145. 二叉树的后序遍历

给定一个二叉树,返回它的 后序 遍历。

示例:

输入: [1,null,2,3]  
   1
    \
     2
	/
   3 

输出: [3,2,1]

进阶: 递归算法很简单,你可以通过迭代算法完成吗?

解答

递归:

/**
 * Definition for a binary tree node.
 * struct TreeNode {
 *     int val;
 *     TreeNode *left;
 *     TreeNode *right;
 *     TreeNode() : val(0), left(nullptr), right(nullptr) {}
 *     TreeNode(int x) : val(x), left(nullptr), right(nullptr) {}
 *     TreeNode(int x, TreeNode *left, TreeNode *right) : val(x), left(left), right(right) {}
 * };
 */
class Solution {
public:
    vector<int> postorderTraversal(TreeNode* root) {
        vector<int> result;
        helper(root, result);
        return result;
    }
    void helper(TreeNode* node, vector<int>& result){
        if(!node)
            return;
        helper(node->left, result);
        helper(node->right, result);
        result.push_back(node->val);
    }
};

非递归:

/**
 * Definition for a binary tree node.
 * struct TreeNode {
 *     int val;
 *     TreeNode *left;
 *     TreeNode *right;
 *     TreeNode() : val(0), left(nullptr), right(nullptr) {}
 *     TreeNode(int x) : val(x), left(nullptr), right(nullptr) {}
 *     TreeNode(int x, TreeNode *left, TreeNode *right) : val(x), left(left), right(right) {}
 * };
 */
class Solution {
public:
    vector<int> postorderTraversal(TreeNode* root) {
        TreeNode* cur = root;
        TreeNode* pre;
        vector<int> result;
        stack<TreeNode*> s;
        while(cur != nullptr || !s.empty()){
            while(cur != nullptr){
                s.push(cur);
                cur = cur->left;
            }
            cur = s.top();
            // 没有右子树,或者右子树已经访问过了
            if(cur->right == nullptr || cur->right == pre){
                s.pop();
                result.push_back(cur->val);
                pre = cur;
                cur = nullptr;
            }
            else{
                cur = cur->right;
            }
        }
        return result;
    }
};
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