QEMU KVM Libvirt手册(10):Managing Virtual Machines with libvirt

libvirt is a library that provides a common API for managing popular virtualization solutions, among them KVM and Xen.

使用virt-install创建image

qemu-img create -f qcow2 /tmp/centos5.8.img 10G

virt-install --virt-type qemu --name centos-5.8 --ram 2048 --noreboot --disk path=/tmp/centos5.8.img,format=qcow2,bus=virtio,device=disk --cdrom=/tmp/CentOS-5.8-x86_64-bin-DVD-1of2.iso --network network=default --graphics vnc,listen=0.0.0.0 --noautoconsole

qemu-img convert -O qcow2 -c centos-5.8.img centos-5.8.1.qcow2

使用virt-clone来复制instance

必须是在虚拟机关闭的状态下

root:/home/cliu8/images# virt-clone -o ubuntu-14.04 -n ubuntu-14.04.new -f ubuntu-14.04.new.qcow2
Cloning ubuntu-14.04.img                                                                              | 1.6 GB     00:03    

Clone 'ubuntu-14.04.new' created successfully.
root:/home/cliu8/images# virsh list --all
Id    Name                           State
----------------------------------------------------
-     ubuntu-14.04                   shut off
-     ubuntu-14.04.new               shut off

root:/home/cliu8/images# ls -l
total 24368572
-rwxrwxrwx  1 root         root   1717043200 Jul 14 07:07 ubuntu-14.04.img
-rwxr-xr-x  1 root         root   1717043200 Jul 14 21:35 ubuntu-14.04.new.qcow2

使用virt-top查看instance统计信息

-1                Start by displaying pCPUs (default: tasks)

-2                Start by displaying network interfaces

virt-top 21:45:58 - x86_64 20/20CPU 1200MHz 64359MB
13 domains, 8 active, 8 running, 0 sleeping, 0 paused, 5 inactive D:0 O:0 X:0
CPU: 3.6%  Mem: 29696 MB (29696 MB by guests)

   ID S RXBY TXBY RXPK TXPK DOMAIN       INTERFACE                                                                           
    9 R  29K 8106   37   43 baremetal_2  vnet3
    3 R  15K  40K   80   71 baremetal_0  vnet2
    6 R  10K 7760   37   37 baremetal_4  vnet5
    2 R  150    0    3    0 seed         vnet1
    5 R  150    0    3    0 baremetal_5  vnet4
    7 R  150    0    3    0 baremetal_3  vnet6
    2 R   52    0    1    0 seed         vnet0
   47 R    0    0    0    0 instance-000 tap82945112-d4
   10 R    0    0    0    0 baremetal_1  vnet7

-3                Start by displaying block devices

virt-top 21:47:15 - x86_64 20/20CPU 1200MHz 64359MB
13 domains, 8 active, 8 running, 0 sleeping, 0 paused, 5 inactive D:0 O:0 X:0
CPU: 2.3%  Mem: 29696 MB (29696 MB by guests)

   ID S RDBY WRBY RDRQ WRRQ DOMAIN       DEVICE                                                                              
    6 R  29M  12K  232    2 baremetal_4  sda
    5 R  29M 4096  232    1 baremetal_5  sda
    9 R 4096  44K    1    6 baremetal_2  sda
    3 R    0  48K    0    6 baremetal_0  sda
   10 R    0    0    0    0 baremetal_1  sda
    7 R    0  52K    0    2 baremetal_3  sda
    2 R    0  68K    0    1 seed         sda
   47 R    0    0    0    0 instance-000 vda
    2 R    0    0    0    0 seed         vda

使用virsh管理Instance

qemu:///session: a normal user with the local QEMU-/KVM-Hypervisor (connection type session).

qemu+unix:///session: a normal user with the local QEMU-/KVM-Hypervisor (connection type session).

qemu:///system: user root with the local QEMU-/KVM-Hypervisor (connection type system).

qemu+unix:///system: user root with the local QEMU-/KVM-Hypervisor (connection type system).

qemu+ssh://root@example.com/system: user root with a QEMU-/KVM-Hypervisor on the node example.com via SSH tunnel.

qemu+tcp://example.com/system: a QEMU-/KVM-Hypervisor on the node example.com protected with with SASL / Kerberos.

 

List running and inactive guests as user roots on a remote host over a TLS connection

virsh -c qemu+tls://root@mercury.example.com/system list --all

List running and inactive guests as user tux on a remote host over an SSH tunnel

virsh -c qemu+ssh://tux@mercury.example.com/system list –inactive
注意ssh tunnel和tls方式不同

Connecting and Authorizing

authentication的方法有下面几种:

  • Access control for UNIX sockets with permissions and group ownership. This method is available for libvirtd connections only.
  • Access control for UNIX sockets with PolicyKit. This method is available for local libvirtd connections only.
  • Username and password authentication with SASL (Simple Authentication and Security Layer). This method is available for both, libvirtd and VNC connections. Using SASL does not require real user accounts on the server, since it uses its own database to store usernames and passwords. Connections authenticated with SASL are encrypted.
  • Kerberos authentication. This method, available for libvirtd connections only, is not covered in this manual. Please refer tohttp://libvirt.org/auth.html#ACL_server_kerberos for details.
  • Single password authentication. This method is available for VNC connections only.

libvirtd authentication is configured in /etc/libvirt/libvirtd.conf.

libvirt offers two sockets: a read-only socket for monitoring purposes and a read-write socket to be used for management operations.

