# hbase0.95 官方文档

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1. 入门
1.1. 介绍 1.2. 快速开始
2. Apache HBase (TM) 配置
2.1. 基础条件 2.2. HBase 运行模式: 独立和分布式 2.3.  配置文件 2.4. 配置示例 2.5.  重要配置
3. 升级
3.1. 从 0.94.x 升级到 0.96.x 3.2. 从 0.92.x 升级到 0.94.x 3.3. 从 0.90.x 升级到 0.92.x 3.4. 从0.20x或0.89x升级到0.90.x
4. HBase Shell
4.1.  使用脚本 4.2.  Shell 技巧
5.  数据模型
5.1.  概念视图 5.2.  物理视图 5.3.  5.4.  5.5. 列族 5.6. Cells 5.7. Data Model Operations 5.8. 版本 5.9. 排序 5.10. 列元数据 5.11. Joins
6. HBase 和 Schema 设计
6.1. Schema  创建 6.2.  column families的数量 6.3. Rowkey 设计 6.4. 版本数量 6.5. 支持的数据类型 6.6. Joins 6.7. 生存时间 (TTL) 6.8. 保留删除的单元 6.9. 第二索引和替代查询路径 6.10. 模式设计对决 6.11. 操作和性能配置选项 6.12. 限制
7. HBase 和 MapReduce
7.1. Map-Task 分割 7.2. HBase MapReduce 示例 7.3. 在MapReduce工作中访问其他 HBase 表 7.4. 推测执行
8. HBase安全
8.1. 安全客户端访问 HBase 8.2. 访问控制
9. 架构
9.1. 概述 9.2. 目录表 9.3. 客户端 9.4. 客户请求过滤器 9.5. Master 9.6. RegionServer 9.7. 分区(Regions) 9.8. 批量加载 9.9. HDFS
10. 外部 APIs
10.1. 非Java语言和 JVM交互 10.2. REST 10.3. Thrift 10.4. C/C++ Apache HBase Client
11. 性能调优
11.1. 操作系统 11.2. 网络 11.3. Java 11.4. HBase 配置 11.5. ZooKeeper 11.6. Schema 设计 11.7. 写到 HBase 11.8. 从 HBase读取 11.9. 从 HBase删除 11.10. HDFS 11.11. Amazon EC2 11.12. 案例
12. 故障排除和调试 HBase
12.1. 通用指引 12.2. Logs 12.3. 资源 12.4. 工具 12.5. 客户端 12.6. MapReduce 12.7. NameNode 12.8. 网络 12.9. RegionServer 12.10. Master 12.11. ZooKeeper 12.12. Amazon EC2 12.13. HBase 和 Hadoop 版本相关 12.14. 案例
13. 案例研究
13.1. 概要 13.2. Schema 设计 13.3. 性能/故障排除
14. HBase 运维管理
14.1. HBase 工具和实用程序 14.2. 分区管理 14.3. 节点管理 14.4. HBase 度量(Metrics) 14.5. HBase 监控 14.6. Cluster 复制 14.7. HBase 备份 14.8. 容量规划
15. 创建和开发 HBase
15.1. HBase 仓库 15.2. IDEs 15.3. 创建 HBase 15.4. 添加 Apache HBase 发行版到Apache的 Maven Repository 15.5. 更新 hbase.apache.org 15.6. 测试 15.7. Maven 创建命令 15.8. 加入 15.9. 开发 15.10. 提交补丁
16. ZooKeeper
16.1. 和已有的ZooKeeper一起使用 16.2. 通过ZooKeeper 的SASL 认证
17. 社区
17.1. 决策 17.2. 社区角色
A. FAQ
B. 深入hbck
B.1. 运行 hbck 以查找不一致 B.2. 不一致(Inconsistencies) B.3. 局部修补 B.4. 分区重叠修补
C. HBase中的压缩
C.1. CompressionTest 工具 C.2. hbase.regionserver.codecs C.3. LZO C.4. GZIP C.5. SNAPPY C.6. 修改压缩 Schemes
D. YCSB: Yahoo! 云服务评估和 HBase
E. HFile 格式版本 2
E.1. Motivation E.2. HFile 格式版本 1 概览 E.3. HBase 文件格式带 inline blocks (version 2)
F. HBase的其他信息
F.1. HBase 视频 F.2. HBase 展示 (Slides) F.3. HBase 论文 F.4. HBase 网站 F.5. HBase 书籍 F.6. Hadoop 书籍
G. HBase 历史
H. HBase 和 Apache 软件基金会(ASF)
H.1. ASF开发进程 H.2. ASF 报告板 I. Enabling Dapper-like Tracing in HBase

