关于日常开发Java8流处理max()随笔

Stream字节流接口max方法,需要传入一个Comparator比较器,可看到若没有最大的元素会返回null

/**
     * Returns the maximum element of this stream according to the provided
     * {@code Comparator}.  This is a special case of a
     * <a href="package-summary.html#Reduction">reduction</a>.
     *
     * <p>This is a <a href="package-summary.html#StreamOps">terminal
     * operation</a>.
     *
     * @param comparator a <a href="package-summary.html#NonInterference">non-interfering</a>,
     *                   <a href="package-summary.html#Statelessness">stateless</a>
     *                   {@code Comparator} to compare elements of this stream
     * @return an {@code Optional} describing the maximum element of this stream,
     * or an empty {@code Optional} if the stream is empty
     * @throws NullPointerException if the maximum element is null
     */
    Optional<T> max(Comparator<? super T> comparator);

业务要求从优惠券集合中筛选出推荐的优惠券,排在集合第一位

规则是优先使用快过期的优惠券

/**
     * 获取推荐使用的优惠券
     *
     * @param userCoupons 优惠券
     * @param orderAmount 订单金额(分)
     */
    private UserCoupon getSuggestedCoupon(List<UserCoupon> userCoupons, int orderAmount) {
        if (CollectionUtils.isEmpty(userCoupons)) {
            return null;
        }
        return userCoupons.stream()
            // 只有优惠券金额小于等于商品金额才做推荐
            .filter(userCoupon -> userCoupon.getAmount() <= orderAmount)
            .max(new SuggestedCouponComparator()).orElse(null);
    }

那么就自定义个比较器

public class SuggestedCouponComparator implements Comparator<UserCoupon> {

    @Override
    public int compare(UserCoupon o1, UserCoupon o2) {
        if (o1.getAmount().equals(o2.getAmount())) {
            // 选择过期时间小的
            if (o1.getEndTime().isBefore(o2.getEndTime())) {
                return 1;
            } else if (o1.getEndTime().isAfter(o2.getEndTime())) {
                return -1;
            } else {
                return 0;
            }
        } else {
            return o1.getAmount() - o2.getAmount();
        }
    }
}

比较简单,就是熟悉加深Java8流处理方法。还有一些比较常用的reduce方法,peek/map方法,filter方法,findAny方法,distinct方法,sorted方法,collect方法等等。

 

后续:

干脆直接把源码粘出来,方便以后查询使用。

可看到Java8以后:

1、接口可使用default关键字定义默认方法,并提供默认实现,除非子类提供自己的实现 ;

2、还可在接口使用static关键字定义静态方法,提供实现。

以后我们再也不用在每个实现类中都写重复的代码了!

public interface Stream<T> extends BaseStream<T, Stream<T>> {

    /**
     * Returns a stream consisting of the elements of this stream that match
     * the given predicate.
     *
     * <p>This is an <a href="package-summary.html#StreamOps">intermediate
     * operation</a>.
     *
     * @param predicate a <a href="package-summary.html#NonInterference">non-interfering</a>,
     *                  <a href="package-summary.html#Statelessness">stateless</a>
     *                  predicate to apply to each element to determine if it
     *                  should be included
     * @return the new stream
     */
    Stream<T> filter(Predicate<? super T> predicate);

    /**
     * Returns a stream consisting of the results of applying the given
     * function to the elements of this stream.
     *
     * <p>This is an <a href="package-summary.html#StreamOps">intermediate
     * operation</a>.
     *
     * @param <R> The element type of the new stream
     * @param mapper a <a href="package-summary.html#NonInterference">non-interfering</a>,
     *               <a href="package-summary.html#Statelessness">stateless</a>
     *               function to apply to each element
     * @return the new stream
     */
    <R> Stream<R> map(Function<? super T, ? extends R> mapper);

    /**
     * Returns an {@code IntStream} consisting of the results of applying the
     * given function to the elements of this stream.
     *
     * <p>This is an <a href="package-summary.html#StreamOps">
     *     intermediate operation</a>.
     *
     * @param mapper a <a href="package-summary.html#NonInterference">non-interfering</a>,
     *               <a href="package-summary.html#Statelessness">stateless</a>
     *               function to apply to each element
     * @return the new stream
     */
    IntStream mapToInt(ToIntFunction<? super T> mapper);

    /**
     * Returns a {@code LongStream} consisting of the results of applying the
     * given function to the elements of this stream.
     *
     * <p>This is an <a href="package-summary.html#StreamOps">intermediate
     * operation</a>.
     *
     * @param mapper a <a href="package-summary.html#NonInterference">non-interfering</a>,
     *               <a href="package-summary.html#Statelessness">stateless</a>
     *               function to apply to each element
     * @return the new stream
     */
    LongStream mapToLong(ToLongFunction<? super T> mapper);

    /**
     * Returns a {@code DoubleStream} consisting of the results of applying the
     * given function to the elements of this stream.
     *
     * <p>This is an <a href="package-summary.html#StreamOps">intermediate
     * operation</a>.
     *
     * @param mapper a <a href="package-summary.html#NonInterference">non-interfering</a>,
     *               <a href="package-summary.html#Statelessness">stateless</a>
     *               function to apply to each element
     * @return the new stream
     */
    DoubleStream mapToDouble(ToDoubleFunction<? super T> mapper);

