calabash-android 命令行使用

    本文介绍calabash-android的命令行的使用,通过例子,熟悉calabash-android所调用的ruby api和常用控制台命令, 如query, touch, wait等。,。熟悉这些API有助于我们编写自定义feature。

第一步:下载app

    本文所用的测试app为黑客头条,点此下载。app中view的元素如下图所示:


第二步:打开命令行,进入app的下载目录,输入如下命令

calabash-android console HackerNews.apk

    如果一切运行正常,则会进入calabash命令行,同时可以看到提示符变为:irb(main):001:0>此时可在命令行里输入如下命令

irb(main):001:0> reinstall_apps
irb(main):002:0> start_test_server_in_background
  第一条命令用来安装被测试app和test_server, 第二天命令启动test_server,此时可以进入到程序的主界面。
每个Android应用程序都是有一系列的View组成.Button, ImageView, chekbox都是屏幕上的View。每个View都有对应的类型,程序界面可以看做是View的集合。

Query的用法

query(uiquery, *args)

此函数返会一个数组,每一个数组项包含View的信息,如id,坐标,类型。在命令行中输入

irb(main):003:0> query("ActionBarButton")
由于在ControllerBar中有两个ActionBarButton,故输出结果如下所示:

[
    [0] {
                        "id" => nil,
                   "enabled" => true,
        "contentDescription" => nil,
                     "class" => "com.airlocksoftware.holo.actionbar.ActionBarBut
ton",
                      "rect" => {
            "center_y" => 98,
            "center_x" => 480,
              "height" => 96,
                   "y" => 50,
               "width" => 96,
                   "x" => 432
        },
                       "tag" => nil,
               "description" => "ActionBarButton: \"推广\""
    },
    [1] {
                        "id" => nil,
                   "enabled" => true,
        "contentDescription" => nil,
                     "class" => "com.airlocksoftware.holo.actionbar.ActionBarBut
ton",
                      "rect" => {
            "center_y" => 98,
            "center_x" => 576,
              "height" => 96,
                   "y" => 50,
               "width" => 96,
                   "x" => 528
        },
                       "tag" => nil,
               "description" => "ActionBarButton: \"刷新内容\""
    }
]
由于返回的结果是个ruby array,我们可以使用array的方法,如获取size

irb(main):004:0> query("ActionBarButton").size
返回的结果是2

查询keys

irb(main):013:0> query("ImageView").first.keys
[
    [0] "id",
    [1] "enabled",
    [2] "contentDescription",
    [3] "class",
    [4] "rect",
    [5] "tag",
    [6] "description"
]
index

query("*")[0]
query("* index:0")

query中的参数可以是通配符,如输入

irb(main):006:0> query("*")
返回屏幕中的所有元素

通过类名来过滤元素

简单类名   

    之前查询元素的方法是通过简单类名,且大小写不敏感。如

irb(main):010:0> query("ImageView")
[
    [0] {
                        "id" => "img_up_icon",
                   "enabled" => true,
        "contentDescription" => nil,
                     "class" => "android.widget.ImageView",
                      "rect" => {
            "center_y" => 97,
            "center_x" => 74,
              "height" => 67,
                   "y" => 64,
               "width" => 67,
                   "x" => 41
        },
                       "tag" => nil,
               "description" => "android.widget.ImageView{41f4c740 V.ED.... ....
.... 41,14-108,81 #7f060091 app:id/img_up_icon}"
    }
]

