用sysctl调整linux内核参数

sysctl是一个允许您改变正在运行中的Linux系统的接口。它包含一些 TCP/IP 堆栈和虚拟内存系统的高级选项, 这可以让有经验的管理员提高引人注目的系统性能。用sysctl可以读取设置超过五百个系统变量。基于这点,sysctl(8) 提供两个功能:读取和修改系统设置。

常用

查看所有可读变量:
[xt@butbueatiful ~] sysctl -a

读一个指定的变量,例如 kernel.msgmnb:
[xt@butbueatiful ~]$ sysctl kernel.msgmnb
kern.maxproc: 65536

要设置一个指定的变量,直接用 variable=value 这样的语法:
[xt@butbueatiful ~]$ sudo sysctl kernel.msgmnb=1024
kernel.msgmnb: 1024

可以使用sysctl修改系统变量,也可以通过编辑sysctl.conf文件来修改系统变量。sysctl.conf 看起来很像 rc.conf。它用 variable=value 的形式来设定值。指定的值在系统进入多用户模式之后被设定。并不是所有的变量都可以在这个模式下设定。

sysctl 变量的设置通常是字符串、数字或者布尔型。 (布尔型用 1 来表示'yes',用 0 来表示'no')。

sysctl -w kernel.sysrq=0
sysctl -w kernel.core_uses_pid=1
sysctl -w net.ipv4.conf.default.accept_redirects=0
sysctl -w net.ipv4.conf.default.accept_source_route=0
sysctl -w net.ipv4.conf.default.rp_filter=1
sysctl -w net.ipv4.tcp_syncookies=1
sysctl -w net.ipv4.tcp_max_syn_backlog=2048
sysctl -w net.ipv4.tcp_fin_timeout=30
sysctl -w net.ipv4.tcp_synack_retries=2
sysctl -w net.ipv4.tcp_keepalive_time=3600
sysctl -w net.ipv4.tcp_window_scaling=1
sysctl -w net.ipv4.tcp_sack=1

配置sysctl

[root@butbueatiful ~] vi /etc/sysctl.conf

如果该文件为空,则输入以下内容,否则请根据情况自己做调整:
# Controls source route verification
# Default should work for all interfaces
net.ipv4.conf.default.rp_filter = 1
# net.ipv4.conf.all.rp_filter = 1
# net.ipv4.conf.lo.rp_filter = 1
# net.ipv4.conf.eth0.rp_filter = 1

# Disables IP source routing
# Default should work for all interfaces
net.ipv4.conf.default.accept_source_route = 0
# net.ipv4.conf.all.accept_source_route = 0
# net.ipv4.conf.lo.accept_source_route = 0
# net.ipv4.conf.eth0.accept_source_route = 0

# Controls the System Request debugging functionality of the kernel
kernel.sysrq = 0

# Controls whether core dumps will append the PID to the core filename.
# Useful for debugging multi-threaded applications.
kernel.core_uses_pid = 1

# Increase maximum amount of memory allocated to shm
# Only uncomment if needed!
# kernel.shmmax = 67108864

# Disable ICMP Redirect Acceptance
# Default should work for all interfaces
net.ipv4.conf.default.accept_redirects = 0
# net.ipv4.conf.all.accept_redirects = 0
# net.ipv4.conf.lo.accept_redirects = 0
# net.ipv4.conf.eth0.accept_redirects = 0

# Enable Log Spoofed Packets, Source Routed Packets, Redirect Packets
# Default should work for all interfaces
net.ipv4.conf.default.log_martians = 1
# net.ipv4.conf.all.log_martians = 1
# net.ipv4.conf.lo.log_martians = 1
# net.ipv4.conf.eth0.log_martians = 1

# Decrease the time default value for tcp_fin_timeout connection
net.ipv4.tcp_fin_timeout = 25

# Decrease the time default value for tcp_keepalive_time connection
net.ipv4.tcp_keepalive_time = 1200

# Turn on the tcp_window_scaling
net.ipv4.tcp_window_scaling = 1

# Turn on the tcp_sack
net.ipv4.tcp_sack = 1

# tcp_fack should be on because of sack
net.ipv4.tcp_fack = 1

# Turn on the tcp_timestamps
net.ipv4.tcp_timestamps = 1

# Enable TCP SYN Cookie Protection
net.ipv4.tcp_syncookies = 1

# Enable ignoring broadcasts request
net.ipv4.icmp_echo_ignore_broadcasts = 1

# Enable bad error message Protection
net.ipv4.icmp_ignore_bogus_error_responses = 1

# Make more local ports available
# net.ipv4.ip_local_port_range = 1024 65000

# Set TCP Re-Ordering value in kernel to ‘5′
net.ipv4.tcp_reordering = 5

# Lower syn retry rates
net.ipv4.tcp_synack_retries = 2
net.ipv4.tcp_syn_retries = 3

# Set Max SYN Backlog to ‘2048′
net.ipv4.tcp_max_syn_backlog = 2048

# Various Settings
net.core.netdev_max_backlog = 1024

# Increase the maximum number of skb-heads to be cached
net.core.hot_list_length = 256

# Increase the tcp-time-wait buckets pool size
net.ipv4.tcp_max_tw_buckets = 360000

# This will increase the amount of memory available for socket input/output queues
net.core.rmem_default = 65535
net.core.rmem_max = 8388608
net.ipv4.tcp_rmem = 4096 87380 8388608
net.core.wmem_default = 65535
net.core.wmem_max = 8388608
net.ipv4.tcp_wmem = 4096 65535 8388608
net.ipv4.tcp_mem = 8388608 8388608 8388608
net.core.optmem_max = 40960


如果希望屏蔽别人 ping 你的主机,则加入以下代码:
# Disable ping requests
net.ipv4.icmp_echo_ignore_all = 1

执行以下命令使变动立即生效:

/sbin/sysctl -p
/sbin/sysctl -w net.ipv4.route.flush=1

我们常常在 Linux 的 /proc/sys 目录下,手动设定一些 kernel 的参数或是直接 echo 特定的值给一个 proc下的虚拟档案,俾利某些档案之开启,常见的例如设定开机时自动启动 IP Forwarding:
echo “1” > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward

其实,在 Linux 我们还可以用 sysctl command 便可以简易的去检视、设定或自动配置特定的 kernel 设定。我们可以在系统提示符号下输入「sysctl -a」

sysctl 的表示法乃把目录结构的「/」以「.」表示,一层一层的连结下去。当然以echo 特定的值给一个 proc下的虚拟档案也是可以用 sysctl加以表示,例如:

#sysctl –w net.ipv4.ip_forward =”1”

或是直接在 /etc/sysctl.conf 增删修改特定档案的 0,1值亦可: 
# Enables packet forwarding

net.ipv4.ip_forward = 1

# Enables source route verification

net.ipv4.conf.default.rp_filter = 1

# Disables the magic-sysrq key

kernel.sysrq = 0

当然如果考虑 reboot 后仍有效, 直接在 /etc/sysctl.conf 增删修改特定档案的 0,1值才可使之保留设定(以RedHat 为例,每次开机系统启动后, init 会执行 /etc/rc.d/rc.sysinit,便会使用 /etc/sysctl.conf 的预设值去执行 sysctl)

没有更多推荐了,返回首页