for table synchronization. And max_wal_senders should be set to at least the same as max_replication_slots plus the number of physical replicas that are connected at the same time.

The subscriber also requires the max_replication_slots to be set. In this case it should be set to at least the number of subscriptions that will be added to the subscriber. max_logical_replication_workers must be set to at least the number of subscriptions, again plus some reserve for the table synchronization. Additionally the max_worker_processes may need to be adjusted to accommodate for replication workers, at least (max_logical_replication_workers + 1). Note that some extensions and parallel queries also take worker slots from max_worker_processes.

关于Slot

As mentioned earlier, each (active) subscription receives changes from a replication slot on the remote (publishing) side. Normally, the remote replication slot is created automatically when the subscription is created using CREATE SUBSCRIPTION and it is dropped automatically when the subscription is dropped using DROP SUBSCRIPTION. In some situations, however, it can be useful or necessary to manipulate the subscription and the underlying replication slot separately. Here are some scenarios:

When creating a subscription, the replication slot already exists. In that case, the subscription can be created using the create_slot = false option to associate with the existing slot.

When creating a subscription, the remote host is not reachable or in an unclear state. In that case, the subscription can be created using the connect = false option. The remote host will then not be contacted at all. This is what pg_dump uses. The remote replication slot will then have to be created manually before the subscription can be activated.

When dropping a subscription, the replication slot should be kept. This could be useful when the subscriber database is being moved to a different host and will be activated from there. In that case, disassociate the slot from the subscription using ALTER SUBSCRIPTIONbefore attempting to drop the subscription.

When dropping a subscription, the remote host is not reachable. In that case, disassociate the slot from the subscription using ALTER SUBSCRIPTION before attempting to drop the subscription. If the remote database instance no longer exists, no further action is then necessary. If, however, the remote database instance is just unreachable, the replication slot should then be dropped manually; otherwise it would continue to reserve WAL and might eventually cause the disk to fill up. Such cases should be carefully investigated.

Replication slots provide an automated way to ensure that the master does not remove WAL segments until they have been received by all standbys, and that the master does not remove rows which could cause a recovery conflict even when the standby is disconnected.

复制的详细过程

Logical replication is built with an architecture similar to physical streaming replication (see Section 26.2.5). It is implemented by “walsender” and “apply” processes. The walsender process starts logical decoding (described in Chapter 48) of the WAL and loads the standard logical decoding plugin (pgoutput). The plugin transforms the changes read from WAL to the logical replication protocol (see Section 52.5) and filters the data according to the publication specification. The data is then continuously transferred using the streaming replication protocol to the apply worker, which maps the data to local tables and applies the individual changes as they are received, in correct transactional order.

The apply process on the subscriber database always runs with session_replication_role set to replica, which produces the usual effects on triggers and constraints.The logical replication apply process currently only fires row triggers, not statement triggers. The initial table synchronization, however, is implemented like a COPY command and thus fires both row and statement triggers for INSERT.
The initial data in existing subscribed tables are snapshotted and copied in a parallel instance of a special kind of apply process. This process will create its own temporary replication slot and copy the existing data. Once existing data is copied, the worker enters synchronization mode, which ensures that the table is brought up to a synchronized state with the main apply process by streaming any changes that happened during the initial data copy using standard logical replication. Once the synchronization is done, the control of the replication of the table is given back to the main apply process where the replication continues as normal.

The subscription apply process will run in the local database with the privileges of a superuser.

Privileges are only checked once at the start of a replication connection. They are not re-checked as each change record is read from the publisher, nor are they re-checked for each change when applied.

冲突解决

A conflict will produce an error and will stop the replication; it must be resolved manually by the user. Details about the conflict can be found in the subscriber’s server log.

如何监控

Because logical replication is based on a similar architecture as physical streaming replication, the monitoring on a publication node is similar to monitoring of a physical replication master (see Section 26.2.5.2).

The monitoring information about subscription is visible in pg_stat_subscription. This view contains one row for every subscription worker. A subscription can have zero or more active subscription workers depending on its state.

Normally, there is a single apply process running for an enabled subscription. A disabled subscription or a crashed subscription will have zero rows in this view. If the initial data synchronization of any table is in progress, there will be additional workers for the tables being synchronized.

缺点

Logical replication currently has the following restrictions or missing functionality. These might be addressed in future releases.

The database schema and DDL commands are not replicated. The initial schema can be copied by hand using pg_dump –schema-only. Subsequent schema changes would need to be kept in sync manually. (Note, however, that there is no need for the schemas to be absolutely the same on both sides.) Logical replication is robust when schema definitions change in a live database: When the schema is changed on the publisher and replicated data starts arriving at the subscriber but does not fit into the table schema, replication will error until the schema is updated. In many cases, intermittent errors can be avoided by applying additive schema changes to the subscriber first.

Sequence data is not replicated. The data in serial or identity columns backed by sequences will of course be replicated as part of the table, but the sequence itself would still show the start value on the subscriber. If the subscriber is used as a read-only database, then this should typically not be a problem. If, however, some kind of switchover or failover to the subscriber database is intended, then the sequences would need to be updated to the latest values, either by copying the current data from the publisher (perhaps using pg_dump) or by determining a sufficiently high value from the tables themselves.

TRUNCATE commands are not replicated. This can, of course, be worked around by using DELETE instead. To avoid accidental TRUNCATE invocations, you can revoke the TRUNCATE privilege from tables.

Large objects (see Chapter 34) are not replicated. There is no workaround for that, other than storing data in normal tables.

Replication is only possible from base tables to base tables. That is, the tables on the publication and on the subscription side must be normal tables, not views, materialized views, partition root tables, or foreign tables. In the case of partitions, you can therefore replicate a partition hierarchy one-to-one, but you cannot currently replicate to a differently partitioned setup. Attempts to replicate tables other than base tables will result in an error.

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