By default, both sockets are owned by root.root.

Default access permissions on the read-write socket are restricted to the user root (0700) and fully open on the read-only socket (0777).

# virsh define ubuntu-14.04.xml                       
error: Failed to define domain from ubuntu-14.04.xml
error: unknown OS type hvm

则运行

# virsh capabilities
<capabilities>

  <host>
    <uuid>004a7ff2-faec-de11-81d0-b9f76e39343c</uuid>
    <cpu>
      <arch>x86_64</arch>
      <model>Westmere</model>
      <vendor>Intel</vendor>
      <topology sockets='1' cores='2' threads='2'/>
      <feature name='rdtscp'/>
      <feature name='pcid'/>
      <feature name='pdcm'/>
      <feature name='xtpr'/>
      <feature name='tm2'/>
      <feature name='est'/>
      <feature name='smx'/>
      <feature name='vmx'/>
      <feature name='ds_cpl'/>
      <feature name='monitor'/>
      <feature name='dtes64'/>
      <feature name='pclmuldq'/>
      <feature name='pbe'/>
      <feature name='tm'/>
      <feature name='ht'/>
      <feature name='ss'/>
      <feature name='acpi'/>
      <feature name='ds'/>
      <feature name='vme'/>
    </cpu>
    <power_management>
      <suspend_mem/>
      <suspend_disk/>
      <suspend_hybrid/>
    </power_management>
    <migration_features>
      <live/>
      <uri_transports>
        <uri_transport>tcp</uri_transport>
      </uri_transports>
    </migration_features>
    <topology>
      <cells num='1'>
        <cell id='0'>
          <memory unit='KiB'>3836492</memory>
          <cpus num='4'>
            <cpu id='0' socket_id='0' core_id='0' siblings='0-1'/>
            <cpu id='1' socket_id='0' core_id='0' siblings='0-1'/>
            <cpu id='2' socket_id='0' core_id='2' siblings='2-3'/>
            <cpu id='3' socket_id='0' core_id='2' siblings='2-3'/>
          </cpus>
        </cell>
      </cells>
    </topology>
    <secmodel>
      <model>apparmor</model>
      <doi>0</doi>
    </secmodel>
    <secmodel>
      <model>dac</model>
      <doi>0</doi>
      <baselabel type='kvm'>+118:+128</baselabel>
      <baselabel type='qemu'>+118:+128</baselabel>
    </secmodel>
  </host>

  <guest>
    <os_type>hvm</os_type>
    <arch name='i686'>
      <wordsize>32</wordsize>
      <emulator>/usr/bin/qemu-system-i386</emulator>
      <machine canonical='pc-i440fx-trusty' maxCpus='255'>pc</machine>
      <machine maxCpus='255'>pc-0.12</machine>
      <machine maxCpus='255'>pc-1.3</machine>
      <machine maxCpus='255'>pc-q35-1.6</machine>
      <machine maxCpus='255'>pc-q35-1.5</machine>
      <machine maxCpus='1'>xenpv</machine>
      <machine maxCpus='255'>pc-i440fx-1.6</machine>
      <machine maxCpus='255'>pc-i440fx-1.7</machine>
      <machine maxCpus='255'>pc-0.11</machine>
      <machine maxCpus='255'>pc-0.10</machine>
      <machine maxCpus='255'>pc-1.2</machine>
      <machine maxCpus='1'>isapc</machine>
      <machine maxCpus='255'>pc-q35-1.4</machine>
      <machine maxCpus='128'>xenfv</machine>
      <machine maxCpus='255'>pc-0.15</machine>
      <machine maxCpus='255'>pc-0.14</machine>
      <machine maxCpus='255'>pc-i440fx-1.5</machine>
      <machine canonical='pc-q35-2.0' maxCpus='255'>q35</machine>
      <machine maxCpus='255'>pc-i440fx-1.4</machine>
      <machine maxCpus='255'>pc-1.1</machine>
      <machine maxCpus='255'>pc-q35-1.7</machine>
      <machine maxCpus='255'>pc-1.0</machine>
      <machine maxCpus='255'>pc-i440fx-2.0</machine>
      <machine maxCpus='255'>pc-0.13</machine>
      <domain type='qemu'>
      </domain>
      <domain type='kvm'>
        <emulator>/usr/bin/kvm-spice</emulator>
        <machine canonical='pc-i440fx-trusty' maxCpus='255'>pc</machine>
        <machine maxCpus='255'>pc-1.3</machine>
        <machine maxCpus='255'>pc-0.12</machine>
        <machine maxCpus='255'>pc-q35-1.6</machine>
        <machine maxCpus='255'>pc-q35-1.5</machine>
        <machine maxCpus='1'>xenpv</machine>
        <machine maxCpus='255'>pc-i440fx-1.6</machine>
        <machine maxCpus='255'>pc-i440fx-1.7</machine>
        <machine maxCpus='255'>pc-0.11</machine>
        <machine maxCpus='255'>pc-1.2</machine>
        <machine maxCpus='255'>pc-0.10</machine>
        <machine maxCpus='1'>isapc</machine>
        <machine maxCpus='255'>pc-q35-1.4</machine>
        <machine maxCpus='128'>xenfv</machine>
        <machine maxCpus='255'>pc-0.15</machine>
        <machine maxCpus='255'>pc-0.14</machine>
        <machine maxCpus='255'>pc-i440fx-1.5</machine>
        <machine maxCpus='255'>pc-i440fx-1.4</machine>
        <machine canonical='pc-q35-2.0' maxCpus='255'>q35</machine>
        <machine maxCpus='255'>pc-1.1</machine>
        <machine maxCpus='255'>pc-q35-1.7</machine>
        <machine maxCpus='255'>pc-1.0</machine>
        <machine maxCpus='255'>pc-i440fx-2.0</machine>
        <machine maxCpus='255'>pc-0.13</machine>
      </domain>
    </arch>
    <features>
      <cpuselection/>
      <deviceboot/>
      <acpi default='on' toggle='yes'/>
      <apic default='on' toggle='no'/>
      <pae/>
      <nonpae/>
    </features>
  </guest>