    /**
     * Returns a stream consisting of the results of replacing each element of
     * this stream with the contents of a mapped stream produced by applying
     * the provided mapping function to each element.  Each mapped stream is
     * {@link java.util.stream.BaseStream#close() closed} after its contents
     * have been placed into this stream.  (If a mapped stream is {@code null}
     * an empty stream is used, instead.)
     *
     * <p>This is an <a href="package-summary.html#StreamOps">intermediate
     * operation</a>.
     *
     * @apiNote
     * The {@code flatMap()} operation has the effect of applying a one-to-many
     * transformation to the elements of the stream, and then flattening the
     * resulting elements into a new stream.
     *
     * <p><b>Examples.</b>
     *
     * <p>If {@code orders} is a stream of purchase orders, and each purchase
     * order contains a collection of line items, then the following produces a
     * stream containing all the line items in all the orders:
     * <pre>{@code
     *     orders.flatMap(order -> order.getLineItems().stream())...
     * }</pre>
     *
     * <p>If {@code path} is the path to a file, then the following produces a
     * stream of the {@code words} contained in that file:
     * <pre>{@code
     *     Stream<String> lines = Files.lines(path, StandardCharsets.UTF_8);
     *     Stream<String> words = lines.flatMap(line -> Stream.of(line.split(" +")));
     * }</pre>
     * The {@code mapper} function passed to {@code flatMap} splits a line,
     * using a simple regular expression, into an array of words, and then
     * creates a stream of words from that array.
     *
     * @param <R> The element type of the new stream
     * @param mapper a <a href="package-summary.html#NonInterference">non-interfering</a>,
     *               <a href="package-summary.html#Statelessness">stateless</a>
     *               function to apply to each element which produces a stream
     *               of new values
     * @return the new stream
     */
    <R> Stream<R> flatMap(Function<? super T, ? extends Stream<? extends R>> mapper);

    /**
     * Returns an {@code IntStream} consisting of the results of replacing each
     * element of this stream with the contents of a mapped stream produced by
     * applying the provided mapping function to each element.  Each mapped
     * stream is {@link java.util.stream.BaseStream#close() closed} after its
     * contents have been placed into this stream.  (If a mapped stream is
     * {@code null} an empty stream is used, instead.)
     *
     * <p>This is an <a href="package-summary.html#StreamOps">intermediate
     * operation</a>.
     *
     * @param mapper a <a href="package-summary.html#NonInterference">non-interfering</a>,
     *               <a href="package-summary.html#Statelessness">stateless</a>
     *               function to apply to each element which produces a stream
     *               of new values
     * @return the new stream
     * @see #flatMap(Function)
     */
    IntStream flatMapToInt(Function<? super T, ? extends IntStream> mapper);

    /**
     * Returns an {@code LongStream} consisting of the results of replacing each
     * element of this stream with the contents of a mapped stream produced by
     * applying the provided mapping function to each element.  Each mapped
     * stream is {@link java.util.stream.BaseStream#close() closed} after its
     * contents have been placed into this stream.  (If a mapped stream is
     * {@code null} an empty stream is used, instead.)
     *
     * <p>This is an <a href="package-summary.html#StreamOps">intermediate
     * operation</a>.
     *
     * @param mapper a <a href="package-summary.html#NonInterference">non-interfering</a>,
     *               <a href="package-summary.html#Statelessness">stateless</a>
     *               function to apply to each element which produces a stream
     *               of new values
     * @return the new stream
     * @see #flatMap(Function)
     */
    LongStream flatMapToLong(Function<? super T, ? extends LongStream> mapper);

    /**
     * Returns an {@code DoubleStream} consisting of the results of replacing
     * each element of this stream with the contents of a mapped stream produced
     * by applying the provided mapping function to each element.  Each mapped
     * stream is {@link java.util.stream.BaseStream#close() closed} after its
     * contents have placed been into this stream.  (If a mapped stream is
     * {@code null} an empty stream is used, instead.)
     *
     * <p>This is an <a href="package-summary.html#StreamOps">intermediate
     * operation</a>.
     *
     * @param mapper a <a href="package-summary.html#NonInterference">non-interfering</a>,
     *               <a href="package-summary.html#Statelessness">stateless</a>
     *               function to apply to each element which produces a stream
     *               of new values
     * @return the new stream
     * @see #flatMap(Function)
     */
    DoubleStream flatMapToDouble(Function<? super T, ? extends DoubleStream> mapper);

