Apache Shiro权限框架在SpringMVC+Hibernate中的应用

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       在做网站开发中,用户权限必须要考虑的,权限这个东西很重要,它规定了用户在使用中能进行哪些操作,和不能进行哪些操作;我们完全可以使用过滤器来进行权限的操作,但是有了权限框架之后,使用起来会非常的方便,一般在公司里面做网站开发常用的权限框架有Spring的Security框架,和Apache的Shiro框架;Spring Security框架在使用上相比Shiro来说要更复杂一些,并且它限制了数据库该怎么去建表,只有按它的要求去建表,才能达到你想要的效果。下面我主要介绍一下Shiro框架的使用,由于本人也是初学者,所写难免会有些不合理的地方,望各位指正;

       使用Apache Shiro框架的步骤:

1.导入相应的jar包,我使用的是maven来管理的,pom.xml配置如下:

<project xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
  xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0 http://maven.apache.org/maven-v4_0_0.xsd">
  <modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion>
  <groupId>com.kaishengit</groupId>
  <artifactId>springmvctest</artifactId>
  <packaging>war</packaging>
  <version>0.0.1-SNAPSHOT</version>
  <name>springmvctest Maven Webapp</name>
  <url>http://maven.apache.org</url>
  <dependencies>
    <dependency>
      <groupId>junit</groupId>
      <artifactId>junit</artifactId>
      <version>3.8.1</version>
      <scope>test</scope>
    </dependency>
    <dependency>
		<groupId>jstl</groupId>
		<artifactId>jstl</artifactId>
		<version>1.2</version>
	</dependency>
    <dependency>
		<groupId>javax.servlet</groupId>
		<artifactId>servlet-api</artifactId>
		<version>2.5</version>
	</dependency>
    <dependency>
		<groupId>org.springframework</groupId>
		<artifactId>spring-webmvc</artifactId>
		<version>3.2.4.RELEASE</version>
	</dependency>
    <dependency>
		<groupId>org.codehaus.jackson</groupId>
		<artifactId>jackson-mapper-asl</artifactId>
		<version>1.9.10</version>
	</dependency>
	<dependency>
		<groupId>commons-fileupload</groupId>
		<artifactId>commons-fileupload</artifactId>
		<version>1.3</version>
	</dependency>
	<dependency>
		<groupId>org.springframework</groupId>
		<artifactId>spring-jdbc</artifactId>
		<version>3.2.4.RELEASE</version>
	</dependency>	
	<dependency>
		<groupId>org.springframework</groupId>
		<artifactId>spring-orm</artifactId>
		<version>3.2.4.RELEASE</version>
	</dependency>
	<!-- Hibernate -->
	<dependency>
		<groupId>org.hibernate</groupId>
		<artifactId>hibernate-core</artifactId>
		<version>4.2.5.Final</version>
	</dependency>
	<dependency>
		<groupId>org.hibernate</groupId>
		<artifactId>hibernate-ehcache</artifactId>
		<version>4.2.5.Final</version>
	</dependency>
	<dependency>
		<groupId>net.sf.ehcache</groupId>
		<artifactId>ehcache</artifactId>
		<version>2.7.2</version>
	</dependency>
	<dependency>
		<groupId>commons-dbcp</groupId>
		<artifactId>commons-dbcp</artifactId>
		<version>1.4</version>
	</dependency>
    <dependency>
		<groupId>mysql</groupId>
		<artifactId>mysql-connector-java</artifactId>
		<version>5.1.26</version>
	</dependency>
	<dependency>
		<groupId>javax.inject</groupId>
		<artifactId>javax.inject</artifactId>
		<version>1</version>
	</dependency>
	<dependency>
		<groupId>org.hibernate</groupId>
		<artifactId>hibernate-validator</artifactId>
		<version>5.0.1.Final</version>
	</dependency>
         <!--Apache Shiro所需的jar包-->
	<dependency>
	  <groupId>org.apache.shiro</groupId>
	  <artifactId>shiro-core</artifactId>
	  <version>1.2.2</version>
	</dependency>
	<dependency>
	  <groupId>org.apache.shiro</groupId>
	  <artifactId>shiro-web</artifactId>
	  <version>1.2.2</version>
	</dependency>
	<dependency>
	  <groupId>org.apache.shiro</groupId>
	  <artifactId>shiro-spring</artifactId>
	  <version>1.2.2</version>
	</dependency>
	