  <guest>
    <os_type>hvm</os_type>
    <arch name='x86_64'>
      <wordsize>64</wordsize>
      <emulator>/usr/bin/qemu-system-x86_64</emulator>
      <machine canonical='pc-i440fx-trusty' maxCpus='255'>pc</machine>
      <machine maxCpus='255'>pc-1.3</machine>
      <machine maxCpus='255'>pc-0.12</machine>
      <machine maxCpus='255'>pc-q35-1.6</machine>
      <machine maxCpus='255'>pc-q35-1.5</machine>
      <machine maxCpus='1'>xenpv</machine>
      <machine maxCpus='255'>pc-i440fx-1.6</machine>
      <machine maxCpus='255'>pc-i440fx-1.7</machine>
      <machine maxCpus='255'>pc-0.11</machine>
      <machine maxCpus='255'>pc-1.2</machine>
      <machine maxCpus='255'>pc-0.10</machine>
      <machine maxCpus='1'>isapc</machine>
      <machine maxCpus='255'>pc-q35-1.4</machine>
      <machine maxCpus='128'>xenfv</machine>
      <machine maxCpus='255'>pc-0.15</machine>
      <machine maxCpus='255'>pc-0.14</machine>
      <machine maxCpus='255'>pc-i440fx-1.5</machine>
      <machine maxCpus='255'>pc-i440fx-1.4</machine>
      <machine canonical='pc-q35-2.0' maxCpus='255'>q35</machine>
      <machine maxCpus='255'>pc-1.1</machine>
      <machine maxCpus='255'>pc-q35-1.7</machine>
      <machine maxCpus='255'>pc-1.0</machine>
      <machine maxCpus='255'>pc-i440fx-2.0</machine>
      <machine maxCpus='255'>pc-0.13</machine>
      <domain type='qemu'>
      </domain>
      <domain type='kvm'>
        <emulator>/usr/bin/kvm-spice</emulator>
        <machine canonical='pc-i440fx-trusty' maxCpus='255'>pc</machine>
        <machine maxCpus='255'>pc-1.3</machine>
        <machine maxCpus='255'>pc-0.12</machine>
        <machine maxCpus='255'>pc-q35-1.6</machine>
        <machine maxCpus='255'>pc-q35-1.5</machine>
        <machine maxCpus='1'>xenpv</machine>
        <machine maxCpus='255'>pc-i440fx-1.6</machine>
        <machine maxCpus='255'>pc-i440fx-1.7</machine>
        <machine maxCpus='255'>pc-0.11</machine>
        <machine maxCpus='255'>pc-1.2</machine>
        <machine maxCpus='255'>pc-0.10</machine>
        <machine maxCpus='1'>isapc</machine>
        <machine maxCpus='255'>pc-q35-1.4</machine>
        <machine maxCpus='128'>xenfv</machine>
        <machine maxCpus='255'>pc-0.15</machine>
        <machine maxCpus='255'>pc-0.14</machine>
        <machine maxCpus='255'>pc-i440fx-1.5</machine>
        <machine maxCpus='255'>pc-i440fx-1.4</machine>
        <machine canonical='pc-q35-2.0' maxCpus='255'>q35</machine>
        <machine maxCpus='255'>pc-1.1</machine>
        <machine maxCpus='255'>pc-q35-1.7</machine>
        <machine maxCpus='255'>pc-1.0</machine>
        <machine maxCpus='255'>pc-i440fx-2.0</machine>
        <machine maxCpus='255'>pc-0.13</machine>
      </domain>
    </arch>
    <features>
      <cpuselection/>
      <deviceboot/>
      <acpi default='on' toggle='yes'/>
      <apic default='on' toggle='no'/>
    </features>
  </guest>

</capabilities>

此后便可以

root@popsuper1982:/home/cliu8/images# virsh define ubuntu-14.04.xml 
Domain ubuntu-14.04 defined from ubuntu-14.04.xml

Access Control for UNIX Sockets with Permissions and Group Ownership

Change the configuration in /etc/libvirt/libvirtd.conf as follows:

       unix_sock_group = "libvirt"
       unix_sock_rw_perms = "0770"
       auth_unix_rw = "none"

Group ownership will be set to group libvirt.

