不带to的动词不定式

     动词不定式的基本形式是“to+动词原形”,这也是动词不定式的重要特征。但动词不定式又常常不带to,归纳起来大致有以下几种情况:

1.在感官动词see,watch,notice, look at,hear,feel,listen to等后作宾语补足语时,不带to。如:

Lily heard someone sing a song in the next room.莉莉听见有人在隔壁房间唱歌。

A woman saw it happen when she was walking past.一位妇女经过时看见发生了这件事。

【注】表示感觉的及物动词,后面可接动词不定式或现在分词充当宾语补足语,但是两者有很大区别。不定式表示动作已发生,动作的全过程已结束;现在分词表示动作正在进行。试比较:

I saw him go into the classroom yesterday.昨天我看到他进入教室了。

I saw him going into the classroom yesterday.昨天我看见他正走进教室。

2.在使役动词make,let,have等后作宾语补足语时,不带to。如:

His mother made him sweep the floor every day.他母亲要他每天扫地板。

Let's go for a walk.咱们一道散步去吧!

【注】动词let,have,make,watch,see, hear等后接省略to的不定式作宾语补足语的句子若改变为被动语态时,原句的宾语补足语变成了主语补足语,此时的不定式符号to要加上。如:

He was made to sing an English song at the party.他被指定要在晚会上唱一首英语歌。

3.在had better,would rather等结构后,不带to。如:

It's raining outside.You had better stay at home.外面正在下雨,你最好留在家里。

We would rather wait till tomorrow.我们宁愿等到明天。

4.在Why not...?/Why don't you...?表示建议的句型中,后接动词原形,不带to。如:

Why not go there with them?为什么不跟他们一起去那儿?

5.在Will you please...?表示请求的句式中,后面要跟动词原形,不带to。如:

Will you please give me a cup of tea?请给我一杯茶好吗?

6.在助动词shall,will, would及其它情态动词之后,不带to。如:

Shall we have supper at five?我们五点钟吃晚饭,好吗?

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