irb(main):010:0> query("ImageVIew")
结果一样。

 含有包作用域的类名 

若输入以下查询命令,

irb(main):011:0> query("android.widget.ImageView")
结果如下:
[
    [ 0] {
                        "id" => "icv_up_indicator",
                   "enabled" => true,
        "contentDescription" => nil,
                     "class" => "com.airlocksoftware.holo.image.IconView",
                      "rect" => {
            "center_y" => 98,
            "center_x" => 20,
              "height" => 50,
                   "y" => 73,
               "width" => 41,
                   "x" => 0
        },
                       "tag" => nil,
               "description" => "com.airlocksoftware.holo.image.IconView{41f41cc
8 V.ED.... ........ 0,23-41,73 #7f060090 app:id/icv_up_indicator}"
    },
    [ 1] {
                        "id" => "img_up_icon",
                   "enabled" => true,
        "contentDescription" => nil,
                     "class" => "android.widget.ImageView",
                      "rect" => {
            "center_y" => 97,
            "center_x" => 74,
              "height" => 67,
                   "y" => 64,
               "width" => 67,
                   "x" => 41
        },
                       "tag" => nil,
               "description" => "android.widget.ImageView{41f4c740 V.ED.... ....
.... 41,14-108,81 #7f060091 app:id/img_up_icon}"
    },
    [ 2] {
                        "id" => "icv",
                   "enabled" => true,
        "contentDescription" => nil,
                     "class" => "com.airlocksoftware.holo.image.IconView",
                      "rect" => {
            "center_y" => 98,
            "center_x" => 480,
              "height" => 96,
                   "y" => 50,
               "width" => 96,
                   "x" => 432
        },
                       "tag" => nil,
               "description" => "com.airlocksoftware.holo.image.IconView{4241f03
8 V.ED.... ........ 0,0-96,96 #7f060096 app:id/icv}"
    },
    [ 3] {
                        "id" => "icv",
                   "enabled" => true,
        "contentDescription" => nil,
                     "class" => "com.airlocksoftware.holo.image.IconView",
                      "rect" => {
            "center_y" => 98,
            "center_x" => 576,
              "height" => 96,
                   "y" => 50,
               "width" => 96,
                   "x" => 528
        },
                       "tag" => nil,
               "description" => "com.airlocksoftware.holo.image.IconView{424aa62
8 V.ED.... ........ 0,0-96,96 #7f060096 app:id/icv}"
    },
    [ 4] {
                        "id" => "icv_overflow",
                   "enabled" => true,
        "contentDescription" => nil,
                     "class" => "com.airlocksoftware.holo.image.IconView",
                      "rect" => {
            "center_y" => 98,
            "center_x" => 672,
              "height" => 96,
                   "y" => 50,
               "width" => 96,
                   "x" => 624
        },
                       "tag" => nil,
               "description" => "com.airlocksoftware.holo.image.IconView{41f6a6b
0 V.ED..C. ........ 500,0-596,96 #7f060095 app:id/icv_overflow}"
    },
    [ 5] {
                        "id" => "icv_comment",
                   "enabled" => true,
        "contentDescription" => nil,
                     "class" => "com.airlocksoftware.holo.image.IconView",
                      "rect" => {
            "center_y" => 317,
            "center_x" => 63,
              "height" => 33,
                   "y" => 301,
               "width" => 26,
                   "x" => 50
        },
                       "tag" => nil,
               "description" => "com.airlocksoftware.holo.image.IconView{42075eb
8 V.ED.... ........ 50,55-76,88 #7f060120 app:id/icv_comment}"
    },
    [ 6] {
                        "id" => "icv_comment",
                   "enabled" => true,
        "contentDescription" => nil,
                     "class" => "com.airlocksoftware.holo.image.IconView",
                      "rect" => {
            "center_y" => 454,
            "center_x" => 49,
              "height" => 33,
                   "y" => 438,
               "width" => 26,
                   "x" => 36
        },
                       "tag" => nil,
               "description" => "com.airlocksoftware.holo.image.IconView{4240c4d
0 V.ED.... ........ 36,89-62,122 #7f060120 app:id/icv_comment}"
    },
    [ 7] {
                        "id" => "icv_comment",
                   "enabled" => true,
        "contentDescription" => nil,
                     "class" => "com.airlocksoftware.holo.image.IconView",
                      "rect" => {
            "center_y" => 557,
            "center_x" => 63,
              "height" => 33,
                   "y" => 541,
               "width" => 26,
                   "x" => 50
        },
                       "tag" => nil,
               "description" => "com.airlocksoftware.holo.image.IconView{42368ad
0 V.ED.... ........ 50,55-76,88 #7f060120 app:id/icv_comment}"
    },
    [ 8] {
                        "id" => "icv_comment",
                   "enabled" => true,
        "contentDescription" => nil,
                     "class" => "com.airlocksoftware.holo.image.IconView",
                      "rect" => {
            "center_y" => 660,
            "center_x" => 63,
              "height" => 33,
                   "y" => 644,
               "width" => 26,
                   "x" => 50
        },
                       "tag" => nil,
               "description" => "com.airlocksoftware.holo.image.IconView{41c8a72
0 V.ED.... ........ 50,55-76,88 #7f060120 app:id/icv_comment}"
    },
    [ 9] {
                        "id" => "icv_comment",
                   "enabled" => true,
        "contentDescription" => nil,
                     "class" => "com.airlocksoftware.holo.image.IconView",
                      "rect" => {
            "center_y" => 797,
            "center_x" => 77,
              "height" => 33,
                   "y" => 781,
               "width" => 26,
                   "x" => 64
        },
                       "tag" => nil,
               "description" => "com.airlocksoftware.holo.image.IconView{423685d
8 V.ED.... ........ 64,89-90,122 #7f060120 app:id/icv_comment}"
    },
    [10] {
                        "id" => "icv_comment",
                   "enabled" => true,
        "contentDescription" => nil,
                     "class" => "com.airlocksoftware.holo.image.IconView",
                      "rect" => {
            "center_y" => 900,
            "center_x" => 77,
              "height" => 33,
                   "y" => 884,
               "width" => 26,
                   "x" => 64
        },
                       "tag" => nil,
               "description" => "com.airlocksoftware.holo.image.IconView{424c065
8 V.ED.... ........ 64,55-90,88 #7f060120 app:id/icv_comment}"
    },
    [11] {
                        "id" => "icv_comment",
                   "enabled" => true,
        "contentDescription" => nil,
                     "class" => "com.airlocksoftware.holo.image.IconView",
                      "rect" => {
            "center_y" => 1037,
            "center_x" => 49,
              "height" => 33,
                   "y" => 1021,
               "width" => 26,
                   "x" => 36
        },
                       "tag" => nil,
               "description" => "com.airlocksoftware.holo.image.IconView{423b43f
8 V.ED.... ........ 36,89-62,122 #7f060120 app:id/icv_comment}"
    },
    [12] {
                        "id" => "icv_comment",
                   "enabled" => true,
        "contentDescription" => nil,
                     "class" => "com.airlocksoftware.holo.image.IconView",
                      "rect" => {
            "center_y" => 1140,
            "center_x" => 63,
              "height" => 33,
                   "y" => 1124,
               "width" => 26,
                   "x" => 50
        },
                       "tag" => nil,
               "description" => "com.airlocksoftware.holo.image.IconView{420c0dd
8 V.ED.... ........ 50,55-76,88 #7f060120 app:id/icv_comment}"
    },
    [13] {
                        "id" => "icv_comment",
                   "enabled" => true,
        "contentDescription" => nil,
                     "class" => "com.airlocksoftware.holo.image.IconView",
                      "rect" => {
            "center_y" => 1277,
            "center_x" => 63,
              "height" => 33,
                   "y" => 1261,
               "width" => 26,
                   "x" => 50
        },
                       "tag" => nil,
               "description" => "com.airlocksoftware.holo.image.IconView{423ab81
0 V.ED.... ........ 50,89-76,122 #7f060120 app:id/icv_comment}"
    }
]
此时返回的结果有14个元素
由此可看出:

