System.arraycopy()方法详解-jdk1.8

定义

public static native void arraycopy(Object src,  int srcPos, Object dest, int destPos, int length);

可以看到,它是一个静态本地方法,由虚拟机实现,效率自然比用java一个个复制高

方法含义

从源数组src取元素,范围为下标srcPos到srcPos+length-1,取出共length个元素,存放到目标数组中,存放位置为下标destPos到destPos+length-1

简单说,就是数组间的复制

应用

常用作数组的扩容,如ArrayList底层数组的扩容

参数

  1. Object src:the source array. 源数组
  2. int srcPos:starting position in the source array. 在源数组中,开始复制的位置
  3. Object dest:the destination array. 目标数组
  4. int destPos:starting position in the destination data. 在目标数组中,开始赋值的位置
  5. int length:the number of array elements to be copied. 被复制的数组元素的数量

过程详解

以下面这个例子进行分析

public class SystemArrayCopy {

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        int[] src = {1, 2, 3, 4};
        int[] dest = new int[5];
        System.arraycopy(src, 0, dest, 1, 4);

        for (Object o : dest) {
            System.out.println(o);
        }
    }
}
/*
0 1 2 3 4
*/
src = |1|2|3|4|
dest = |0|0|0|0|0|
执行System.arraycopy(src, 0, dest, 1, 4);时
第一步:从源数组(src)中,从下标0开始取,取4个,也就是src[0]-src[3],即1 2 3 4四个数
第二步:把取出的数,按顺序,存放到目标数组(dest)中,从下标1开始存,存4个,也就是dest[1]-dest[4]
所以数组dest为:|0|1|2|3|4|

再来一个例子

public class SystemArrayCopy {

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        String[] src = {"aa", "bb", "cc", "cc"};
        String[] dest = new String[]{"a", "b", "c", "d", "e"};
        System.arraycopy(src, 1, dest, 2, 2);

        for (Object o : dest) {
            System.out.println(o);
        }
    }
}
/*
a b bb cc e
*/
String[] src = |"aa"|"bb"|"cc"|"cc"|
String[] dest = |"a"|"b"|"c"|"d"|"e"|
执行 System.arraycopy(src, 1, dest, 2, 2);时
第一步:从源数组(src)中,从下标1开始取,取2个,也就是src[1]-src[2],即"bb" "cc"两个字符串
第二步:把取出的数,按顺序,存放到目标数组(dest)中,从下标2开始存,存2个,也就是dest[2]-dest[3]
所以数组dest为:|"a"|"b"|"bb"|"cc"|"e"|

注意,目标数组下标范围外的元素不会改变!

深复制与浅复制

  1. 当数组为一维数组,且元素为基本类型或String类型时,属于深复制,即原数组与新数组的元素不会相互影响
  2. 当数组为多维数组,或一维数组中的元素为引用类型时,属于浅复制,原数组与新数组的元素引用指向同一个对象
  1. 这里说的影响,是两个数组复制后对应的元素,并不一定是下标对应
  2. String的特殊是因为它的不可变性
1. 一维数组,元素为基本类型
public class SystemArrayCopy {

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        String str1 = "aa";
        String str2 = "bb";
        String str3 = "cc";
        String str4 = "dd";

        String[] src = {str1, str2, str3, str4};
        String[] dest = new String[4];

        System.arraycopy(src, 0, dest, 0, 4);

        System.out.println("改变前");
        print("src = ", src);
        print("dest = ", dest);

        src[0] = "abcd";

        System.out.println("改变后");
        print("src = ", src);
        print("dest = ", dest);
    }

    private static void print(String string, String[] arr) {
        System.out.print(string);
        for (String str : arr) {
            System.out.print(str + " ");
        }
        System.out.println();
    }

}
/*
改变前
src = aa bb cc dd 
dest = aa bb cc dd 
改变后
src = abcd bb cc dd 
dest = aa bb cc dd 
*/

可以看到,源数组第0个元素改变,并不会影响到目标数组

2. 多维数组
public class SystemArrayCopy {

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        int[] arr1 = {1, 2};
        int[] arr2 = {3, 4};
        int[] arr3 = {5, 6};
        int[] arr4 = {7, 8};

        int[][] src = new int[][]{arr1, arr2, arr3, arr4};
        int[][] dest = new int[4][];

        System.arraycopy(src, 0, dest, 0, 4);

        System.out.println("改变前");
        print("src = ", src);
        print("dest = ", dest);

        src[0][0] = 11111;

        System.out.println("改变后");
        print("src = ", src);
        print("dest = ", dest);
    }

    // 简单输出二维int数组的方法
    private static void print(String string, int[][] arr) {
        System.out.print(string);
        for (int[] a : arr) {
            for (int i : a) {
                System.out.print(i + " ");
            }
            System.out.print(",");
        }
        System.out.println();
    }
}
/*
改变前
src = 1 2 ,3 4 ,5 6 ,7 8 ,
dest = 1 2 ,3 4 ,5 6 ,7 8 ,
改变后
src = 11111 2 ,3 4 ,5 6 ,7 8 ,
dest = 11111 2 ,3 4 ,5 6 ,7 8 ,
*/