  </dependencies>
  <build>
    <finalName>springmvctest</finalName>
    <plugins>
    	<plugin>
		  <groupId>org.mortbay.jetty</groupId>
		  <artifactId>jetty-maven-plugin</artifactId>
		  <configuration>
		    <scanIntervalSeconds>10</scanIntervalSeconds>
		    <webApp>
		      <contextPath>/</contextPath>
		    </webApp>
		     <connectors>
		       <connector implementation="org.eclipse.jetty.server.nio.SelectChannelConnector">
		          <port>80</port>
		          <maxIdleTime>60000</maxIdleTime>
		       </connector>
		     </connectors>
		  </configuration>
		</plugin>
    </plugins>
  </build>
</project>

2.在web.xml中进行配置:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<web-app version="2.5" 
	xmlns="http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/javaee" 
	xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" 
	xsi:schemaLocation="http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/javaee 
	http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/javaee/web-app_2_5.xsd">
  <display-name>Archetype Created Web Application</display-name>
  
  <!-- OpenSessionInView -->
  <filter>
  	<filter-name>opensessioninview</filter-name>
  	<filter-class>org.springframework.orm.hibernate4.support.OpenSessionInViewFilter</filter-class>
  </filter>
  <filter-mapping>
  	<filter-name>opensessioninview</filter-name>
  	<url-pattern>/*</url-pattern>
  </filter-mapping>
  
  <!-- SpringMVC中央控制器 -->
  <servlet>
  	<servlet-name>mvc</servlet-name>
  	<servlet-class>org.springframework.web.servlet.DispatcherServlet</servlet-class>
  </servlet>
  <servlet-mapping>
  	<servlet-name>mvc</servlet-name>
  	<url-pattern>/</url-pattern>
  </servlet-mapping>

  <!-- Spring监听器 -->
  <context-param>
  	<param-name>contextConfigLocation</param-name>
  	<param-value>classpath:applicationContext*.xml</param-value>
  </context-param>
  <listener>
  	<listener-class>org.springframework.web.context.ContextLoaderListener</listener-class>
  </listener>
  <!-- Shiro配置 -->
  <filter>
  	<filter-name>shiroFilter</filter-name>
  	<filter-class>org.springframework.web.filter.DelegatingFilterProxy</filter-class>
  </filter>
  <filter-mapping>
  	<filter-name>shiroFilter</filter-name>
  	<url-pattern>/*</url-pattern>
  </filter-mapping>

</web-app>

3.使用SpringMVC:在/WEB-INF/路径下配置springmvc-servlet.xml

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<beans xmlns="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans"
	xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
	xmlns:context="http://www.springframework.org/schema/context"
	xmlns:mvc="http://www.springframework.org/schema/mvc"
	xsi:schemaLocation="
	http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans
	http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans/spring-beans.xsd
	http://www.springframework.org/schema/context
	http://www.springframework.org/schema/context/spring-context.xsd
	http://www.springframework.org/schema/mvc
	http://www.springframework.org/schema/mvc/spring-mvc-3.0.xsd">
	<!-- 自动扫描 -->
	<context:component-scan base-package="com.kaishengit.controller">
		<context:include-filter type="annotation" expression="org.springframework.stereotype.Controller"/>
	</context:component-scan>
	<mvc:annotation-driven/>
	<!-- 静态资源访问 -->
	<mvc:resources location="/static/" mapping="/static/**"/>
	<!-- 视图解析器 -->
	<bean id="viewResolver" class="org.springframework.web.servlet.view.UrlBasedViewResolver">
		<property name="viewClass" value="org.springframework.web.servlet.view.JstlView"/>
		<property name="prefix" value="/WEB-INF/views/"/>
		<property name="suffix" value=".jsp"/>
	</bean>
	<!-- 文件上传解析器 -->
	<bean id="multipartResolver" class="org.springframework.web.multipart.commons.CommonsMultipartResolver">
		<!-- 配置最大上传文件的大小 -->
		<property name="maxUploadSize" value="1000000"/>
	</bean>
	<!-- 拦截器 -->
	<mvc:interceptors>
		<mvc:interceptor>
			<mvc:mapping path="/**"/>
			<bean class="com.kaishengit.controller.MyInterceptor">
				<property name="excluedUrls">
					<list>
						<value>/home</value>
					</list>
				</property>
			</bean>
		</mvc:interceptor>
	</mvc:interceptors>
	<!-- 异常 -->
	<bean id="handlerExceptionResolver" class="org.springframework.web.servlet.handler.SimpleMappingExceptionResolver">
		<property name="exceptionMappings">
			<props>
				<prop key="com.kaishengit.exception.AuthorizationException">redirect:/home</prop>
			</props>
		</property>
		