1.当仅给出简单类名时,仅查询该类名所对应的对象

2.当查询含有包名的类名时,会给出该类的对象和该类的子类的对象。

过滤操作

      可以通过id,text或class来对结果进行过滤。

指定id:

irb(main):018:0> query("android.widget.ImageView id:'icv_comment'")
主要id后面的单引号

指定text:

query("* text:'Login'")
该操作会返回屏幕中含有"Login"文本的View

其它属性

query("* width:200")
query("* enabled:false")
    注意,此处无单引号

可以同时指定多个属性,如:

query("* enabled:true height:50")
查询原理

   calabash过滤属性的语法如下:

prop:value
   prop是属性名,value是一个字符串,布尔值或整数。

   上面的例子,我们使用的属性有id,text,enabled和width.除此之外,还有更多的可以用。

 每一个View对象都有一系列方法,如View有isEnabled方法。当calabash准备去解析query中传入的属性时,它会以如下的顺序调用View的方法:prop(),getProp()和isProp().

故对于enabled属性,它会尝试调用enabled(),getEnabled()或isEnabled().最后将返回结果与query中指定的值进行比较。

有用的技巧

除了以上的查询语句,还有其它有用的技巧

marked

此关键字通过名称来标识一个View,用来比较id, text或contentDescription属性。

qeuery("button marked:'login_button'")
返回属性
   可指定query中的*args参数来控制返回的结果。

返回id

irb(main):005:0> query("android.widget.ImageView", :id)
[
    [ 0] "icv_up_indicator",
    [ 1] "img_up_icon",
    [ 2] "icv",
    [ 3] "icv",
    [ 4] "icv_overflow",
    [ 5] "icv_comment",
    [ 6] "icv_comment",
    [ 7] "icv_comment",
    [ 8] "icv_comment",
    [ 9] "icv_comment",
    [10] "icv_comment",
    [11] "icv_comment",
    [12] "icv_comment",
    [13] "icv_comment"
]
可以将属性过滤与指定的属性配合使用,如

irb(main):006:0> query("android.widget.ImageView enabled:true", :id)
属性也可以写成如下形式
 query("android.widget.ImageView enabled:true", "id")
链式调用:

query(android.widget.ImageView", "text", "toLowerCase")
先对放回的对象调用getText(),然后再调用toLowerCase函数。

设置元素的值:(暂未调试)

irb(main):034:0> query("edittext index:1", :setText => "1234")
暂时介绍到这儿,后续会继续更新。


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