Sets the access permissions for the socket (srwxrwx---).

Disables other authentication methods (PolicyKit or SASL). Access is solely controlled by the socket permissions.

默认情况下

unix_sock_group = "libvirtd"

unix_sock_ro_perms = "0777"

unix_sock_rw_perms = "0770"

在没把cliu8添加到libvirtd的group里面的时候

$ virsh list
error: failed to connect to the hypervisor
error: no valid connection
error: Failed to connect socket to '/var/run/libvirt/libvirt-sock': Permission denied

添加到group之后

sudo usermod -G libvirtd -a cliu8

$ virsh list
Id    Name                           State
----------------------------------------------------
48    instance-00000025              running
49    instance-00000026              running
50    instance-00000027              running

这个时候,使用ssh tunnel远程访问,也是可以的了

$ virsh -c qemu+ssh://cliu8@16.158.166.150/system list
cliu8@16.158.166.150's password: 
Id    Name                           State
----------------------------------------------------
3     ubuntu-14.04                   running

Local Access Control for UNIX Sockets with PolicyKit

no libvirt configuration changes are needed.

With PolicyKit authorization enabled, permissions on both sockets default to 0777 and each application trying to access a socket needs to authenticate via PolicyKit.

Authentication with PolicyKit can only be used for local connections on the VM Host Server itself

Two policies for accessing libvirt's sockets exist:

  • org.libvirt.unix.monitor: accessing the read-only socket
  • org.libvirt.unix.manage: accessing the read-write socket
polkit-auth --user tux --grant org.libvirt.unix.manage    # grant privilege
polkit-auth --user tux --revoke org.libvirt.unix.manage   # revoke privilege

Username and Password Authentication with SASL

SASL provides username and password authentication as well as data encryption (digest-md5, by default).

Since SASL maintains its own user database, the users do not need to exist on the VM Host Server.

SASL is required by TCP connections and on top of TLS/SSL connections.

To configure SASL authentication, proceed as follows:

  1. Change the configuration in /etc/libvirt/libvirtd.conf as follows:

    1. To enable SASL for TCP connections:

      auth_tcp = "sasl"
    2. To enable SASL for TLS/SSL connections:

      auth_tls = "sasl"
  2. Restart libvirtd:

    rclibvirtd restart
  3. The libvirt SASL configuration file is located at /etc/sasl2/libvirtd.conf. Normally, there is no need to change the defaults. However, if using SASL on top of TLS, you may turn off session encryption to avoid additional overhead— TLS connections are already encrypted— by commenting the mech_list. For TCP connections this parameter must be set to digest-md5:

    mech_list: digest-md5   # mandatory for TCP connections
    #mech_list: digest-md5   # apply default (username+password) TLS/SSL only!
  4. By default, no SASL users are configured, so no logins are possible. Use the following commands to add, list, and delete users:

    mercury:~ # saslpasswd2 -a libvirt tux                  # add user tux
    Password: 
    Again (for verification): 
    mercury:~ # sasldblistusers2 -f /etc/libvirt/passwd.db  # list users
    tux@mercury.example.com: userPassword
    mercury:~ # saslpasswd2 -a libvirt -d tux               # delete user tux
如果使用qemu+tcp://连接,则应该enable digest-md5,这样交互会被加密。
如果使用qemu+tls://连接,则应该disable digest-md5,这样交互就不会被md5加密一次,然后再被TLS加密一次

修改/etc/libvirt/libvirtd.conf

listen_tls = 1

listen_tcp = 1

对于unix socket我们不auth

auth_unix_ro = "none"

auth_unix_rw = "none"

tls_port = "16514"

tcp_port = "16509"

属于这个group的则放行

unix_sock_group = "libvirtd"

unix_sock_ro_perms = "0777"

unix_sock_rw_perms = "0770"

对于tcp或者tls则auth

auth_tcp = "sasl"

对于tls需要configure下面的

auth_tls = "sasl"

key_file = "/etc/pki/libvirt/private/serverkey.pem"

cert_file = "/etc/pki/libvirt/servercert.pem"

ca_file = "/etc/pki/CA/cacert.pem"

创建key和certificate

 

/Create the Certificate Authority Certificate
# cat certificate_authority_template.info
cn = libvirt.org
ca
cert_signing_key

apt-get install gnutls-bin

(umask 277 && certtool --generate-privkey > certificate_authority_key.pem)

# cat certificate_authority_key.pem 
-----BEGIN RSA PRIVATE KEY-----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VELO4A0CgZkAwF78LboWjR9+LGrXu0taaoLymhxltpC81BRWEXjPZ3rj0IEMxITw
9mQAMXdJzXiARoIu/sarLb/wphVSia2QO8x0Q65De526jUUCZjP/wYgl0X8S7Mu+
r3FcApmGyoh+Vy8txyV3uJVh5xbsxF60fSenswQd+VPdJ01XJCbnLbVFH/5iQw4a
NzjF/UlXfBI0/NMSIYP5DnQ=
-----END RSA PRIVATE KEY-----

root@popsuper1982:/home/cliu8/keys/certtool# ls -la certificate_authority_key.pem
-r-------- 1 root root 1972 Jul 15 22:28 certificate_authority_key.pem