	</bean>
</beans>

 4.配置applicationContext.xml

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<beans xmlns="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans"
       xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
       xmlns:aop="http://www.springframework.org/schema/aop"
       xmlns:tx="http://www.springframework.org/schema/tx"
       xmlns:context="http://www.springframework.org/schema/context"
       xsi:schemaLocation="
http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans/spring-beans.xsd
http://www.springframework.org/schema/tx http://www.springframework.org/schema/tx/spring-tx.xsd
http://www.springframework.org/schema/aop http://www.springframework.org/schema/aop/spring-aop.xsd
http://www.springframework.org/schema/context http://www.springframework.org/schema/context/spring-context.xsd">
	
	<!-- 自动扫描所有的注解,排除掉controller不扫描 -->
	<context:component-scan base-package="com.kaishengit">
		<context:exclude-filter type="annotation" expression="org.springframework.stereotype.Controller"/>
	</context:component-scan>
	
	<!-- 加载ClassPath中的properties文件 -->
	<context:property-placeholder location="classpath:jdbc.properties"/>
	
	<!-- 基于Hibernate的事务管理器 -->
	<bean id="transactionManager" class="org.springframework.orm.hibernate4.HibernateTransactionManager">
		<property name="sessionFactory" ref="sessionFactory"></property>
	</bean>
	
	<!-- 配置数据源 -->
	<bean id="dataSource" class="org.apache.commons.dbcp.BasicDataSource" destroy-method="close">
		<property name="driverClassName" value="${jdbc.driver}"/>
		<property name="url" value="${jdbc.url}"/>
		<property name="username" value="${jdbc.username}"/>
		<property name="password" value="${jdbc.password}"/>
	</bean>
	<!-- 基于注解 -->
	<tx:annotation-driven transaction-manager="transactionManager"/>
	<!-- SessionFactory -->
	<bean id="sessionFactory" class="org.springframework.orm.hibernate4.LocalSessionFactoryBean">
		<property name="dataSource" ref="dataSource"/>
		<!-- 实体类pojo所在的包 -->
		<property name="packagesToScan" value="com.kaishengit.pojo"/>
		<property name="hibernateProperties">
			<props>
				<prop key="hibernate.dialect">org.hibernate.dialect.MySQLDialect</prop>
				<prop key="hibernate.show_sql">true</prop>
				<prop key="hibernate.cache.region.factory_class">org.hibernate.cache.ehcache.EhCacheRegionFactory</prop>
			</props>
		</property>
	</bean>
</beans>

5.将配置在applicationContext.xml中的shiro独立出来,新建applicationContext-shiro.xml

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<beans xmlns="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans"
       xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
       xmlns:context="http://www.springframework.org/schema/context"
       xsi:schemaLocation="
http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans/spring-beans.xsd
http://www.springframework.org/schema/context http://www.springframework.org/schema/context/spring-context.xsd">
	
	<bean id="securityManager" class="org.apache.shiro.web.mgt.DefaultWebSecurityManager">
		<property name="realm" ref="myShiro"/>
		<property name="cacheManager" ref="cacheManager"/>
	</bean>
	
	<bean id="shiroFilter" class="org.apache.shiro.spring.web.ShiroFilterFactoryBean">
		<property name="securityManager" ref="securityManager"/>
		<property name="loginUrl" value="/login"/>
		<property name="successUrl" value="/user"/>
		<property name="unauthorizedUrl" value="/403"/>
		<property name="filterChainDefinitions">
			<value>
                                <!--静态资源直接通过-->
				/static/** =anon
                                <!--只有admin角色才能访问/user/save-->
				/user/save =roles[admin]
                                <!--具有user:add权限的用户可以访问/user/save-->
				<!--/user/save =perms[user:add]-->
                                <!--所有的请求都要通过验证-->
				/** = authc
			</value>
		</property>
	</bean> 	
	<bean id="cacheManager" 
		class="org.apache.shiro.cache.MemoryConstrainedCacheManager" />
	<bean id="lifecycleBeanPostProcessor" 
		class="org.apache.shiro.spring.LifecycleBeanPostProcessor" />
	