## 1.1. 介绍

Section 1.2, “快速开始”会介绍如何运行一个单机版的HBase.他运行在本地磁盘上。 Section 2, “配置” 会介绍如何运行一个分布式的HBase。他运行在HDFS上

## 1.2. 快速开始

### 1.2.1. 下载解压最新版本

$tar xfz hbase-0.95-SNAPSHOT.tar.gz$ cd hbase-0.95-SNAPSHOT


<?xml version="1.0"?>
<?xml-stylesheet type="text/xsl" href="configuration.xsl"?>
<configuration>
<property>
<name>hbase.rootdir</name>
<value>file:///DIRECTORY/hbase</value>
</property>
</configuration>



starting Master, logging to logs/hbase-user-master-example.org.out

shell连接你的HBase

$./bin/hbase shell HBase Shell; enter 'help<RETURN>' for list of supported commands. Type "exit<RETURN>" to leave the HBase Shell Version: 0.90.0, r1001068, Fri Sep 24 13:55:42 PDT 2010 hbase(main):001:0>  输入 help 然后 <RETURN> 可以看到一列shell命令。这里的帮助很详细，要注意的是表名，行和列需要加引号。 创建一个名为 test 的表，这个表只有一个 列族 为 cf。可以列出所有的表来检查创建情况，然后插入些值。 hbase(main):003:0> create 'test', 'cf' 0 row(s) in 1.2200 seconds hbase(main):003:0> list 'table' test 1 row(s) in 0.0550 seconds hbase(main):004:0> put 'test', 'row1', 'cf:a', 'value1' 0 row(s) in 0.0560 seconds hbase(main):005:0> put 'test', 'row2', 'cf:b', 'value2' 0 row(s) in 0.0370 seconds hbase(main):006:0> put 'test', 'row3', 'cf:c', 'value3' 0 row(s) in 0.0450 seconds 以上我们分别插入了3行。第一个行key为row1, 列为 cf:a， 值是 value1。HBase中的列是由 列族前缀和列的名字组成的，以冒号间隔。例如这一行的列名就是a. 检查插入情况. Scan这个表，操作如下 hbase(main):007:0> scan 'test' ROW COLUMN+CELL row1 column=cf:a, timestamp=1288380727188, value=value1 row2 column=cf:b, timestamp=1288380738440, value=value2 row3 column=cf:c, timestamp=1288380747365, value=value3 3 row(s) in 0.0590 seconds Get一行，操作如下 hbase(main):008:0> get 'test', 'row1' COLUMN CELL cf:a timestamp=1288380727188, value=value1 1 row(s) in 0.0400 seconds disable 再 drop 这张表，可以清除你刚刚的操作 hbase(main):012:0> disable 'test' 0 row(s) in 1.0930 seconds hbase(main):013:0> drop 'test' 0 row(s) in 0.0770 seconds  关闭shell hbase(main):014:0> exit ### 1.2.4. 停止 HBase 运行停止脚本来停止HBase. $ ./bin/stop-hbase.sh
stopping hbase...............

## 2. 配置

HBase有如下需要，请仔细阅读本章节以确保所有的需要都被满足。如果需求没有能满足，就有可能遇到莫名其妙的错误甚至丢失数据。

[1] 小心编辑XML。确认关闭所有元素。采用 xmllint 或类似工具确认文档编辑后是良好格式化的。

## 2.1. 基础条件

This section lists required services and some required system configuration.

### 2.1. 操作系统

#### 2.1.2.2. DNS

HBase使用本地 hostname 才获得IP地址. 正反向的DNS都是可以的.

### 2.1.2.3. Loopback IP

HBase expects the loopback IP address to be 127.0.0.1. Ubuntu and some other distributions, for example, will default to 127.0.1.1 and this will cause problems for you.