# certtool --generate-self-signed --template certificate_authority_template.info --load-privkey certificate_authority_key.pem --outfile certificate_authority_certificate.pem
# certtool --generate-self-signed --template certificate_authority_template.info --load-privkey certificate_authority_key.pem --outfile certificate_authority_certificate.pem
Generating a self signed certificate...
X.509 Certificate Information:
        Version: 3
        Serial Number (hex): 53c53b4d
        Validity:
                Not Before: Tue Jul 15 14:31:41 UTC 2014
                Not After: Wed Jul 15 14:31:41 UTC 2015
        Subject: CN=libvirt.org
        Subject Public Key Algorithm: RSA
        Certificate Security Level: Normal
                Modulus (bits 2432):
                        00:e9:59:61:58:f3:f4:a0:db:7a:c1:57:48:5c:c4:19
                        5a:2c:b3:51:cf:2c:37:31:64:3f:52:bc:ea:f8:1b:db
                        3f:ed:95:7d:c1:0f:56:cd:4c:21:d5:a3:fd:93:78:29
                        87:ca:fe:1a:7b:79:01:c6:69:c1:d1:84:93:f7:6f:18
                        87:f9:5b:9f:7a:b8:c1:ac:ab:a8:8c:1f:fc:c9:d8:f5
                        29:b5:ea:1e:e3:3f:9d:f1:ff:56:83:ea:ed:48:30:ac
                        61:e5:39:46:22:53:97:57:09:6c:6c:58:de:7f:f5:a5
                        d8:46:46:79:19:4d:be:6f:1c:d0:2c:1c:8b:ef:1c:be
                        ca:96:5e:87:ef:36:83:7a:9b:1b:1e:03:18:71:60:70
                        f5:73:1b:11:e6:01:3e:87:43:b9:7a:aa:4b:01:99:21
                        69:76:4e:22:0e:e6:a5:bc:23:48:d9:04:ad:1e:56:b7
                        90:8b:01:bb:bb:72:aa:f9:3c:ba:b1:9a:2a:d3:45:de
                        d3:84:82:4e:40:07:da:1f:e9:b7:47:3b:96:6d:e0:f8
                        1b:b0:c1:98:d0:df:9b:c9:f9:c6:d9:32:58:43:8e:9a
                        e6:6a:a7:6f:a9:c2:df:c8:60:7b:87:f5:d1:f4:25:1a
                        c4:3c:bb:17:fe:83:a1:06:48:8b:a5:1a:b3:00:91:d9
                        26:2a:8d:73:dc:e5:a1:85:a4:1a:29:1f:1d:c1:fb:14
                        4f:51:8f:4b:9c:19:15:49:7c:de:3d:0e:cb:47:84:b6
                        ff:d2:dd:1e:2a:d6:77:59:18:df:c1:82:39:a4:0f:47
                        51
                Exponent (bits 24):
                        01:00:01
        Extensions:
                Basic Constraints (critical):
                        Certificate Authority (CA): TRUE
                Key Usage (critical):
                        Certificate signing.
                Subject Key Identifier (not critical):
                        f113e5356c2b30271aa1f1bb6183676edee28ed7
Other Information:
        Public Key Id:
                f113e5356c2b30271aa1f1bb6183676edee28ed7

Signing certificate...

# cat certificate_authority_certificate.pem 
-----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
MIIDTTCCAgWgAwIBAgIEU8U7TTANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQsFADAWMRQwEgYDVQQDEwts
aWJ2aXJ0Lm9yZzAeFw0xNDA3MTUxNDMxNDFaFw0xNTA3MTUxNDMxNDFaMBYxFDAS
BgNVBAMTC2xpYnZpcnQub3JnMIIBUjANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQEFAAOCAT8AMIIBOgKC
ATEA6VlhWPP0oNt6wVdIXMQZWiyzUc8sNzFkP1K86vgb2z/tlX3BD1bNTCHVo/2T
eCmHyv4ae3kBxmnB0YST928Yh/lbn3q4wayrqIwf/MnY9Sm16h7jP53x/1aD6u1I
MKxh5TlGIlOXVwlsbFjef/Wl2EZGeRlNvm8c0Cwci+8cvsqWXofvNoN6mxseAxhx
YHD1cxsR5gE+h0O5eqpLAZkhaXZOIg7mpbwjSNkErR5Wt5CLAbu7cqr5PLqxmirT
Rd7ThIJOQAfaH+m3RzuWbeD4G7DBmNDfm8n5xtkyWEOOmuZqp2+pwt/IYHuH9dH0
JRrEPLsX/oOhBkiLpRqzAJHZJiqNc9zloYWkGikfHcH7FE9Rj0ucGRVJfN49DstH
hLb/0t0eKtZ3WRjfwYI5pA9HUQIDAQABo0MwQTAPBgNVHRMBAf8EBTADAQH/MA8G
A1UdDwEB/wQFAwMHBAAwHQYDVR0OBBYEFPET5TVsKzAnGqHxu2GDZ27e4o7XMA0G
CSqGSIb3DQEBCwUAA4IBMQBYPjJmkdduz+ZjoOb/4TLrRd7vt+dv88/uW1YGO5v8
doYBOGbo/KKp0bq//TDs8ILl666wu0VeXOSTvvGn6vhVAzttqWmtDgKzvs5E9KGE
N+7O7vPvPooLdKo1hXkXp7S3VrAenHbyqXAff/zV8jzDZkeEtaGJ1vlMs4pz3owU
nMX9ndojP4aXdq9B+ny1RyYPGofL7zpjgwocc/ubBgu1iRtDN4emHarnjZM6fHkN
HV8QlZgBAoObChXs+zSws/nkkS+FPFBGfJSwSjn6AmmGsBHo0KTmN+tkoNZlg6YN
tYHjllz34D5BH5hOmIeEQNSspFdhbE3aK9AqYOHEM99nhDKxiiKhKVgrux3WaiJi
yhanGVlwILFiFtoY/6rREIa88jWB1Lxjg88XqlNelqky
-----END CERTIFICATE-----