    /**
     * Returns a stream consisting of the distinct elements (according to
     * {@link Object#equals(Object)}) of this stream.
     *
     * <p>For ordered streams, the selection of distinct elements is stable
     * (for duplicated elements, the element appearing first in the encounter
     * order is preserved.)  For unordered streams, no stability guarantees
     * are made.
     *
     * <p>This is a <a href="package-summary.html#StreamOps">stateful
     * intermediate operation</a>.
     *
     * @apiNote
     * Preserving stability for {@code distinct()} in parallel pipelines is
     * relatively expensive (requires that the operation act as a full barrier,
     * with substantial buffering overhead), and stability is often not needed.
     * Using an unordered stream source (such as {@link #generate(Supplier)})
     * or removing the ordering constraint with {@link #unordered()} may result
     * in significantly more efficient execution for {@code distinct()} in parallel
     * pipelines, if the semantics of your situation permit.  If consistency
     * with encounter order is required, and you are experiencing poor performance
     * or memory utilization with {@code distinct()} in parallel pipelines,
     * switching to sequential execution with {@link #sequential()} may improve
     * performance.
     *
     * @return the new stream
     */
    Stream<T> distinct();

    /**
     * Returns a stream consisting of the elements of this stream, sorted
     * according to natural order.  If the elements of this stream are not
     * {@code Comparable}, a {@code java.lang.ClassCastException} may be thrown
     * when the terminal operation is executed.
     *
     * <p>For ordered streams, the sort is stable.  For unordered streams, no
     * stability guarantees are made.
     *
     * <p>This is a <a href="package-summary.html#StreamOps">stateful
     * intermediate operation</a>.
     *
     * @return the new stream
     */
    Stream<T> sorted();

    /**
     * Returns a stream consisting of the elements of this stream, sorted
     * according to the provided {@code Comparator}.
     *
     * <p>For ordered streams, the sort is stable.  For unordered streams, no
     * stability guarantees are made.
     *
     * <p>This is a <a href="package-summary.html#StreamOps">stateful
     * intermediate operation</a>.
     *
     * @param comparator a <a href="package-summary.html#NonInterference">non-interfering</a>,
     *                   <a href="package-summary.html#Statelessness">stateless</a>
     *                   {@code Comparator} to be used to compare stream elements
     * @return the new stream
     */
    Stream<T> sorted(Comparator<? super T> comparator);

    /**
     * Returns a stream consisting of the elements of this stream, additionally
     * performing the provided action on each element as elements are consumed
     * from the resulting stream.
     *
     * <p>This is an <a href="package-summary.html#StreamOps">intermediate
     * operation</a>.
     *
     * <p>For parallel stream pipelines, the action may be called at
     * whatever time and in whatever thread the element is made available by the
     * upstream operation.  If the action modifies shared state,
     * it is responsible for providing the required synchronization.
     *
     * @apiNote This method exists mainly to support debugging, where you want
     * to see the elements as they flow past a certain point in a pipeline:
     * <pre>{@code
     *     Stream.of("one", "two", "three", "four")
     *         .filter(e -> e.length() > 3)
     *         .peek(e -> System.out.println("Filtered value: " + e))
     *         .map(String::toUpperCase)
     *         .peek(e -> System.out.println("Mapped value: " + e))
     *         .collect(Collectors.toList());
     * }</pre>
     *
     * @param action a <a href="package-summary.html#NonInterference">
     *                 non-interfering</a> action to perform on the elements as
     *                 they are consumed from the stream
     * @return the new stream
     */
    Stream<T> peek(Consumer<? super T> action);

    /**
     * Returns a stream consisting of the elements of this stream, truncated
     * to be no longer than {@code maxSize} in length.
     *
     * <p>This is a <a href="package-summary.html#StreamOps">short-circuiting
     * stateful intermediate operation</a>.
     *
     * @apiNote
     * While {@code limit()} is generally a cheap operation on sequential
     * stream pipelines, it can be quite expensive on ordered parallel pipelines,
     * especially for large values of {@code maxSize}, since {@code limit(n)}
     * is constrained to return not just any <em>n</em> elements, but the
     * <em>first n</em> elements in the encounter order.  Using an unordered
     * stream source (such as {@link #generate(Supplier)}) or removing the
     * ordering constraint with {@link #unordered()} may result in significant
     * speedups of {@code limit()} in parallel pipelines, if the semantics of
     * your situation permit.  If consistency with encounter order is required,
     * and you are experiencing poor performance or memory utilization with
     * {@code limit()} in parallel pipelines, switching to sequential execution
     * with {@link #sequential()} may improve performance.
     *
     * @param maxSize the number of elements the stream should be limited to
     * @return the new stream
     * @throws IllegalArgumentException if {@code maxSize} is negative
     */
    Stream<T> limit(long maxSize);

    /**
     * Returns a stream consisting of the remaining elements of this stream
     * after discarding the first {@code n} elements of the stream.
     * If this stream contains fewer than {@code n} elements then an
     * empty stream will be returned.
     *
     * <p>This is a <a href="package-summary.html#StreamOps">stateful
     * intermediate operation</a>.
     *
     * @apiNote
     * While {@code skip()} is generally a cheap operation on sequential
     * stream pipelines, it can be quite expensive on ordered parallel pipelines,
     * especially for large values of {@code n}, since {@code skip(n)}
     * is constrained to skip not just any <em>n</em> elements, but the
     * <em>first n</em> elements in the encounter order.  Using an unordered
     * stream source (such as {@link #generate(Supplier)}) or removing the
     * ordering constraint with {@link #unordered()} may result in significant
     * speedups of {@code skip()} in parallel pipelines, if the semantics of
     * your situation permit.  If consistency with encounter order is required,
     * and you are experiencing poor performance or memory utilization with
     * {@code skip()} in parallel pipelines, switching to sequential execution
     * with {@link #sequential()} may improve performance.
     *
     * @param n the number of leading elements to skip
     * @return the new stream
     * @throws IllegalArgumentException if {@code n} is negative
     */
    Stream<T> skip(long n);

