Linux C/C++ 多线程TCP/UDP服务器 (监控系统状态)

Linux环境中实现并发TCP/IP服务器。多线程在解决方案中提供了并发性。由于并发性,它允许多个客户端同时连接到服务器并与服务器交互。

Linux多线程编程概述

许多应用程序同时处理多项杂务。服务器应用程序处理并发客户端;交互式应用程序通常在处理后台计算时处理用户输入;计算密集型应用程序利用多个处理器的功能。共同的主题是使用多个控制线程来提供处理并发活动的上下文,无论是在一个处理器上多路复用、在多个处理器上并行执行,还是利用具有“超线程技术”的处理器以及AMD和Intel的新双核处理器的设施。

协调这些线程的执行涉及同步对共享数据结构的访问,确保程序行为良好且具有确定性,而不管其组件线程的相对执行速度如何。多线程程序和单线程程序一样,必须处理异常和与外界的交互。尽管在这样的程序中可能有许多并发活动,但程序作为一个整体应该对这样的外部输入做出清晰的响应。

线程的实现方式有很多种,包括用户级库、内核和各种组合。大多数Linux实现目前将每个线程视为使用克隆系统调用创建的单独进程(尽管每个线程都与其队列共享其地址空间)。

C/C++ 多线程并发服务器知识点

  • 多线程并发服务器思路
1. socket(),创建监听套接字
2. bind(),绑定监听套接字
3. setsockopt(),设置端口复用
4. listen(),监听状态,用来被动接受来自其他主动套接字的连接请求,并设置监听上限
5. pthread_attr_init()pthread_attr_setdetachstate()pthread_create(),在创建时指定属性
6. pthread_rwlock_wrlock()pthread_rwlock_unlock(),并发程序引起的共享内存问题
...

Linux C/C++ 多线程TCP/UDP服务器 (监控系统状态)

目的:使用TCP/IP实现多线程客户端服务器。它允许多个客户端同时连接到服务器并与服务器交互。处理多线程TCP/UDP服务器监控系统状态:监控CPU负载、RAM使用情况、磁盘空间使用情况和可用网络接口。

服务器:

启动服务器并接受来自客户端的连接。在接受客户机连接后,它分派一个线程与客户机交互。

...
int main(int argc, char *argv[])
{
    if (argc != 4)
    {
        printf ("Usage: %s <TCP/UDP> <port> <max_connections>\n", argv[0]);
        return 0;
    }

    if (strncmp ("TCP", argv[1], 3) == 0)
    {
        printf ("Using TCP");
        protocol = TCP;
    }
    else if (strncmp ("UDP", argv[1], 3) == 0)
    {
        printf ("Using UDP");
        protocol = UDP;
    }
    else
    {
        printf ("Unknown protocol: %s\n", argv[1]);
        printf ("Usage: %s <TCP/UDP> <port> <max_connections>\n", argv[0]);
        return 0;
    }

    const int port = atoi (argv[2]);

    if (!port)
    {
        printf ("Wrong port number: %s\n", argv[2]);
        printf ("Usage: %s <TCP/UDP> <port> <max_connections>\n", argv[0]);
        return 0;
    }

    const int max_connections = atoi (argv[3]);

    if (!max_connections)
    {
        printf ("Wrong max_connections number: %s\n", argv[3]);
        printf ("Usage: %s <TCP/UDP> <port> <max_connections>\n", argv[0]);
        return 0;
    }

    printf (" on port %i with no more than %i clients\n", port, max_connections);

    /* Assign signal handlers to signals. */

    if (signal (SIGPIPE, SIG_IGN) == SIG_ERR)
    {
        perror ("signal");
        exit (EXIT_FAILURE);
    }
    if (signal (SIGTERM, signal_handler) == SIG_ERR)
    {
        perror ("signal");
        exit (EXIT_FAILURE);
    }
    if (signal (SIGINT, signal_handler) == SIG_ERR)
    {
        perror ("signal");
        exit (EXIT_FAILURE);
    }

    pthread_attr_t pthread_attr;
    pthread_arg_t *pthread_arg;
    pthread_t pthread;

	//为属性对象分配了动态内存空间
    if (pthread_attr_init (&pthread_attr) != 0)
    {
        perror("pthread_attr_init");
        exit (EXIT_FAILURE);
    }
	//设置线程分离状态
    if (pthread_attr_setdetachstate (&pthread_attr, PTHREAD_CREATE_DETACHED) != 0)
    {
        perror("pthread_attr_setdetachstate");
        exit (EXIT_FAILURE);
    }

