C语言实现继承和多态

C 专栏收录该内容
10 篇文章 0 订阅

C语言实现继承和多态

继承和多态是面向对象语言最强大的功能。有了继承和多态,我们可以完成代码重用。在C中有许多技巧可以实现多态。本文的目的就是演示一种简单和容易的技术,在C中应用继承和多态。通过创建一个VTablevirtual table)和在基类和派生类对象之间提供正确的访问,我们能在C中实现继承和多态。VTable能通过维护一张函数表指针表来实现。为了提供基类和派生类对象之间的访问,我们可以在基类中维护派生类的引用和在派生类中维护基类的引用。

2、说明

C中实现继承和多态之前,我们应该知道类(Class)在C中如何表示。

2.1、类在C中的表示

考虑C++中的一个类"Person"

//Person.h

class Person

{

private:

    char* pFirstName;

    char* pLastName;

    

public:

    Person(const char* pFirstName, const char* pLastName);    //constructor

    ~Person();    //destructor

 

    void displayInfo();

    void writeToFile(const char* pFileName);

 

};

C中表示上面的类,我们可以使用结构体,并用操作结构体的函数表示成员函数。

//Person.h

typedef struct _Person

{

    char* pFirstName;

    char* pLastName;

}Person;

 

new_Person(const char* const pFirstName, const char* const pLastName);    //constructor

delete_Person(Person* const pPersonObj);    //destructor

 

void Person_DisplayInfo(Person* const pPersonObj);

void Person_WriteToFile(Person* const pPersonObj, const char* const pFileName);

这里,定义的操作结构体Person的函数没有封装。为了实现封装,即绑定数据、函数、函数指针。我们需要创建一个函数指针表。构造函数new_Person()将设置函数指针值以指向合适的函数。这个函数指针表将作为对象访问函数的接口。

下面我们重新定义C中实现类Person

//Person.h

 

typedef struct _Person Person;

 

//declaration of pointers to functions

typedef void    (*fptrDisplayInfo)(Person*);

typedef void    (*fptrWriteToFile)( Person*, const char*);

typedef void    (*fptrDelete)( Person *) ;

 

//Note: In C all the members are by default public. We can achieve

//the data hiding (private members), but that method is tricky.

//For simplification of this article

// we are considering the data members     //public only.

typedef struct _Person

{

    char* pFName;

    char* pLName;

    //interface for function

    fptrDisplayInfo   Display;

    fptrWriteToFile   WriteToFile;

    fptrDelete      Delete;

}Person;

 

person* new_Person(const char* const pFirstName,

                   const char* const pLastName); //constructor

void delete_Person(Person* const pPersonObj);    //destructor

 

void Person_DisplayInfo(Person* const pPersonObj);

void Person_WriteToFile(Person* const pPersonObj, const char* pFileName);

new_Person()函数作为构造函数,它返回新创建的结构体实例。它初始化函数指针接口去访问其它成员函数。这里要注意的一点是,我们仅仅定义了那些允许公共访问的函数指针,并没有给定私有函数的接口。让我们看一下new_Person()函数或C中类Person的构造函数。

//Person.c

person* new_Person(const char* const pFirstName, const char* const pLastName)

{

    Person* pObj = NULL;

    //allocating memory

    pObj = (Person*)malloc(sizeof(Person));

    if (pObj == NULL)

    {

        return NULL;

    }

    pObj->pFirstName = malloc(sizeof(char)*(strlen(pFirstName)+1));

    if (pObj->pFirstName == NULL)

    {

        return NULL;

    }

    strcpy(pObj->pFirstName, pFirstName);

 

    pObj->pLastName = malloc(sizeof(char)*(strlen(pLastName)+1));

    if (pObj->pLastName == NULL)

    {

        return NULL;

    }

    strcpy(pObj->pLastName, pLastName);

 

    //Initializing interface for access to functions

    pObj->Delete = delete_Person;

    pObj->Display = Person_DisplayInfo;

    pObj->WriteToFile = Person_WriteToFile;

 

    return pObj;

}

创建完对象之后,我们能够访问它的数据成员和函数。

Person* pPersonObj = new_Person("Anjali", "Jaiswal");

//displaying person info

pPersonObj->Display(pPersonObj);

//writing person info in the persondata.txt file

pPersonObj->WriteToFile(pPersonObj, "persondata.txt");

//delete the person object

pPersonObj->Delete(pPersonObj);

pPersonObj = NULL;

