使用IDEA搭建一个简单的SpringBoot项目——详细过程

一、创建项目

1.File->new->project;

2.选择“Spring Initializr”,点击next;(jdk1.8默认即可)

3.完善项目信息,组名可不做修改,项目名可做修改;最终建的项目名为:test,src->main->java下包名会是:com->example->test;点击next;

4.Web下勾选Spring Web Start,(网上创建springboot项目多是勾选Web选项,而较高版本的Springboot没有此选项,勾选Spring Web Start即可,2.1.8版本是Spring Web);Template Englines勾选Thymeleaf;SQL勾选:MySQL Driver,JDBC API 和 MyBatis Framework三项;点击next;

5.选择项目路径,点击finish;打开新的窗口;

6.刚创建好的项目目录结构

7.点击右侧的Maven,点击设置(扳手图标)进行项目Maven仓库的配置;

8.(1)选择本地Maven路径;(2)勾选配置文件后边的选项,然后修改为本地Maven的配置文件,它会根据配置文件直接找到本地仓库位置;

9.配置完后,如果没有自动导包,可以点击左上角重新导包按钮,或者呢个下载按钮,选择下载所有源文件和文档

10.在templates文件下新建index.html页面,作为启动的初始页面;

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
<head>
    <meta charset="UTF-8">
    <title>hello</title>
</head>
<body>
    你好!初学者,我是SpringBoot的简单启动页面!
</body>
</html>

11.在com.example.test下新建controller文件夹,在controller文件夹下建一个简单的helloController类;(Controller类要添加@Controller注解,项目启动时,SpringBoot会自动扫描加载Controller)

package com.example.test.controller;


import org.springframework.stereotype.Controller;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.RequestMapping;

@Controller
public class HelloController {

    @RequestMapping("/index")
    public String sayHello(){
        return "index";
    }
}

12.在resources文件夹下application中先配置DataSource基本信息,application文件有两种文件格式,一种是以.properties为后缀,一种是以.yml为后缀的,两种配置方式略有差别,详情可参考这个网址:https://blog.csdn.net/qq_29648651/article/details/78503853;在这我是用.yml后缀的文件格式。右键application文件选择Refact,选择Rename,将后缀改为yml;


spring:
  datasource:
    name: test  #数据库名
    url: jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/test #url
    username: root  #用户名
    password: 123456  #密码
    driver-class-name: com.mysql.jdbc.Driver  #数据库链接驱动

13.运行项目启动类TestApplication.java

可以发现上面有一个WARN警告,那是因为还没有配置编写MyBatis的相关文件,下面会进行详解;

2019-08-02 09:14:27.473  WARN 9120 --- [           main] o.m.s.mapper.ClassPathMapperScanner      : No MyBatis mapper was found in '[com.example.test]' package. Please check your configuration.

14.在浏览器中输入localhost:8080,回车显示初始的index界面;到这项目的初步搭建已经完成,下面可以下一些简单的业务逻辑,比如从数据库获取信息,登录之类的简单功能;

15.在进行下一步编写时,我们先来链接一下数据库;点击右侧的Database,点“加号”,新建数据库链接;

16.填写数据库相关信息,点击Test Connection;

17.如果链接失败可能是驱动的问题,点击左上角的小扳手,进入数据库设置界面

18.连接成功后,显示数据库信息,user表的基本信息也显示了,下面就照这个来了;

19.SpringBoot项目大概分为四层:

(1)DAO层:包括XxxMapper.java(数据库访问接口类),XxxMapper.xml(数据库链接实现);(这个命名,有人喜欢用Dao命名,有人喜欢用Mapper,看个人习惯了吧)

(2)Bean层:也叫model层,模型层,entity层,实体层,就是数据库表的映射实体类,存放POJO对象;

(3)Service层:也叫服务层,业务层,包括XxxService.java(业务接口类),XxxServiceImpl.java(业务实现类);(可以在service文件夹下新建impl文件放业务实现类,也可以把业务实现类单独放一个文件夹下,更清晰)

(4)Web层:就是Controller层,实现与web前端的交互。

依照上面四层,创建目录结构如下:

20.代码展示:

(1)在application配置文件中添加MyBatis配置:

spring:
  datasource:
    name: test  #数据库名
    url: jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/test #url
    username: root  #用户名
    password: 123456  #密码
    driver-class-name: com.mysql.jdbc.Driver  #数据库链接驱动


mybatis:
  mapper-locations: classpath:mapper/*.xml  #配置映射文件
  type-aliases-package: com.example.test.bean #配置实体类