    /**
     * Performs an action for each element of this stream.
     *
     * <p>This is a <a href="package-summary.html#StreamOps">terminal
     * operation</a>.
     *
     * <p>The behavior of this operation is explicitly nondeterministic.
     * For parallel stream pipelines, this operation does <em>not</em>
     * guarantee to respect the encounter order of the stream, as doing so
     * would sacrifice the benefit of parallelism.  For any given element, the
     * action may be performed at whatever time and in whatever thread the
     * library chooses.  If the action accesses shared state, it is
     * responsible for providing the required synchronization.
     *
     * @param action a <a href="package-summary.html#NonInterference">
     *               non-interfering</a> action to perform on the elements
     */
    void forEach(Consumer<? super T> action);

    /**
     * Performs an action for each element of this stream, in the encounter
     * order of the stream if the stream has a defined encounter order.
     *
     * <p>This is a <a href="package-summary.html#StreamOps">terminal
     * operation</a>.
     *
     * <p>This operation processes the elements one at a time, in encounter
     * order if one exists.  Performing the action for one element
     * <a href="../concurrent/package-summary.html#MemoryVisibility"><i>happens-before</i></a>
     * performing the action for subsequent elements, but for any given element,
     * the action may be performed in whatever thread the library chooses.
     *
     * @param action a <a href="package-summary.html#NonInterference">
     *               non-interfering</a> action to perform on the elements
     * @see #forEach(Consumer)
     */
    void forEachOrdered(Consumer<? super T> action);

    /**
     * Returns an array containing the elements of this stream.
     *
     * <p>This is a <a href="package-summary.html#StreamOps">terminal
     * operation</a>.
     *
     * @return an array containing the elements of this stream
     */
    Object[] toArray();

    /**
     * Returns an array containing the elements of this stream, using the
     * provided {@code generator} function to allocate the returned array, as
     * well as any additional arrays that might be required for a partitioned
     * execution or for resizing.
     *
     * <p>This is a <a href="package-summary.html#StreamOps">terminal
     * operation</a>.
     *
     * @apiNote
     * The generator function takes an integer, which is the size of the
     * desired array, and produces an array of the desired size.  This can be
     * concisely expressed with an array constructor reference:
     * <pre>{@code
     *     Person[] men = people.stream()
     *                          .filter(p -> p.getGender() == MALE)
     *                          .toArray(Person[]::new);
     * }</pre>
     *
     * @param <A> the element type of the resulting array
     * @param generator a function which produces a new array of the desired
     *                  type and the provided length
     * @return an array containing the elements in this stream
     * @throws ArrayStoreException if the runtime type of the array returned
     * from the array generator is not a supertype of the runtime type of every
     * element in this stream
     */
    <A> A[] toArray(IntFunction<A[]> generator);

    /**
     * Performs a <a href="package-summary.html#Reduction">reduction</a> on the
     * elements of this stream, using the provided identity value and an
     * <a href="package-summary.html#Associativity">associative</a>
     * accumulation function, and returns the reduced value.  This is equivalent
     * to:
     * <pre>{@code
     *     T result = identity;
     *     for (T element : this stream)
     *         result = accumulator.apply(result, element)
     *     return result;
     * }</pre>
     *
     * but is not constrained to execute sequentially.
     *
     * <p>The {@code identity} value must be an identity for the accumulator
     * function. This means that for all {@code t},
     * {@code accumulator.apply(identity, t)} is equal to {@code t}.
     * The {@code accumulator} function must be an
     * <a href="package-summary.html#Associativity">associative</a> function.
     *
     * <p>This is a <a href="package-summary.html#StreamOps">terminal
     * operation</a>.
     *
     * @apiNote Sum, min, max, average, and string concatenation are all special
     * cases of reduction. Summing a stream of numbers can be expressed as:
     *
     * <pre>{@code
     *     Integer sum = integers.reduce(0, (a, b) -> a+b);
     * }</pre>
     *
     * or:
     *
     * <pre>{@code
     *     Integer sum = integers.reduce(0, Integer::sum);
     * }</pre>
     *
     * <p>While this may seem a more roundabout way to perform an aggregation
     * compared to simply mutating a running total in a loop, reduction
     * operations parallelize more gracefully, without needing additional
     * synchronization and with greatly reduced risk of data races.
     *
     * @param identity the identity value for the accumulating function
     * @param accumulator an <a href="package-summary.html#Associativity">associative</a>,
     *                    <a href="package-summary.html#NonInterference">non-interfering</a>,
     *                    <a href="package-summary.html#Statelessness">stateless</a>
     *                    function for combining two values
     * @return the result of the reduction
     */
    T reduce(T identity, BinaryOperator<T> accumulator);