注意:不像C++,在C中我们不能在函数中直接访问数据成员。在C++中,可以隐式通过“this”指针直接访问数据成员。我们知道C中是没有“this”指针的,通过显示地传递对象给成员函数。在C中为了访问类的数据成员,我们需要把调用对象作为函数参数传递。上面的例子中,我们把调用对象作为函数的第一个参数,通过这种方法,函数可以访问对象的数据成员。

3、在C中类的表现

Person类的表示——检查初始化接口指向成员函数:

3.1、继承和多态的简单例子

继承-Employee类继承自Person类:

 

在上面的例子中,类Employee继承类Person的属性。因为DisplayInfo()WriteToFile()函数是virtual的,我们能够从Person的实例访问Employee对象中的同名函数。为了实现这个,我们创建Person实例的时候也初始化Employee类。多态使这成为可能。 在多态的情况下,去解析函数调用,C++使用VTable——即一张函数指针表。

前面我们在结构体中维护的指向函数的指针接口的作用类似于VTable

//Polymorphism in C++

Person PersonObj("Anjali", "Jaiswal");

Employee EmployeeObj("Gauri", "Jaiswal", "HR", "TCS", 40000);

 

Person* ptrPersonObj = NULL;

    

//preson pointer pointing to person object

ptrPersonObj = &PersonObj;

//displaying person info

ptrPersonObj ->Display();

//writing person info in the persondata.txt file

ptrPersonObj ->WriteToFile("persondata.txt");

 

//preson pointer pointing to employee object

ptrPersonObj = &EmployeeObj;

//displaying employee info

ptrPersonObj ->Display();

//writing empolyee info in the employeedata.txt file

ptrPersonObj ->WriteToFile("employeedata.txt");

C中,继承可以通过在派生类对象中维护一个基类对象的引用来完成。在基类实例的帮助下,women可以访问基类的数据成员和函数。然而,为了实现多态,街垒对象应该能够访问派生类对象的数据。为了实现这个,基类应该有访问派生类的数据成员的权限。

为了实现虚函数,派生类的函数签名应该和基类的函数指针类似。即派生类函数将以基类对象的一个实例为参数。我们在基类中维护一个派生类的引用。在函数实现上,我们可以从派生类的引用访问实际派生类的数据。

3.2、在C中结构体中的等效表示

C中的继承-PersonEmployee结构体:

 

如图所示,我们在基类结构体中声明了一个指针保存派生类对像,并在派生类结构体中声明一个指针保存基类对象。

在基类对象中,函数指针指向自己的虚函数。在派生类对象的构造函数中,我们需要使基类的接口指向派生类的成员函数。这使我们可以通过基类对象(多态)灵活的调用派生类函数。更多细节,请检查PersonEmployee对象的构造函数。

当我们讨论C++中的多态时,有一个对象销毁的问题。为了正确的清楚对象,它使用虚析构函数。在C中,这可以通过使基类的删除函数指针指向派生类的析构函数。派生类的析构函数清楚派生类的数据和基类的数据和对象。注意:检查例子的源码中,实现须构造函数和虚函数的实现细节。

创建Person对象

//Person.h

 

typedef struct _Person Person;

 

//pointers to function

typedef void    (*fptrDisplayInfo)(Person*);

typedef void    (*fptrWriteToFile)(Person*, const char*);

typedef void    (*fptrDelete)(Person*) ;

 

typedef struct _person

{

    void* pDerivedObj;

    char* pFirstName;

    char* pLastName;

    fptrDisplayInfo Display;

    fptrWriteToFile WriteToFile;

    fptrDelete        Delete;

}person;

 

Person* new_Person(const char* const pFristName,

                   const char* const pLastName);    //constructor

void delete_Person(Person* const pPersonObj);    //destructor

 

void Person_DisplayInfo(Person* const pPersonObj);

void Person_WriteToFile(Person* const pPersonObj, const char* const pFileName);

    

//Person.c

//construction of Person object

Person* new_Person(const char* const pFirstName, const char* const pLastName)

{

    Person* pObj = NULL;

    //allocating memory

    pObj = (Person*)malloc(sizeof(Person));

    if (pObj == NULL)

    {

        return NULL;

    }

    //pointing to itself as we are creating base class object

    pObj->pDerivedObj = pObj;

    pObj->pFirstName = malloc(sizeof(char)*(strlen(pFirstName)+1));

    if (pObj->pFirstName == NULL)

    {

        return NULL;

    }

    strcpy(pObj->pFirstName, pFirstName);