</beans>

 6.实现MyRealm:继承AuthorizingRealm,并重写认证授权方法 

package com.kaishengit.service;

import java.util.List;

import javax.inject.Inject;

import org.apache.shiro.authc.AuthenticationException;
import org.apache.shiro.authc.AuthenticationInfo;
import org.apache.shiro.authc.AuthenticationToken;
import org.apache.shiro.authc.SimpleAuthenticationInfo;
import org.apache.shiro.authc.UsernamePasswordToken;
import org.apache.shiro.authz.AuthorizationInfo;
import org.apache.shiro.authz.SimpleAuthorizationInfo;
import org.apache.shiro.realm.AuthorizingRealm;
import org.apache.shiro.subject.PrincipalCollection;
import org.springframework.stereotype.Service;
import org.springframework.transaction.annotation.Transactional;

import com.kaishengit.pojo.Role;
import com.kaishengit.pojo.User;

@Service
@Transactional
public class MyRealm extends AuthorizingRealm{

	@Inject
	private UserService userService;
	/**
	 * 权限认证
	 */
	@Override
	protected AuthorizationInfo doGetAuthorizationInfo(PrincipalCollection principalCollection) {
		//获取登录的用户名
		String loginName=(String) principalCollection.fromRealm(getName()).iterator().next();
		User user=userService.findByName(loginName);
		if(user!=null){
			SimpleAuthorizationInfo info=new SimpleAuthorizationInfo();
			//登录的用户有多少个角色
			info.setRoles(user.getRolesName());
			List<Role> roleList=user.getRoleList();
			for(Role role:roleList){
				//角色有多少个权限
				info.addStringPermissions(role.getPermissionNames());
			}
			return info;
		}
		return null;
	}

	/**
	 * 登录认证
	 */
	@Override
	protected AuthenticationInfo doGetAuthenticationInfo(
			AuthenticationToken authenticationToken) throws AuthenticationException {
		UsernamePasswordToken token = (UsernamePasswordToken) authenticationToken;
		User user = userService.findByName(token.getUsername());
		if(user != null) {
			return new SimpleAuthenticationInfo(user.getUsername(), user.getPassword(), getName());
		}
		return null;
	}

}

7.HomeController.java

package com.kaishengit.controller;

import org.apache.shiro.SecurityUtils;
import org.apache.shiro.authc.AuthenticationException;
import org.apache.shiro.authc.UsernamePasswordToken;
import org.springframework.stereotype.Controller;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.RequestMapping;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.RequestMethod;
import org.springframework.web.servlet.mvc.support.RedirectAttributes;

import com.kaishengit.pojo.User;

@Controller
public class HomeController {

	@RequestMapping(value="/login",method=RequestMethod.GET)
	public String loginForm(){
		return "/login";
	}
	@RequestMapping(value="/login",method=RequestMethod.POST)
	public String login(User user,RedirectAttributes redirectAttributes){
		try {
			SecurityUtils.getSubject().login(new UsernamePasswordToken(user.getUsername(), user.getPassword()));
			return "redirect:/user";
		} catch (AuthenticationException e) {
			redirectAttributes.addFlashAttribute("message", "用户名或密码错误");
			return "redirect:/login";
		}
	}
	@RequestMapping(value="/logout",method=RequestMethod.GET)
	public String logout(RedirectAttributes redirectAttributes ){
		SecurityUtils.getSubject().logout();
		redirectAttributes.addFlashAttribute("message", "您已安全退出");
		return "redirect:/login";
	}
}

 8.在jsp中使用Shiro标签库:

<%@ taglib prefix="shiro" uri="http://shiro.apache.org/tags" %>

<html>

   <head>

      <title>page</title>

   </head>

   <body>

        <!--显示登录的用户名-->

        <h2>welcome!<shiro:principal/></h2>

  <a href="/logout">安全退出</a>

        <!--角色为manager的用户登录后会显示添加按钮,否则不显示-->

  <shiro:hasRole name="manager">

  <a href="/user/save">添加</a>

  </shiro:hasRole>                                                              

    </body>                                                    

</html>

9.数据库中建表,E-R图如下:

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