/etc/hosts should look something like this:

            127.0.0.1 localhost
127.0.0.1 ubuntu.ubuntu-domain ubuntu


#### 2.1.2.5.  ulimit 和 nproc

HBase是数据库，会在同一时间使用很多的文件句柄。大多数linux系统使用的默认值1024是不能满足的，会导致FAQ: Why do I see "java.io.IOException...(Too many open files)" in my logs?异常。还可能会发生这样的异常

      2010-04-06 03:04:37,542 INFO org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.DFSClient: Exception increateBlockOutputStream java.io.EOFException
2010-04-06 03:04:37,542 INFO org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.DFSClient: Abandoning block blk_-6935524980745310745_1391901


##### 2.1.2.5.1. 在Ubuntu上设置ulimit

hadoop  -       nofile  32768

hadoop soft/hard nproc 32000

.

session required  pam_limits.so

#### 2.1.2.6. Windows

HBase没有怎么在Windows下测试过。所以不推荐在Windows下运行.

### 请完整阅读本节：

  <property>
<name>dfs.support.append</name>
<value>true</value>
</property>


MapR 包含一个商业的, 重新实现的 HDFS. 具有持久化 sync及一些有趣特性，是现在 Apache Hadoop不具有的.  M3 产品免费并且无限制。

### Packaging and Apache BigTop

Apache Bigtop is an umbrella for packaging and tests of the Apache Hadoop ecosystem, including Apache HBase. Bigtop performs testing at various levels (packaging, platform, runtime, upgrade, etc...), developed by a community, with a focus on the system as a whole, rather than individual projects. We recommend installing Apache HBase packages as provided by a Bigtop release rather than rolling your own piecemeal integration of various component releases.

#### 2.1.3.2. dfs.datanode.max.xcievers

      <property>
<name>dfs.datanode.max.xcievers</name>
<value>4096</value>
</property>


### 2.2. HBase运行模式:单机和分布式

HBase有两个运行模式: Section 2.4.1, “单机模式” 和 Section 2.4.2, “分布式模式”. 默认是单机模式，如果要分布式模式你需要编辑 conf 文件夹中的配置文件.

#### 2.2.2. 分布式模式

##### 2.2.2.1. 伪分布式模式

<configuration>
...
<property>
<name>hbase.rootdir</name>
<value>hdfs://localhost:9000/hbase</value>
<description>The directory shared by RegionServers.
</description>
</property>
<property>
<name>dfs.replication</name>
<value>1</value>
<description>The replication count for HLog & HFile storage. Should not be greater than HDFS datanode count.
</description>
</property>
...
</configuration>


### Note

##### 2.2.2.1.1. 伪分布模式配置文件

hdfs-site.xml
<configuration>    ...    <property>      <name>dfs.name.dir</name>      <value>/Users/local/user.name/hdfs-data-name</value>    </property>    <property>      <name>dfs.data.dir</name>      <value>/Users/local/user.name/hdfs-data</value>    </property>    <property>      <name>dfs.replication</name>      <value>1</value>    </property>    ...  </configuration>
hbase-site.xml
<configuration>    ...    <property>      <name>hbase.rootdir</name>      <value>hdfs://localhost:8020/hbase</value>    </property>    <property>      <name>hbase.zookeeper.quorum</name>      <value>localhost</value>    </property>    <property>      <name>hbase.cluster.distributed</name>      <value>true</value>    </property>    ...  </configuration>
##### 2.2.2.1.2. 伪分布模式附加
###### 2.2.2.1.2.1. 启动

% bin/start-hbase.sh

% bin/local-master-backup.sh start 1

... '1' 表示使用端口 60001 & 60011, 该备份主服务器及其log文件放在logs/hbase-${USER}-1-master-${HOSTNAME}.log.

% bin/local-master-backup.sh start 2 3

% bin/local-regionservers.sh start 1

'1' 表示使用端口 60201 & 60301 ，log文件在 logs/hbase-${USER}-1-regionserver-${HOSTNAME}.log.