(2)pom.xml文件配置信息(备注:这个文件以前没有,2019/12/9日粉丝发现的,这个里面也添加了单元测试所需的配置,记得要重新导一下Maven包哦

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<project xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
         xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0 http://maven.apache.org/xsd/maven-4.0.0.xsd">
    <modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion>
    <parent>
        <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
        <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-parent</artifactId>
        <version>2.1.6.RELEASE</version>
        <relativePath/> <!-- lookup parent from repository -->
    </parent>
    <groupId>com.example</groupId>
    <artifactId>test</artifactId>
    <version>0.0.1-SNAPSHOT</version>
    <name>test</name>
    <description>Demo project for Spring Boot</description>

    <properties>
        <java.version>1.8</java.version>
    </properties>

    <dependencies>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-jdbc</artifactId>
        </dependency>
        <!--thymeleaf模板引擎配置-->
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-thymeleaf</artifactId>
        </dependency>
        <!--Web依赖-->
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-web</artifactId>
        </dependency>
        <!--MyBatis配置-->
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.mybatis.spring.boot</groupId>
            <artifactId>mybatis-spring-boot-starter</artifactId>
            <version>2.1.0</version>
        </dependency>
        <!--MySQL数据库配置-->
        <dependency>
            <groupId>mysql</groupId>
            <artifactId>mysql-connector-java</artifactId>
            <version>5.1.41</version>
            <scope>runtime</scope>
        </dependency>
        <!--单元测试配置-->
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-test</artifactId>
            <scope>test</scope>
        </dependency>
    </dependencies>

    <build>
        <plugins>
            <plugin>
                <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
                <artifactId>spring-boot-maven-plugin</artifactId>
            </plugin>
        </plugins>
    </build>

</project>

 

(3)Bean实体类,依据数据库表,生成set和get方法;

package com.example.test.bean;

public class UserBean {
    private int id;
    private String name;
    private String password;

    public int getId() {
        return id;
    }

    public void setId(int id) {
        this.id = id;
    }

    public String getName() {
        return name;
    }

    public void setName(String name) {
        this.name = name;
    }

    public String getPassword() {
        return password;
    }

    public void setPassword(String password) {
        this.password = password;
    }
}

(4)DAO层访问数据库接口文件: 

package com.example.test.mapper;

import com.example.test.bean.UserBean;

public interface UserMapper {

    UserBean getInfo(String name,String password);

}

(5)DAO层访问数据库实现文件(需在resource包下创建mapper文件夹,然后再创建一个UserMapper.xml.在application配置文件中mybatis:mapper-locations:对应的就是该文件地址),注意<mapper>标签的namespace属性要填写 访问数据库接口类文件路径:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<!DOCTYPE mapper PUBLIC "-//mybatis.org//DTD Mapper 3.0//EN" "http://mybatis.org/dtd/mybatis-3-mapper.dtd" >
<mapper namespace="com.example.test.mapper.UserMapper">

    <select id="getInfo" parameterType="String" resultType="com.example.test.bean.UserBean">
        SELECT * FROM user WHERE name = #{name} AND password = #{password}
    </select>

</mapper>

(6)Service层业务接口类编写: 

package com.example.test.service;

import com.example.test.bean.UserBean;

public interface UserService {

    UserBean loginIn(String name,String password);

}

(7)Service层业务实现类编写,注意要注解@Service,注入DAO: 

package com.example.test.serviceImpl;

import com.example.test.bean.UserBean;
import com.example.test.mapper.UserMapper;
import com.example.test.service.UserService;
import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired;
import org.springframework.stereotype.Service;

@Service
public class UserServiceImpl implements UserService {

    //将DAO注入Service层
    @Autowired
    private UserMapper userMapper;

    @Override
    public UserBean loginIn(String name, String password) {
        return userMapper.getInfo(name,password);
    }
}

(8)项目启动类要添加注解@MapperScan项目启动时扫描mapper接口,否则会报错找不到mapper文件:

package com.example.test;

import org.mybatis.spring.annotation.MapperScan;
import org.springframework.boot.SpringApplication;
import org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.SpringBootApplication;

@SpringBootApplication
@MapperScan("com.example.test.mapper")
public class TestApplication {

