# Codeforces 1385D - a-Good String（分治 + 贪心）

## D. a-Good String

time limit per test 2 seconds
memory limit per test 256 megabytes
input standard input
output standard output

You are given a string s[1…n] consisting of lowercase Latin letters. It is guaranteed that n=2k for some integer k≥0.

The string s[1…n] is called c-good if at least one of the following three conditions is satisfied:

The length of s is 1, and it consists of the character c (i.e. s1=c);
The length of s is greater than 1, the first half of the string consists of only the character c (i.e. s1=s2=⋯=sn2=c) and the second half of the string (i.e. the string sn2+1sn2+2…sn) is a (c+1)-good string;
The length of s is greater than 1, the second half of the string consists of only the character c (i.e. sn2+1=sn2+2=⋯=sn=c) and the first half of the string (i.e. the string s1s2…sn2) is a (c+1)-good string.
For example: “aabc” is ‘a’-good, “ffgheeee” is ‘e’-good.

In one move, you can choose one index i from 1 to n and replace si with any lowercase Latin letter (any character from ‘a’ to ‘z’).

Your task is to find the minimum number of moves required to obtain an ‘a’-good string from s (i.e. c-good string for c= ‘a’). It is guaranteed that the answer always exists.

You have to answer t independent test cases.

Another example of an ‘a’-good string is as follows. Consider the string s=“cdbbaaaa”. It is an ‘a’-good string, because:

the second half of the string (“aaaa”) consists of only the character ‘a’;
the first half of the string (“cdbb”) is ‘b’-good string, because:
the second half of the string (“bb”) consists of only the character ‘b’;
the first half of the string (“cd”) is ‘c’-good string, because:
the first half of the string (“c”) consists of only the character ‘c’;
the second half of the string (“d”) is ‘d’-good string.

## Input

The first line of the input contains one integer t (1≤t≤2⋅104) — the number of test cases. Then t test cases follow.

The first line of the test case contains one integer n (1≤n≤131 072) — the length of s. It is guaranteed that n=2k for some integer k≥0. The second line of the test case contains the string s consisting of n lowercase Latin letters.

It is guaranteed that the sum of n does not exceed 2⋅105 (∑n≤2⋅105).

## Output

For each test case, print the answer — the minimum number of moves required to obtain an ‘a’-good string from s (i.e. c-good string with c= ‘a’). It is guaranteed that the answer exists.

Example
input
6
8
bbdcaaaa
8
asdfghjk
8
ceaaaabb
8
1
z
2
ac
output
0
7
4
5
1
1

## 解题思路：

#include <cstdio>
#include <iostream>
#include <algorithm>
#include <cstring>
#include <cmath>
#include <map>
#include <set>
#include <vector>
using namespace std;
const int N = 2e5 + 50;
typedef long long ll;
vector<int> v;
int solve(string s, char ch)
{
if (s.size() == 1)//剩余一个字符判断是否要修改
return (s == ch) ? 0 : 1;
int k = s.size() / 2;
string a = s.substr(0, k);
string b = s.substr(k);
int ans1 = solve(a, ch + 1);
int ans2 = solve(b, ch + 1);
ans1 += k - count(b.begin(), b.end(), ch);//还要加上另一边不是该字符的数量
ans2 += k - count(a.begin(), a.end(), ch);
return min(ans1, ans2);
}
int main()
{
int t;
cin >> t;
while (t--)
{
int k;
cin >> k;
string s;
cin >> s;
int ans = solve(s, 'a');
cout << ans << endl;
}
return 0;
}

07-25 1447 08-07 1026
07-13 1245
11-25 2843
12-16 2732
07-18 108
07-19 229
07-18 258
03-21 318
07-18 243