 

    pObj->pLastName = malloc(sizeof(char)*(strlen(pLastName)+1));

    if (pObj->pLastName == NULL)

    {

        return NULL;

    }

    strcpy(pObj->pLastName, pLastName);

 

    //Initializing interface for access to functions

    //destructor pointing to destrutor of itself

    pObj->Delete = delete_Person;

    pObj->Display = Person_DisplayInfo;

    pObj->WriteToFile = Person_WriteToFile;

 

    return pObj;

}

Person对象的结构

创建Employee对象

//Employee.h

 

#include "Person.h"

 

 

typedef struct _Employee Employee;

 

//Note: interface for this class is in the base class

//object since all functions are virtual.

//If there is any additional functions in employee add

//interface for those functions in this structure

typedef struct _Employee

{

    Person* pBaseObj;

    char* pDepartment;

    char* pCompany;

    int nSalary;

    //If there is any employee specific functions; add interface here.

}Employee;

 

Person* new_Employee(const char* const pFirstName, const char* const pLastName,

        const char* const pDepartment, const char* const pCompany,

        int nSalary);    //constructor

void delete_Employee(Person* const pPersonObj);    //destructor

 

void Employee_DisplayInfo(Person* const pPersonObj);

void Employee_WriteToFile(Person* const pPersonObj, const char* const pFileName);

    

//Employee.c

Person* new_Employee(const char* const pFirstName, const char* const pLastName,

                     const char* const pDepartment,

                     const char* const pCompany, int nSalary)

{

    Employee* pEmpObj;

    //calling base class construtor

    Person* pObj = new_Person(pFirstName, pLastName);

    //allocating memory

    pEmpObj = malloc(sizeof(Employee));

    if (pEmpObj == NULL)

    {

        pObj->Delete(pObj);

        return NULL;

    }

    pObj->pDerivedObj = pEmpObj; //pointing to derived object

    

    //initialising derived class members

    pEmpObj->pDepartment = malloc(sizeof(char)*(strlen(pDepartment)+1));

    if(pEmpObj->pDepartment == NULL)

    {

        return NULL;

    }

    strcpy(pEmpObj->pDepartment, pDepartment);

    pEmpObj->pCompany = malloc(sizeof(char)*(strlen(pCompany)+1));

    if(pEmpObj->pCompany== NULL)

    {

        return NULL;

    }

    strcpy(pEmpObj->pCompany, pCompany);

    pEmpObj->nSalary = nSalary;

        

    //Changing base class interface to access derived class functions

    //virtual destructor

    //person destructor pointing to destrutor of employee

    pObj->Delete = delete_Employee;

    pObj->Display = Employee_DisplayInfo;

    pObj->WriteToFile = Employee_WriteToFile;

 

    return pObj;

}

Employee对象的结构

注意:从基类函数到派生类函数改变了接口(VTable)中指针位置。现在我们可以从基类(多态)访问派生类函数。我们来看如何使用多态。

Person* PersonObj = new_Person("Anjali", "Jaiswal");

Person* EmployeeObj = new_Employee("Gauri", "Jaiswal","HR", "TCS", 40000);

 

//accessing person object

 

//displaying person info

PersonObj->Display(PersonObj);

//writing person info in the persondata.txt file

PersonObj->WriteToFile(PersonObj,"persondata.txt");

//calling destructor

PersonObj->Delete(PersonObj);

 

//accessing to employee object

 

//displaying employee info

EmployeeObj->Display(EmployeeObj);

//writing empolyee info in the employeedata.txt file

EmployeeObj->WriteToFile(EmployeeObj, "employeedata.txt");

//calling destrutor

EmployeeObj->Delete(EmployeeObj);

结论

使用上面描述的简单的额外代码能是过程式C语言有多态和继承的特性。我们简单的使用函数指针创建一个VTable和在基类和派生类对象中交叉维护引用。用这些简单的步骤,我们在C中可以实现继承和多态。

 

  • 6
    点赞
  • 1
    评论
  • 19
    收藏
  • 一键三连
    一键三连
  • 扫一扫,分享海报

©️2021 CSDN 皮肤主题: 大白 设计师:CSDN官方博客 返回首页
实付
使用余额支付
点击重新获取
扫码支付
钱包余额 0

抵扣说明:

1.余额是钱包充值的虚拟货币,按照1:1的比例进行支付金额的抵扣。
2.余额无法直接购买下载,可以购买VIP、C币套餐、付费专栏及课程。

余额充值