# ls -la certificate_authority_certificate.pem
-r-------- 1 root root 1204 Jul 15 22:31 certificate_authority_certificate.pem

# cp certificate_authority_certificate.pem /etc/pki/CA/cacert.pem

chmod 444 /etc/pki/CA/cacert.pem

scp -r certificate_authority_certificate.pem cliu8@16.158.166.197:/home/cliu8/

on 16.158.166.197
cp certificate_authority_certificate.pem /etc/pki/CA/cacert.pem

/Creating Transport Layer Security Server Certificates for libvirt
# cat popsuper1982_server_template.info 
organization = libvirt.org
cn = popsuper1982
tls_www_server
encryption_key
signing_key

(umask 277 && certtool --generate-privkey > popsuper1982_server_key.pem)

# (umask 277 && certtool --generate-privkey > popsuper1982_server_key.pem)
Generating a 2432 bit RSA private key...

# certtool --generate-certificate --template popsuper1982_server_template.info --load-privkey popsuper1982_server_key.pem --load-ca-certificate certificate_authority_certificate.pem --load-ca-privkey certificate_authority_key.pem --outfile popsuper1982_server_certificate.pem

# certtool --generate-certificate --template popsuper1982_server_template.info --load-privkey popsuper1982_server_key.pem --load-ca-certificate certificate_authority_certificate.pem --load-ca-privkey certificate_authority_key.pem --outfile popsuper1982_server_certificate.pem
Generating a signed certificate...
X.509 Certificate Information:
        Version: 3
        Serial Number (hex): 53c55255
        Validity:
                Not Before: Tue Jul 15 16:09:57 UTC 2014
                Not After: Wed Jul 15 16:09:57 UTC 2015
        Subject: O=libvirt.org,CN=popsuper1982
        Subject Public Key Algorithm: RSA
        Certificate Security Level: Normal
                Modulus (bits 2432):
                        00:ca:e5:92:4f:d8:14:f4:e2:26:26:88:5a:b4:fd:0e
                        ee:86:c6:e8:15:b2:4f:36:6d:8a:b1:23:75:80:b1:0a
                        72:e0:6c:a0:06:ce:03:43:12:2c:6f:e9:ee:bf:21:d2
                        93:82:02:74:14:50:17:fc:f8:21:ec:a6:66:29:9f:d7
                        c3:63:35:50:82:f2:30:9a:12:3b:3e:5a:d1:68:29:7a
                        eb:18:10:7a:69:f8:0b:aa:1a:d9:2d:8b:e4:b3:1b:81
                        c7:de:a8:9f:08:1d:d0:85:db:af:cc:08:00:9b:c1:5a
                        31:f8:9a:43:01:42:88:11:91:35:73:df:57:b9:ce:83
                        34:91:70:ee:29:4b:88:dd:f2:7a:16:1d:c1:36:4d:8b
                        28:7b:05:ba:42:b1:63:8a:92:f8:3d:0c:d1:a2:d8:24
                        92:29:de:c7:8a:73:1d:1e:ec:d3:72:4a:7e:7a:a1:43
                        85:fa:85:ab:58:a3:67:03:4a:48:62:04:b3:f4:8e:f5
                        f0:16:fb:24:28:75:d7:1d:43:52:bc:08:9d:3e:d0:38
                        7d:36:9b:1b:f5:81:0c:17:fd:ba:1b:10:bb:1b:69:cf
                        eb:c1:54:4e:99:ed:ff:15:71:11:9a:63:31:9d:0f:7b
                        b2:31:a2:4c:49:2a:ee:d1:3c:80:c0:98:e0:6c:63:6b
                        52:9a:b5:d6:0b:6c:34:13:86:d6:ab:c4:4d:9a:ff:ae
                        be:60:b2:a7:e3:3d:b4:63:05:d3:f0:f9:69:01:35:97
                        1c:52:48:24:75:b5:73:96:b5:fb:bc:8e:2e:62:7c:5c
                        17
                Exponent (bits 24):
                        01:00:01
        Extensions:
                Basic Constraints (critical):
                        Certificate Authority (CA): FALSE
                Key Purpose (not critical):
                        TLS WWW Server.
                Key Usage (critical):
                        Digital signature.
                        Key encipherment.
                Subject Key Identifier (not critical):
                        0570b6cf340118f7d44dd67c0ca6ffbbb7a4871c
                Authority Key Identifier (not critical):
                        f113e5356c2b30271aa1f1bb6183676edee28ed7
Other Information:
        Public Key Id:
                0570b6cf340118f7d44dd67c0ca6ffbbb7a4871c