    /**
     * Performs a <a href="package-summary.html#Reduction">reduction</a> on the
     * elements of this stream, using an
     * <a href="package-summary.html#Associativity">associative</a> accumulation
     * function, and returns an {@code Optional} describing the reduced value,
     * if any. This is equivalent to:
     * <pre>{@code
     *     boolean foundAny = false;
     *     T result = null;
     *     for (T element : this stream) {
     *         if (!foundAny) {
     *             foundAny = true;
     *             result = element;
     *         }
     *         else
     *             result = accumulator.apply(result, element);
     *     }
     *     return foundAny ? Optional.of(result) : Optional.empty();
     * }</pre>
     *
     * but is not constrained to execute sequentially.
     *
     * <p>The {@code accumulator} function must be an
     * <a href="package-summary.html#Associativity">associative</a> function.
     *
     * <p>This is a <a href="package-summary.html#StreamOps">terminal
     * operation</a>.
     *
     * @param accumulator an <a href="package-summary.html#Associativity">associative</a>,
     *                    <a href="package-summary.html#NonInterference">non-interfering</a>,
     *                    <a href="package-summary.html#Statelessness">stateless</a>
     *                    function for combining two values
     * @return an {@link Optional} describing the result of the reduction
     * @throws NullPointerException if the result of the reduction is null
     * @see #reduce(Object, BinaryOperator)
     * @see #min(Comparator)
     * @see #max(Comparator)
     */
    Optional<T> reduce(BinaryOperator<T> accumulator);

    /**
     * Performs a <a href="package-summary.html#Reduction">reduction</a> on the
     * elements of this stream, using the provided identity, accumulation and
     * combining functions.  This is equivalent to:
     * <pre>{@code
     *     U result = identity;
     *     for (T element : this stream)
     *         result = accumulator.apply(result, element)
     *     return result;
     * }</pre>
     *
     * but is not constrained to execute sequentially.
     *
     * <p>The {@code identity} value must be an identity for the combiner
     * function.  This means that for all {@code u}, {@code combiner(identity, u)}
     * is equal to {@code u}.  Additionally, the {@code combiner} function
     * must be compatible with the {@code accumulator} function; for all
     * {@code u} and {@code t}, the following must hold:
     * <pre>{@code
     *     combiner.apply(u, accumulator.apply(identity, t)) == accumulator.apply(u, t)
     * }</pre>
     *
     * <p>This is a <a href="package-summary.html#StreamOps">terminal
     * operation</a>.
     *
     * @apiNote Many reductions using this form can be represented more simply
     * by an explicit combination of {@code map} and {@code reduce} operations.
     * The {@code accumulator} function acts as a fused mapper and accumulator,
     * which can sometimes be more efficient than separate mapping and reduction,
     * such as when knowing the previously reduced value allows you to avoid
     * some computation.
     *
     * @param <U> The type of the result
     * @param identity the identity value for the combiner function
     * @param accumulator an <a href="package-summary.html#Associativity">associative</a>,
     *                    <a href="package-summary.html#NonInterference">non-interfering</a>,
     *                    <a href="package-summary.html#Statelessness">stateless</a>
     *                    function for incorporating an additional element into a result
     * @param combiner an <a href="package-summary.html#Associativity">associative</a>,
     *                    <a href="package-summary.html#NonInterference">non-interfering</a>,
     *                    <a href="package-summary.html#Statelessness">stateless</a>
     *                    function for combining two values, which must be
     *                    compatible with the accumulator function
     * @return the result of the reduction
     * @see #reduce(BinaryOperator)
     * @see #reduce(Object, BinaryOperator)
     */
    <U> U reduce(U identity,
                 BiFunction<U, ? super T, U> accumulator,
                 BinaryOperator<U> combiner);

    /**
     * Performs a <a href="package-summary.html#MutableReduction">mutable
     * reduction</a> operation on the elements of this stream.  A mutable
     * reduction is one in which the reduced value is a mutable result container,
     * such as an {@code ArrayList}, and elements are incorporated by updating
     * the state of the result rather than by replacing the result.  This
     * produces a result equivalent to:
     * <pre>{@code
     *     R result = supplier.get();
     *     for (T element : this stream)
     *         accumulator.accept(result, element);
     *     return result;
     * }</pre>
     *
     * <p>Like {@link #reduce(Object, BinaryOperator)}, {@code collect} operations
     * can be parallelized without requiring additional synchronization.
     *
     * <p>This is a <a href="package-summary.html#StreamOps">terminal
     * operation</a>.
     *
     * @apiNote There are many existing classes in the JDK whose signatures are
     * well-suited for use with method references as arguments to {@code collect()}.
     * For example, the following will accumulate strings into an {@code ArrayList}:
     * <pre>{@code
     *     List<String> asList = stringStream.collect(ArrayList::new, ArrayList::add,
     *                                                ArrayList::addAll);
     * }</pre>
     *
     * <p>The following will take a stream of strings and concatenates them into a
     * single string:
     * <pre>{@code
     *     String concat = stringStream.collect(StringBuilder::new, StringBuilder::append,
     *                                          StringBuilder::append)
     *                                 .toString();
     * }</pre>
     *
     * @param <R> type of the result
     * @param supplier a function that creates a new result container. For a
     *                 parallel execution, this function may be called
     *                 multiple times and must return a fresh value each time.
     * @param accumulator an <a href="package-summary.html#Associativity">associative</a>,
     *                    <a href="package-summary.html#NonInterference">non-interfering</a>,
     *                    <a href="package-summary.html#Statelessness">stateless</a>
     *                    function for incorporating an additional element into a result
     * @param combiner an <a href="package-summary.html#Associativity">associative</a>,
     *                    <a href="package-summary.html#NonInterference">non-interfering</a>,
     *                    <a href="package-summary.html#Statelessness">stateless</a>
     *                    function for combining two values, which must be
     *                    compatible with the accumulator function
     * @return the result of the reduction
     */
    <R> R collect(Supplier<R> supplier,
                  BiConsumer<R, ? super T> accumulator,
                  BiConsumer<R, R> combiner);