    // 开始观测
	//指定已初始化的读写锁
    pthread_rwlock_init (&rwlock, NULL);
    if (pthread_create (&pthread, &pthread_attr, pthread_sysinfo, NULL) != 0)
    {
        perror("pthread_create");
        exit (EXIT_FAILURE);
    }

    struct addrinfo hints;
    struct addrinfo *result, *rp;
    int socket_fd;

    memset(&hints, 0, sizeof(struct addrinfo));
    hints.ai_family = AF_UNSPEC;
    hints.ai_socktype = (protocol == TCP) ? SOCK_STREAM : SOCK_DGRAM;
    hints.ai_flags = AI_PASSIVE;
    hints.ai_protocol = 0;
    hints.ai_canonname = NULL;
    hints.ai_addr = NULL;
    hints.ai_next = NULL;

    int s = getaddrinfo(NULL, argv[2], &hints, &result);
    if (s != 0)
    {
        fprintf(stderr, "getaddrinfo: %s\n", gai_strerror(s));
        exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
    }

    for (rp = result; rp != NULL; rp = rp->ai_next)
    {
        socket_fd = socket(rp->ai_family, rp->ai_socktype,
                           rp->ai_protocol);
        if (socket_fd == -1)
            continue;

        if (bind(socket_fd, rp->ai_addr, rp->ai_addrlen) == 0)
            break;                  /* Success */

        close (socket_fd);
    }

    if (rp == NULL)                 /* No address succeeded */
    {
        fprintf(stderr, "Could not bind\n");
        exit (EXIT_FAILURE);
    }

    freeaddrinfo (result);

    if (protocol == UDP)
    {
        struct timeval timeout = {5, 0};
		//设置端口复用
        setsockopt (socket_fd, SOL_SOCKET, SO_RCVTIMEO, (char*)&timeout, sizeof(struct timeval));

        for (;; udp_reply (socket_fd));
    }

    if (listen (socket_fd, BACKLOG) == -1)
    {
        perror ("listen");
        exit (EXIT_FAILURE);
    }

    while (protocol == TCP)
    {
        pthread_arg = (pthread_arg_t *) malloc (sizeof *pthread_arg);
        if (!pthread_arg)
        {
            perror ("malloc");
            exit (EXIT_FAILURE);
        }

        socklen_t client_address_len = sizeof pthread_arg->client_address;
        int tcp_socket_fd = accept (socket_fd, (struct sockaddr *)&pthread_arg->client_address,
                                    &client_address_len);

        connections++;

        if (tcp_socket_fd == -1)
        {
            perror ("accept");
            free (pthread_arg);
            exit (EXIT_FAILURE);
        }
        else if (connections > max_connections)
        {
            close (tcp_socket_fd);
            connections--;
            free (pthread_arg);
            continue;
        }

        printf ("New TCP connection accepted: now there are %i clients\n", connections);
        pthread_arg->new_socket_fd = tcp_socket_fd;
        if (pthread_create (&pthread, &pthread_attr, pthread_routine_tcp, (void *)pthread_arg) != 0)
        {
            perror("pthread_create");
            free (pthread_arg);
            exit (EXIT_FAILURE);
        }
    }
    return 0;
}
...
void *pthread_sysinfo ()
{
    char *s = system_state_report ();
    strcpy (system_state, s);
    free (s);

    for (;;)
    {
        if (connections > 0 || protocol == UDP)
        {
            s = system_state_report ();
            pthread_rwlock_wrlock (&rwlock);
            strcpy (system_state, s);
            pthread_rwlock_unlock (&rwlock);
            free (s);
        }
    }
    return NULL;
}

void signal_handler (int signal_number)
{
    /* Exit cleanup code here. */
    // close (socket_fd);
    exit (EXIT_SUCCESS);
}
...
char *system_state_report ()
{
    json_t *root = json_loads (BLANC_JSON_REPORT, 0, NULL);

    cpu_usage (json_object_get(root, "CPU, %"));
    ram_usage (json_object_get(root, "RAM"));
    storage_usage (json_object_get(root, "Storage"));
    net_usage (json_object_get(root, "Network"));

    time_stamp (root);

    char *s = json_dumps (root, 0);

    json_decref (root);
    return s;
}

int cpu_usage (json_t *cpu_state)
{
    char buff[TXT_BUFFER_SIZE][TXT_BUFFER_SIZE];
    int ncpu = get_nprocs ();