Signing certificate...

cp popsuper1982_server_certificate.pem /etc/pki/libvirt/servercert.pem

cp popsuper1982_server_key.pem /etc/pki/libvirt/private/serverkey.pem

///Creating Transport Layer Security Client Certificates for libvirt

# cat escto-bj-hp-z620_client_template.info 
country = CN
state = Beijing
locality = Beijing
organization = libvirt.org
cn = escto-bj-hp-z620
tls_www_client
encryption_key
signing_key

(umask 277 && certtool --generate-privkey > escto-bj-hp-z620_client_key.pem)

# (umask 277 && certtool --generate-privkey > escto-bj-hp-z620_client_key.pem)
Generating a 2432 bit RSA private key...

# certtool --generate-certificate --template escto-bj-hp-z620_client_template.info --load-privkey escto-bj-hp-z620_client_key.pem --load-ca-certificate certificate_authority_certificate.pem --load-ca-privkey certificate_authority_key.pem --outfile escto-bj-hp-z620_client_certificate.pem

# certtool --generate-certificate --template escto-bj-hp-z620_client_template.info --load-privkey escto-bj-hp-z620_client_key.pem --load-ca-certificate certificate_authority_certificate.pem --load-ca-privkey certificate_authority_key.pem --outfile escto-bj-hp-z620_client_certificate.pem
Generating a signed certificate...
X.509 Certificate Information:
        Version: 3
        Serial Number (hex): 53c55678
        Validity:
                Not Before: Tue Jul 15 16:27:36 UTC 2014
                Not After: Wed Jul 15 16:27:36 UTC 2015
        Subject: C=CN,O=libvirt.org,L=Beijing,ST=Beijing,CN=escto-bj-hp-z620
        Subject Public Key Algorithm: RSA
        Certificate Security Level: Normal
                Modulus (bits 2432):
                        00:9f:5c:d7:89:2c:0b:fe:e7:38:21:1d:2a:da:92:eb
                        82:91:96:3c:f3:22:28:a3:d6:3d:70:68:27:a1:2b:3a
                        3e:79:03:55:ea:1b:eb:1f:81:90:71:3d:41:4c:99:f2
                        96:46:22:e0:33:91:bb:5b:38:83:a5:3f:d7:0a:25:dd
                        f0:90:cf:0d:4a:18:b3:0d:db:01:5f:70:78:1b:63:01
                        ac:6f:32:8b:79:cc:51:0f:d4:45:1e:6f:b8:d8:84:57
                        af:ca:e8:3e:58:0a:79:89:0d:99:e2:8a:b2:2c:85:dc
                        40:15:7c:52:9b:46:66:a0:0f:6c:52:7d:e8:1b:b4:06
                        5a:d9:7f:30:84:d0:37:66:2a:3f:53:50:33:99:93:b7
                        8d:a2:74:cd:4d:ca:76:b5:df:2f:47:f9:e2:1a:7b:91
                        49:20:be:c9:ca:9b:f1:2c:f1:40:1a:66:37:2e:ac:23
                        3f:3d:44:de:0f:2d:d2:60:63:22:2d:49:28:98:c0:b7
                        9f:70:be:51:b8:d3:10:1d:40:3d:3e:6f:1a:f1:a2:1b
                        5c:2e:68:8b:05:99:7b:0b:5c:9c:78:54:8f:de:ae:7e
                        75:6d:fb:af:cc:ea:3c:be:9d:25:57:d1:3d:ef:27:66
                        c3:93:2f:62:f0:43:31:64:df:df:20:b6:b8:df:8a:85
                        77:38:9b:3d:85:e1:67:1b:e6:b4:9b:e0:30:4e:6c:62
                        c1:07:72:57:ad:bc:fc:f0:0c:d8:d4:12:ac:eb:80:ee
                        04:b2:b0:10:e4:d6:71:68:2b:ee:e6:98:23:9a:df:c7
                        95
                Exponent (bits 24):
                        01:00:01
        Extensions:
                Basic Constraints (critical):
                        Certificate Authority (CA): FALSE
                Key Purpose (not critical):
                        TLS WWW Client.
                Key Usage (critical):
                        Digital signature.
                        Key encipherment.
                Subject Key Identifier (not critical):
                        f4385711f8089b39ba2c13869aa816114d378190
                Authority Key Identifier (not critical):
                        f113e5356c2b30271aa1f1bb6183676edee28ed7
Other Information:
        Public Key Id:
                f4385711f8089b39ba2c13869aa816114d378190

Signing certificate...

root@popsuper1982:/home/cliu8/keys/certtool# scp escto-bj-hp-z620_client_certificate.pem cliu8@16.158.166.197:/home/cliu8/
cliu8@16.158.166.197's password: 
escto-bj-hp-z620_client_certificate.pem                                                    100% 1379     1.4KB/s   00:00    
root@popsuper1982:/home/cliu8/keys/certtool# scp escto-bj-hp-z620_client_key.pem cliu8@16.158.166.197:/home/cliu8/        
cliu8@16.158.166.197's password: 
escto-bj-hp-z620_client_key.pem                                                            100% 1968     1.9KB/s   00:00 