    /**
     * Performs a <a href="package-summary.html#MutableReduction">mutable
     * reduction</a> operation on the elements of this stream using a
     * {@code Collector}.  A {@code Collector}
     * encapsulates the functions used as arguments to
     * {@link #collect(Supplier, BiConsumer, BiConsumer)}, allowing for reuse of
     * collection strategies and composition of collect operations such as
     * multiple-level grouping or partitioning.
     *
     * <p>If the stream is parallel, and the {@code Collector}
     * is {@link Collector.Characteristics#CONCURRENT concurrent}, and
     * either the stream is unordered or the collector is
     * {@link Collector.Characteristics#UNORDERED unordered},
     * then a concurrent reduction will be performed (see {@link Collector} for
     * details on concurrent reduction.)
     *
     * <p>This is a <a href="package-summary.html#StreamOps">terminal
     * operation</a>.
     *
     * <p>When executed in parallel, multiple intermediate results may be
     * instantiated, populated, and merged so as to maintain isolation of
     * mutable data structures.  Therefore, even when executed in parallel
     * with non-thread-safe data structures (such as {@code ArrayList}), no
     * additional synchronization is needed for a parallel reduction.
     *
     * @apiNote
     * The following will accumulate strings into an ArrayList:
     * <pre>{@code
     *     List<String> asList = stringStream.collect(Collectors.toList());
     * }</pre>
     *
     * <p>The following will classify {@code Person} objects by city:
     * <pre>{@code
     *     Map<String, List<Person>> peopleByCity
     *         = personStream.collect(Collectors.groupingBy(Person::getCity));
     * }</pre>
     *
     * <p>The following will classify {@code Person} objects by state and city,
     * cascading two {@code Collector}s together:
     * <pre>{@code
     *     Map<String, Map<String, List<Person>>> peopleByStateAndCity
     *         = personStream.collect(Collectors.groupingBy(Person::getState,
     *                                                      Collectors.groupingBy(Person::getCity)));
     * }</pre>
     *
     * @param <R> the type of the result
     * @param <A> the intermediate accumulation type of the {@code Collector}
     * @param collector the {@code Collector} describing the reduction
     * @return the result of the reduction
     * @see #collect(Supplier, BiConsumer, BiConsumer)
     * @see Collectors
     */
    <R, A> R collect(Collector<? super T, A, R> collector);

    /**
     * Returns the minimum element of this stream according to the provided
     * {@code Comparator}.  This is a special case of a
     * <a href="package-summary.html#Reduction">reduction</a>.
     *
     * <p>This is a <a href="package-summary.html#StreamOps">terminal operation</a>.
     *
     * @param comparator a <a href="package-summary.html#NonInterference">non-interfering</a>,
     *                   <a href="package-summary.html#Statelessness">stateless</a>
     *                   {@code Comparator} to compare elements of this stream
     * @return an {@code Optional} describing the minimum element of this stream,
     * or an empty {@code Optional} if the stream is empty
     * @throws NullPointerException if the minimum element is null
     */
    Optional<T> min(Comparator<? super T> comparator);

    /**
     * Returns the maximum element of this stream according to the provided
     * {@code Comparator}.  This is a special case of a
     * <a href="package-summary.html#Reduction">reduction</a>.
     *
     * <p>This is a <a href="package-summary.html#StreamOps">terminal
     * operation</a>.
     *
     * @param comparator a <a href="package-summary.html#NonInterference">non-interfering</a>,
     *                   <a href="package-summary.html#Statelessness">stateless</a>
     *                   {@code Comparator} to compare elements of this stream
     * @return an {@code Optional} describing the maximum element of this stream,
     * or an empty {@code Optional} if the stream is empty
     * @throws NullPointerException if the maximum element is null
     */
    Optional<T> max(Comparator<? super T> comparator);

    /**
     * Returns the count of elements in this stream.  This is a special case of
     * a <a href="package-summary.html#Reduction">reduction</a> and is
     * equivalent to:
     * <pre>{@code
     *     return mapToLong(e -> 1L).sum();
     * }</pre>
     *
     * <p>This is a <a href="package-summary.html#StreamOps">terminal operation</a>.
     *
     * @return the count of elements in this stream
     */
    long count();