% bin/local-regionservers.sh start 2 3 4 5

% cat /tmp/hbase-${USER}-1-master.pid |xargs kill -9 注意 bin/local-master-backup.sh 停止 1 会尝试停止主服务器相关集群。 停止单独 regionserver, 运行... % bin/local-regionservers.sh stop 1  #### 2.2.2.2. 完全分布式模式 要想运行完全分布式模式，你要进行如下配置，先在 hbase-site.xml, 加一个属性 hbase.cluster.distributed 设置为 true 然后把 hbase.rootdir 设置为HDFS的NameNode的位置。 例如，你的namenode运行在namenode.example.org，端口是9000 你期望的目录是 /hbase,使用如下的配置 <configuration> ... <property> <name>hbase.rootdir</name> <value>hdfs://namenode.example.org:9000/hbase</value> <description>The directory shared by RegionServers. </description> </property> <property> <name>hbase.cluster.distributed</name> <value>true</value> <description>The mode the cluster will be in. Possible values are false: standalone and pseudo-distributed setups with managed Zookeeper true: fully-distributed with unmanaged Zookeeper Quorum (see hbase-env.sh) </description> </property> ... </configuration>  ###### 2.2.2.2.1. regionservers 完全分布式模式的还需要修改conf/regionservers. 在 Section 2.7.1.2, “regionservers 列出了你希望运行的全部 HRegionServer，一行写一个host (就像Hadoop里面的 slaves 一样). 列在这里的server会随着集群的启动而启动，集群的停止而停止. ###### 2.2.2.2.2. ZooKeeper 和 HBase ###### 2.2.2.2.3. HDFS客户端配置 如果你希望Hadoop集群上做HDFS 客户端配置 ，例如你的HDFS客户端的配置和服务端的不一样。按照如下的方法配置，HBase就能看到你的配置信息: • hbase-env.sh里将HBASE_CLASSPATH环境变量加上HADOOP_CONF_DIR 。 • ${HBASE_HOME}/conf下面加一个 hdfs-site.xml (或者 hadoop-site.xml) ，最好是软连接

• 如果你的HDFS客户端的配置不多的话，你可以把这些加到 hbase-site.xml上面.

#### 2.2.3. 运行和确认你的安装

bin/start-hbase.sh

HBase也有一个界面，上面会列出重要的属性。默认是在Master的60010端口上H (HBase RegionServers 会默认绑定 60020端口，在端口60030上有一个展示信息的界面 ).如果Master运行在 master.example.org，端口是默认的话，你可以用浏览器在 http://master.example.org:60010看到主界面. .

$./bin/stop-hbase.sh stopping hbase............... 停止操作需要一些时间，你的集群越大，停的时间可能会越长。如果你正在运行一个分布式的操作，要确认在HBase彻底停止之前，Hadoop不能停. ### 2.3. 配置文件 HBase的配置系统和Hadoop一样。在conf/hbase-env.sh配置系统的部署信息和环境变量。 -- 这个配置会被启动shell使用 -- 然后在XML文件里配置信息，覆盖默认的配置。告知HBase使用什么目录地址，ZooKeeper的位置等等信息。 [10] . 当你使用分布式模式的时间，当你编辑完一个文件之后，记得要把这个文件复制到整个集群的conf 目录下。HBase不会帮你做这些，你得用 rsync. ### 2.3.1. hbase-site.xml 和 hbase-default.xml 正如Hadoop放置HDFS的配置文件hdfs-site.xml，HBase的配置文件是 conf/hbase-site.xml. 你可以在 Section 2.3.1.1, “HBase 默认配置”找到配置的属性列表。你也可以看有代码里面的hbase-default.xml文件，他在src/main/resources目录下。 不是所有的配置都在 hbase-default.xml出现.只要改了代码，配置就有可能改变，所以唯一了解这些被改过的配置的办法是读源代码本身。 要注意的是，要重启集群才能是配置生效。 ### 2.3.1.1. HBase 默认配置 #### HBase 默认配置 该文档是用hbase默认配置文件生成的，文件源是 hbase-default.xml hbase.rootdir 这个目录是region server的共享目录，用来持久化HBase。URL需要是'完全正确'的，还要包含文件系统的scheme。例如，要表示hdfs中的'/hbase'目录，namenode 运行在namenode.example.org的9090端口。则需要设置为hdfs://namenode.example.org:9000/hbase。默认情况下HBase是写到/tmp的。不改这个配置，数据会在重启的时候丢失。 默认: file:///tmp/hbase-${user.name}/hbase

hbase.master.port

HBase的Master的端口.