修改/etc/hosts文件

16.158.166.150  popsuper1982
16.158.166.197  escto-bj-hp-z620

修改/etc/default/libvirt-bin

#cat /etc/default/libvirt-bin

# Defaults for libvirt-bin initscript (/etc/init.d/libvirt-bin)

# This is a POSIX shell fragment

# Start libvirtd to handle qemu/kvm:

start_libvirtd="yes"

# options passed to libvirtd, add "-l" to listen on tcp

libvirtd_opts="-d -l"

# pass in location of kerberos keytab

#export KRB5_KTNAME=/etc/libvirt/libvirt.keytab

重启libvirt-bin

root@popsuper1982:/home/cliu8# netstat -na | grep 16509
tcp        0      0 0.0.0.0:16509           0.0.0.0:*               LISTEN     
tcp6       0      0 :::16509                :::*                    LISTEN     
root@popsuper1982:/home/cliu8# netstat -na | grep 16514
tcp        0      0 0.0.0.0:16514           0.0.0.0:*               LISTEN     
tcp6       0      0 :::16514                :::*                    LISTEN    

注意对sasl的配置

# cat /etc/sasl2/libvirt.conf 
# If you want to use the non-TLS socket, then you *must* include
# the GSSAPI or DIGEST-MD5 mechanisms, because they are the only
# ones that can offer session encryption as well as authentication.
#
# If you're only using TLS, then you can turn on any mechanisms
# you like for authentication, because TLS provides the encryption
#
# Default to a simple username+password mechanism
mech_list: digest-md5

# Before you can use GSSAPI, you need a service principle on the
# KDC server for libvirt, and that to be exported to the keytab
# file listed below
#mech_list: gssapi
#
# You can also list many mechanisms at once, then the user can choose
# by adding  '?auth=sasl.gssapi' to their libvirt URI, eg
#   qemu+tcp://hostname/system?auth=sasl.gssapi
#mech_list: digest-md5 gssapi

# Some older builds of MIT kerberos on Linux ignore this option &
# instead need KRB5_KTNAME env var.
# For modern Linux, and other OS, this should be sufficient
#
# There is no default value here, uncomment if you need this
#keytab: /etc/libvirt/krb5.tab

# If using digest-md5 for username/passwds, then this is the file
# containing the passwds. Use 'saslpasswd2 -a libvirt [username]'
# to add entries, and 'sasldblistusers2 -f [sasldb_path]' to browse it
sasldb_path: /etc/libvirt/passwd.db

添加用户

saslpasswd2 -a libvirt test1

注意这里必须是libvirt,这是application的名字,只有输入libvirt,才会使用配置/etc/sasl2/libvirt.conf,结果才会写到/etc/libvirt/passwd.db

下面的命令才有正确的输出

# sasldblistusers2 -f /etc/libvirt/passwd.db
test1@popsuper1982: userPassword

这个时候从远程登录tcp

$ virsh -c qemu+tcp://16.158.166.150/system list --all
Please enter your authentication name: test1@popsuper1982
Please enter your password: 
Id    Name                           State
----------------------------------------------------
-     ubuntu-14.04                   shut off

如果远程连接tls,则需要配置/etc/pki/CA/cacert.pem

在client机器上escto-bj-hp-z620

# tree --charset ASCII /etc/pki/
/etc/pki/
|-- CA
|   `-- cacert.pem
|-- libvirt
|   |-- clientcert.pem
|   `-- private
|       `-- clientkey.pem
`-- nssdb -> /var/lib/nssdb

在server机器上popsuper1982

# tree --charset ASCII /etc/pki/
/etc/pki/
|-- CA
|   `-- cacert.pem
|-- libvirt
|   |-- private
|   |   `-- serverkey.pem
|   `-- servercert.pem
`-- nssdb -> /var/lib/nssdb

# virsh -c qemu+tls://popsuper1982/system list --all
Please enter your authentication name: test1@popsuper1982
Please enter your password: 
Id    Name                           State
----------------------------------------------------
-     ubuntu-14.04                   shut off

需要用hostname才能通过认证

VNC Authentication

Since access to the graphical console of a VM Guest is not controlled by libvirt, but rather by QEMU

The main configuration file is /etc/libvirt/qemu.conf.

Two authentication types are available: SASL and single password authentication. If you are using SASL for libvirt authentication, it is strongly recommended to use it for VNC authentication as well—it is possible to share the same database.

ln -s /etc/sasl2/libvirt.conf /etc/sasl2/qemu.conf

/etc/libvirt/qemu.conf

vnc_listen = "0.0.0.0"
vnc_sasl = 1

Currently only the same VNC viewers that also support TLS/SSL connections, support SASL authentication, namely Virtual Machine Manager, virt-viewer, andvinagre.

Single Password Authentication

<graphics type='vnc' port='-1' autoport='yes' passwd='PASSWORD'/>

转载于:https://www.cnblogs.com/Ansing/p/5844477.html

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