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        SpringApplication.run(TestApplication.class, args);
    }

}

 (9)编写测试类,看是否能成功 访问数据库,获取数据库信息:

package com.example.test;

import com.example.test.bean.UserBean;
import com.example.test.service.UserService;
import org.junit.Test;
import org.junit.runner.RunWith;
import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired;
import org.springframework.boot.test.context.SpringBootTest;
import org.springframework.test.context.junit4.SpringRunner;

@RunWith(SpringRunner.class)
@SpringBootTest
public class TestApplicationTests {

    @Autowired
    UserService userService;

    @Test
    public void contextLoads() {
        UserBean userBean = userService.loginIn("a","a");
        System.out.println("该用户ID为:");
        System.out.println(userBean.getId());
    }

}

 

(10) controller层,注意添加@controller注解,注入Service服务:

package com.example.test.controller;

import com.example.test.bean.UserBean;
import com.example.test.service.UserService;
import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired;
import org.springframework.stereotype.Controller;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.RequestMapping;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.RequestMethod;

@Controller
public class LoginController {

    //将Service注入Web层
    @Autowired
    UserService userService;

    @RequestMapping("/login")
    public String show(){
        return "login";
    }

    @RequestMapping(value = "/loginIn",method = RequestMethod.POST)
    public String login(String name,String password){
        UserBean userBean = userService.loginIn(name,password);
        if(userBean!=null){
            return "success";
        }else {
            return "error";
        }
    }



}

(11)html文件: 

login.html

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
<head>
    <meta charset="UTF-8">
    <title>login</title>
</head>
<body>
    <form role="form" action = "/loginIn" method="post">
        账号:<input type="text" id="name" name = "name"> <br>
        密码:<input type="password" id = "password" name = "password"> <br>
        <input type="submit" id = "login" value = "login">
    </form>

</body>
</html>

success.html 

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
<head>
    <meta charset="UTF-8">
    <title>success</title>
</head>
<body>
    <h1>登录成功!</h1>
</body>
</html>

 error.html

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
<head>
    <meta charset="UTF-8">
    <title>error</title>
</head>
<body>
    <h1>登录失败!</h1>
</body>
</html>

21.先运行测试类,看是否成功获取数据库信息:

22.同时发现一条警告信息,是数据库连接的jar包问题:

2019-08-02 11:25:04.150  WARN 16868 --- [           main] com.zaxxer.hikari.util.DriverDataSource  : Registered driver with driverClassName=com.mysql.jdbc.Driver was not found, trying direct instantiation.

打开pom.xml文件,发现配置文件中未指定数据库连接的jar包的版本号,用version标签引入

<version>5.1.41</version>

重新运行测试类,WARN警告消除

23.运行TestApplication.java文件,启动项目,无任何WARN警告信息,进入浏览器输入localhost:8080/login

 

 

项目到这里就算完美结束了。

 

项目源码放在GitHub上,可以下载参考https://github.com/redesperado/SpringBoot.git

 

有一个基于本项目添加增删改查功能的项目,仅供参考https://github.com/redesperado/test1.git

 

附一个微服务项目搭建过程,有想学的可以参考一下

IDEA基于springboot采用Dubbo+zookeeper+Redis搭建微服务项目-详细教程:https://blog.csdn.net/baidu_39298625/article/details/108330298

 

大家如果在创建过程 中遇到什么问题,可以在下边提供的链接中看看,这些是我在创建项目过程遇到的问题,希望可以帮到大家:

1.启动报错:Error starting ApplicationContext. To display the conditions report re-run your application with 'debug' enabled.

 https://blog.csdn.net/baidu_39298625/article/details/98261102

2.mapper.xml文件数据库字段报红

https://blog.csdn.net/baidu_39298625/article/details/98265845

3.项目正常启动,访问默认index页面时404

https://blog.csdn.net/baidu_39298625/article/details/98501840

4. 链接MySQL数据库报错:java.sql.SQLException: The server time zone value '�й���׼ʱ��' is unrecognized or represents more than one time zone. You must configure either the server or JDBC driver (via the serverTimezone configuration property) to use a more specifc time zone value if you want to utilize time zone support.

https://blog.csdn.net/baidu_39298625/article/details/100915264

5.中文用户名登录失败,无报错信息

https://blog.csdn.net/baidu_39298625/article/details/103494461

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