    FILE* fp = fopen(STAT_PATH,"r");
    for (int i = 0; i < ncpu + 1; i++)
    {
        fgets(buff[i], TXT_BUFFER_SIZE, fp);
    }
    fclose(fp);

    sleep(TIME_LAG);

    fp = fopen(STAT_PATH,"r");
    for (int i = 0; i < ncpu + 1; i++)
    {
        fgets(buff[i + ncpu + 1], TXT_BUFFER_SIZE, fp);
    }
    fclose(fp);

    for (int i = 0; i < ncpu + 1; i++)
    {
        long long sum = 0, lastSum = 0;
        long long idle, lastIdle;

        char* token = strtok(buff[i], " ");

        for (int col = 0; token != NULL;)
        {
            token = strtok (NULL, " ");
            if (token != NULL)
            {
                lastSum += atoll (token);
                if (col == 3)
                    lastIdle = atoll (token);
                col++;
            }
        }
...

        int cpu_usage_pct = (1000 *((sum - lastSum) - (idle - lastIdle)) / (sum - lastSum) + 5) / 10;
        json_t *json_cpu_pct;
        json_cpu_pct = json_integer(cpu_usage_pct);
        json_array_append (cpu_state, json_cpu_pct);
        json_decref (json_cpu_pct);
    }
    return 0;
}

...

客户端:
与服务器交互。通常,会使用write将消息中的消息发送到服务器,并使用read从服务器接收消息并将其存储在消息中。

...
int main(int argc, char *argv[])
{
...

    if (argc < 4)
    {
        fprintf (stderr, "Usage: %s <host> <port> <update_time (seconds)>\n", argv[0]);
        exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
    }

    const int time_lag = atoi (argv[3]);

    if (!time_lag)
    {
        fprintf( stderr, "Impossible time lag: %s\n", argv[3]);
        exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
    }



    memset(&hints, 0, sizeof(struct addrinfo));
    hints.ai_family = AF_UNSPEC;     /* Allow IPv4 or IPv6 */
    hints.ai_socktype = 0;           /* Any type: TCP/UDP */
    hints.ai_flags = 0;
    hints.ai_protocol = 0;           /* Any protocol */

    s = getaddrinfo(argv[1], argv[2], &hints, &result);
    if (s != 0)
    {
        fprintf(stderr, "getaddrinfo: %s\n", gai_strerror(s));
        exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
    }

    for (rp = result; rp != NULL; rp = rp->ai_next)
    {
        sfd = socket(rp->ai_family, rp->ai_socktype,
                     rp->ai_protocol);
        if (sfd == -1)
            continue;

        if (connect(sfd, rp->ai_addr, rp->ai_addrlen) != -1)
            break;

        close(sfd);
    }

    if (rp == NULL)
    {
        fprintf (stderr, "Could not connect to server %s at port: %s\n", argv[1], argv[2]);
        exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
    }

    freeaddrinfo(result);

    // Server interaction.

    for (;; sleep (time_lag))
    {
        char msg[BUF_SIZE];
        char s[BUF_SIZE];
        bzero (msg, BUF_SIZE);

        write (sfd, "report", 6);
        int server_response = read (sfd, msg, BUF_SIZE);
        if (server_response <= 0)
        {
            printf ("Connection is closed by server\n");
            break;
        }
        status (msg, s);
        printf ("%s\n", s);
    }

...
}

int status (const char *src, char *report)
{
...

    int ncpu = json_array_size (cpu_status);
    int tot_cpu_usage = json_integer_value (tot_cpu_load);

    char buff[BUF_SIZE];

    sprintf (report, "Total usage of %2i CPUs: %3i%%, ", ncpu - 1, tot_cpu_usage);

    int mem_tot  = json_integer_value (json_object_get (ram_status, "Total"  ));
    int mem_free = json_integer_value (json_object_get (ram_status, "Free"   ));
    int mem_buff = json_integer_value (json_object_get (ram_status, "Buffers"));
    int mem_cach = json_integer_value (json_object_get (ram_status, "Cached" ));

    int mem_not_used = mem_free + mem_buff + mem_cach;
    int mem_used = mem_tot - mem_not_used;

    sprintf(buff, "Memory: %.1f MB used, %.1f MB free", mem_used/1024.0, mem_not_used/1024.0);
...
}

If you need the complete source code, please add the WeChat number (c17865354792)

运行结果:
打开两个客户端连接服务器,最后再同时断开连接服务器。


在这里插入图片描述

在客户端的请求消息报告中,作为响应,服务器给出系统当前状态的描述。

总结

多线程在解决方案中提供了并发性。由于并发性,客户端不必等待轮到他们,可以立即得到服务。当服务器有一个线程来处理新连接。接受这样的连接后,将创建一个新线程,负责与给定客户端的所有通信。最后要讲的是,熟悉多线程编程是一项重要的个人技能,只有掌握了多线程编程,才能更合理地选择使用或不使用多线程。

Welcome to follow WeChat official account【程序猿编码

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