    /**
     * Returns whether any elements of this stream match the provided
     * predicate.  May not evaluate the predicate on all elements if not
     * necessary for determining the result.  If the stream is empty then
     * {@code false} is returned and the predicate is not evaluated.
     *
     * <p>This is a <a href="package-summary.html#StreamOps">short-circuiting
     * terminal operation</a>.
     *
     * @apiNote
     * This method evaluates the <em>existential quantification</em> of the
     * predicate over the elements of the stream (for some x P(x)).
     *
     * @param predicate a <a href="package-summary.html#NonInterference">non-interfering</a>,
     *                  <a href="package-summary.html#Statelessness">stateless</a>
     *                  predicate to apply to elements of this stream
     * @return {@code true} if any elements of the stream match the provided
     * predicate, otherwise {@code false}
     */
    boolean anyMatch(Predicate<? super T> predicate);

    /**
     * Returns whether all elements of this stream match the provided predicate.
     * May not evaluate the predicate on all elements if not necessary for
     * determining the result.  If the stream is empty then {@code true} is
     * returned and the predicate is not evaluated.
     *
     * <p>This is a <a href="package-summary.html#StreamOps">short-circuiting
     * terminal operation</a>.
     *
     * @apiNote
     * This method evaluates the <em>universal quantification</em> of the
     * predicate over the elements of the stream (for all x P(x)).  If the
     * stream is empty, the quantification is said to be <em>vacuously
     * satisfied</em> and is always {@code true} (regardless of P(x)).
     *
     * @param predicate a <a href="package-summary.html#NonInterference">non-interfering</a>,
     *                  <a href="package-summary.html#Statelessness">stateless</a>
     *                  predicate to apply to elements of this stream
     * @return {@code true} if either all elements of the stream match the
     * provided predicate or the stream is empty, otherwise {@code false}
     */
    boolean allMatch(Predicate<? super T> predicate);

    /**
     * Returns whether no elements of this stream match the provided predicate.
     * May not evaluate the predicate on all elements if not necessary for
     * determining the result.  If the stream is empty then {@code true} is
     * returned and the predicate is not evaluated.
     *
     * <p>This is a <a href="package-summary.html#StreamOps">short-circuiting
     * terminal operation</a>.
     *
     * @apiNote
     * This method evaluates the <em>universal quantification</em> of the
     * negated predicate over the elements of the stream (for all x ~P(x)).  If
     * the stream is empty, the quantification is said to be vacuously satisfied
     * and is always {@code true}, regardless of P(x).
     *
     * @param predicate a <a href="package-summary.html#NonInterference">non-interfering</a>,
     *                  <a href="package-summary.html#Statelessness">stateless</a>
     *                  predicate to apply to elements of this stream
     * @return {@code true} if either no elements of the stream match the
     * provided predicate or the stream is empty, otherwise {@code false}
     */
    boolean noneMatch(Predicate<? super T> predicate);

    /**
     * Returns an {@link Optional} describing the first element of this stream,
     * or an empty {@code Optional} if the stream is empty.  If the stream has
     * no encounter order, then any element may be returned.
     *
     * <p>This is a <a href="package-summary.html#StreamOps">short-circuiting
     * terminal operation</a>.
     *
     * @return an {@code Optional} describing the first element of this stream,
     * or an empty {@code Optional} if the stream is empty
     * @throws NullPointerException if the element selected is null
     */
    Optional<T> findFirst();

    /**
     * Returns an {@link Optional} describing some element of the stream, or an
     * empty {@code Optional} if the stream is empty.
     *
     * <p>This is a <a href="package-summary.html#StreamOps">short-circuiting
     * terminal operation</a>.
     *
     * <p>The behavior of this operation is explicitly nondeterministic; it is
     * free to select any element in the stream.  This is to allow for maximal
     * performance in parallel operations; the cost is that multiple invocations
     * on the same source may not return the same result.  (If a stable result
     * is desired, use {@link #findFirst()} instead.)
     *
     * @return an {@code Optional} describing some element of this stream, or an
     * empty {@code Optional} if the stream is empty
     * @throws NullPointerException if the element selected is null
     * @see #findFirst()
     */
    Optional<T> findAny();

    // Static factories

    /**
     * Returns a builder for a {@code Stream}.
     *
     * @param <T> type of elements
     * @return a stream builder
     */
    public static<T> Builder<T> builder() {
        return new Streams.StreamBuilderImpl<>();
    }

    /**
     * Returns an empty sequential {@code Stream}.
     *
     * @param <T> the type of stream elements
     * @return an empty sequential stream
     */
    public static<T> Stream<T> empty() {
        return StreamSupport.stream(Spliterators.<T>emptySpliterator(), false);
    }

    /**
     * Returns a sequential {@code Stream} containing a single element.
     *
     * @param t the single element
     * @param <T> the type of stream elements
     * @return a singleton sequential stream
     */
    public static<T> Stream<T> of(T t) {
        return StreamSupport.stream(new Streams.StreamBuilderImpl<>(t), false);
    }