源数组改变后,目标数组也跟改变了,这就是浅复制

3. 一维数组,元素为引用类型
public class SystemArrayCopy {

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        People p1 = new People(11, "A");
        People p2 = new People(12, "B");
        People p3 = new People(13, "C");
        People p4 = new People(14, "D");

        People[] src = new People[]{p1, p2, p3, p4};
        People[] dest = new People[4];

        System.arraycopy(src, 0, dest, 0, 4);

        System.out.println("改变前");
        print("src = ", src);
        print("dest = ", dest);

        src[0].setAge(111);
        src[0].setName("AAA");

        System.out.println("改变后");
        print("src = ", src);
        print("dest = ", dest);
    }

    private static void print(String string, People[] arr) {
        System.out.print(string);
        for (People p : arr) {
            System.out.print(p + ", ");
        }
        System.out.println();
    }
}
public class People {
    private int age;
    private String name;

    // get set constructor toString
}
/*
改变前
src = People{age=11, name='A'}, People{age=12, name='B'}, People{age=13, name='C'}, People{age=14, name='D'}, 
dest = People{age=11, name='A'}, People{age=12, name='B'}, People{age=13, name='C'}, People{age=14, name='D'}, 
改变后
src = People{age=111, name='AAA'}, People{age=12, name='B'}, People{age=13, name='C'}, People{age=14, name='D'}, 
dest = People{age=111, name='AAA'}, People{age=12, name='B'}, People{age=13, name='C'}, People{age=14, name='D'}, 
*/

源数组改变后,目标数组也跟改变了,这就是浅复制

总结:只有数组为一维数组,并且元素为基本类型或String类型时,才是深复制,其它都属于浅复制

异常

ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException ArrayStoreException NullPointerException

1. ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException

当数组越界时,抛出异常:ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException

  1. srcPos < 0 || destPos < 0 || length < 0
  2. src.length < length + srcPos
  3. dest.length < length + destPos

代码演示

// 1. srcPos < 0 || destPos < 0 || length < 0
public class SystemArrayCopy {

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        int[] src = {1, 2, 3, 4};
        int[] dest = new int[5];
        System.arraycopy(src, -1, dest, 0, 0);
        
        for (Object o : dest) {
            System.out.println(o);
        }
    }
}
/*
Exception in thread "main" java.lang.ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException
	at java.lang.System.arraycopy(Native Method)
	at com.balsam.sources.SystemArrayCopy.main(SystemArrayCopy.java:13)
*/

// 2. src.length < length + srcPos
public class SystemArrayCopy {

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        int[] src = {1, 2, 3, 4};
        int[] dest = new int[5];
        System.arraycopy(arr, 1, dest, 0, 4);
        
        for (Object o : dest) {
            System.out.println(o);
        }
    }
}
/*
Exception in thread "main" java.lang.ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException
	at java.lang.System.arraycopy(Native Method)
	at com.balsam.sources.SystemArrayCopy.main(SystemArrayCopy.java:13)
*/

// 3. dest.length < length + destPos
public class SystemArrayCopy {

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        int[] src = {1, 2, 3, 4};
        int[] dest = new int[3];
        System.arraycopy(src, 0, dest, 0, 4);
        
        for (Object o : dest) {
            System.out.println(o);
        }
    }
}
/*
Exception in thread "main" java.lang.ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException
	at java.lang.System.arraycopy(Native Method)
	at com.balsam.sources.SystemArrayCopy.main(SystemArrayCopy.java:13)
*/
2. ArrayStoreException

当两数据的元素类型不匹配时,抛出异常:ArrayStoreException

src元素为dest元素的子类时,是可以复制的,特殊地,int不是Object的子类(或者说,不存在继承的概念),所以,下例中,把int[] src = {1, 2, 3, 4};改为Integer[] src = {1, 2, 3, 4};,是不会报错的

public class SystemArrayCopy {

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        int[] src = {1, 2, 3, 4};
        Object[] dest = new Object[3];
        System.arraycopy(src, 0, dest, 0, 4);
        
        for (Object o : dest) {
            System.out.println(o);
        }
    }
}
/*
Exception in thread "main" java.lang.ArrayStoreException
	at java.lang.System.arraycopy(Native Method)
	at com.balsam.sources.SystemArrayCopy.main(SystemArrayCopy.java:13)
*/

public class SystemArrayCopy {

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        Object[] src = {1, 2, 3, 4};
        int[] dest = new int[3];
        System.arraycopy(src, 0, dest, 0, 4);

        for (Object o : dest) {
            System.out.println(o);
        }
    }
}
/*
Exception in thread "main" java.lang.ArrayStoreException
	at java.lang.System.arraycopy(Native Method)
	at com.balsam.sources.SystemArrayCopy.main(SystemArrayCopy.java:13)
*/
3. NullPointerException

当两个数组,有一个为null时,抛出异常:NullPointerException

public class SystemArrayCopy {

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        int[] src = {1, 2, 3, 4};
        int[] dest = null;
        System.arraycopy(src, 0, dest, 0, 4);

        for (Object o : dest) {
            System.out.println(o);
        }
    }
}
/*
Exception in thread "main" java.lang.NullPointerException
	at java.lang.System.arraycopy(Native Method)
	at com.balsam.sources.SystemArrayCopy.main(SystemArrayCopy.java:13)
*/
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