    /**
     * Returns a sequential ordered stream whose elements are the specified values.
     *
     * @param <T> the type of stream elements
     * @param values the elements of the new stream
     * @return the new stream
     */
    @SafeVarargs
    @SuppressWarnings("varargs") // Creating a stream from an array is safe
    public static<T> Stream<T> of(T... values) {
        return Arrays.stream(values);
    }

    /**
     * Returns an infinite sequential ordered {@code Stream} produced by iterative
     * application of a function {@code f} to an initial element {@code seed},
     * producing a {@code Stream} consisting of {@code seed}, {@code f(seed)},
     * {@code f(f(seed))}, etc.
     *
     * <p>The first element (position {@code 0}) in the {@code Stream} will be
     * the provided {@code seed}.  For {@code n > 0}, the element at position
     * {@code n}, will be the result of applying the function {@code f} to the
     * element at position {@code n - 1}.
     *
     * @param <T> the type of stream elements
     * @param seed the initial element
     * @param f a function to be applied to to the previous element to produce
     *          a new element
     * @return a new sequential {@code Stream}
     */
    public static<T> Stream<T> iterate(final T seed, final UnaryOperator<T> f) {
        Objects.requireNonNull(f);
        final Iterator<T> iterator = new Iterator<T>() {
            @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
            T t = (T) Streams.NONE;

            @Override
            public boolean hasNext() {
                return true;
            }

            @Override
            public T next() {
                return t = (t == Streams.NONE) ? seed : f.apply(t);
            }
        };
        return StreamSupport.stream(Spliterators.spliteratorUnknownSize(
                iterator,
                Spliterator.ORDERED | Spliterator.IMMUTABLE), false);
    }

    /**
     * Returns an infinite sequential unordered stream where each element is
     * generated by the provided {@code Supplier}.  This is suitable for
     * generating constant streams, streams of random elements, etc.
     *
     * @param <T> the type of stream elements
     * @param s the {@code Supplier} of generated elements
     * @return a new infinite sequential unordered {@code Stream}
     */
    public static<T> Stream<T> generate(Supplier<T> s) {
        Objects.requireNonNull(s);
        return StreamSupport.stream(
                new StreamSpliterators.InfiniteSupplyingSpliterator.OfRef<>(Long.MAX_VALUE, s), false);
    }

    /**
     * Creates a lazily concatenated stream whose elements are all the
     * elements of the first stream followed by all the elements of the
     * second stream.  The resulting stream is ordered if both
     * of the input streams are ordered, and parallel if either of the input
     * streams is parallel.  When the resulting stream is closed, the close
     * handlers for both input streams are invoked.
     *
     * @implNote
     * Use caution when constructing streams from repeated concatenation.
     * Accessing an element of a deeply concatenated stream can result in deep
     * call chains, or even {@code StackOverflowException}.
     *
     * @param <T> The type of stream elements
     * @param a the first stream
     * @param b the second stream
     * @return the concatenation of the two input streams
     */
    public static <T> Stream<T> concat(Stream<? extends T> a, Stream<? extends T> b) {
        Objects.requireNonNull(a);
        Objects.requireNonNull(b);

        @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
        Spliterator<T> split = new Streams.ConcatSpliterator.OfRef<>(
                (Spliterator<T>) a.spliterator(), (Spliterator<T>) b.spliterator());
        Stream<T> stream = StreamSupport.stream(split, a.isParallel() || b.isParallel());
        return stream.onClose(Streams.composedClose(a, b));
    }

    /**
     * A mutable builder for a {@code Stream}.  This allows the creation of a
     * {@code Stream} by generating elements individually and adding them to the
     * {@code Builder} (without the copying overhead that comes from using
     * an {@code ArrayList} as a temporary buffer.)
     *
     * <p>A stream builder has a lifecycle, which starts in a building
     * phase, during which elements can be added, and then transitions to a built
     * phase, after which elements may not be added.  The built phase begins
     * when the {@link #build()} method is called, which creates an ordered
     * {@code Stream} whose elements are the elements that were added to the stream
     * builder, in the order they were added.
     *
     * @param <T> the type of stream elements
     * @see Stream#builder()
     * @since 1.8
     */
    public interface Builder<T> extends Consumer<T> {

        /**
         * Adds an element to the stream being built.
         *
         * @throws IllegalStateException if the builder has already transitioned to
         * the built state
         */
        @Override
        void accept(T t);

        /**
         * Adds an element to the stream being built.
         *
         * @implSpec
         * The default implementation behaves as if:
         * <pre>{@code
         *     accept(t)
         *     return this;
         * }</pre>
         *
         * @param t the element to add
         * @return {@code this} builder
         * @throws IllegalStateException if the builder has already transitioned to
         * the built state
         */
        default Builder<T> add(T t) {
            accept(t);
            return this;
        }

        /**
         * Builds the stream, transitioning this builder to the built state.
         * An {@code IllegalStateException} is thrown if there are further attempts
         * to operate on the builder after it has entered the built state.
         *
         * @return the built stream
         * @throws IllegalStateException if the builder has already transitioned to
         * the built state
         */
        Stream<T> build();

    }
}

 

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