hbase.cluster.distributed

HBase的运行模式。false是单机模式，true是分布式模式。若为false,HBase和Zookeeper会运行在同一个JVM里面。

hbase.tmp.dir

hbase.zookeeper.quorum

Zookeeper集群的地址列表，用逗号分割。例如："host1.mydomain.com,host2.mydomain.com,host3.mydomain.com".默认是localhost,是给伪分布式用的。要修改才能在完全分布式的情况下使用。如果在hbase-env.sh设置了HBASE_MANAGES_ZK，这些ZooKeeper节点就会和HBase一起启动。

hbase.zookeeper.peerport

hbase.zookeeper.leaderport

hbase.zookeeper.property.initLimit

ZooKeeper的zoo.conf中的配置。 初始化synchronization阶段的ticks数量限制

hbase.zookeeper.property.syncLimit

ZooKeeper的zoo.conf中的配置。 发送一个请求到获得承认之间的ticks的数量限制

hbase.zookeeper.property.dataDir

ZooKeeper的zoo.conf中的配置。 快照的存储位置

diff --git a/conf/hbase-env.sh b/conf/hbase-env.sh
index e70ebc6..96f8c27 100644
--- a/conf/hbase-env.sh
+++ b/conf/hbase-env.sh
@@ -31,7 +31,7 @@ export JAVA_HOME=/usr/lib//jvm/java-6-sun/
# export HBASE_CLASSPATH=

# The maximum amount of heap to use, in MB. Default is 1000.
-# export HBASE_HEAPSIZE=1000
+export HBASE_HEAPSIZE=4096

# Extra Java runtime options.
# Below are what we set by default.  May only work with SUN JVM.



## 2.5. 重要的配置

### 2.5.2. 推荐配置

#### 2.5.2.4. 大内存机器的配置

HBase有一个合理的保守的配置，这样可以运作在所有的机器上。如果你有台大内存的集群-HBase有8G或者更大的heap,接下来的配置可能会帮助你. TODO.

#### 2.5.2.6. 较大 Regions

0.90.x 版本, 默认情况下单个Region是256MB。Region 大小的上界是 4Gb. 0.92.x 版本, 由于 HFile v2 已经将Region大小支持得大很多， (如, 20Gb).

### 2.5.3. 其他配置

#### 2.5.3.3. Nagle算法 或小包问题

[1] Be careful editing XML. Make sure you close all elements. Run your file through xmllint or similar to ensure well-formedness of your document after an edit session.

[2] The hadoop-dns-checker tool can be used to verify DNS is working correctly on the cluster. The project README file provides detailed instructions on usage.

[3] 参考 Jack Levin's major hdfs issues note up on the user list.

[4] The requirement that a database requires upping of system limits is not peculiar to HBase. 参考 for example the section Setting Shell Limits for the Oracle User inShort Guide to install Oracle 10 on Linux.

[5] A useful read setting config on you hadoop cluster is Aaron Kimballs' Configuration Parameters: What can you just ignore?

[6] The Cloudera blog post An update on Apache Hadoop 1.0 by Charles Zedlweski has a nice exposition on how all the Hadoop versions relate. Its worth checking out if you are having trouble making sense of the Hadoop version morass.

[7] Until recently only the branch-0.20-append branch had a working sync but no official release was ever made from this branch. You had to build it yourself. Michael Noll wrote a detailed blog, Building an Hadoop 0.20.x version for HBase 0.90.2, on how to build an Hadoop from branch-0.20-append. Recommended.

[8] Praveen Kumar has written a complimentary article, Building Hadoop and HBase for HBase Maven application development.

[ 9] dfs.support.append

[10] 参考 Hadoop HDFS: Deceived by Xciever for an informative rant on xceivering.

[11] The pseudo-distributed vs fully-distributed nomenclature comes from Hadoop.

[12] 参考 Section 2.4.2.1.2, “Pseudo-distributed Extras” for notes on how to start extra Masters and RegionServers when running pseudo-distributed.

[13] 对 ZooKeeper 全部配置，参考ZooKeeper 的zoo.cfg. HBase 没有包含 zoo.cfg ，所以需要浏览合适的独立ZooKeeper下载版本的 conf 目录找到。

## 3.1. 从 0.94.x 升级到 0.96.x

### The Singularity

You will have to stop your old 0.94 cluster completely to upgrade. If you are replicating between clusters, both clusters will have to go down to upgrade. Make sure it is a clean shutdown so there are no WAL files laying around (TODO: Can 0.96 read 0.94 WAL files?). Make sure zookeeper is cleared of state. All clients must be upgraded to 0.96 too.

The API has changed in a few areas; in particular how you use coprocessors (TODO: MapReduce too?)

## 3.2. 从 0.92.x 升级到 0.94.x

0.92 和 0.94 接口兼容，可平滑升级。

## 3.3. 从 0.90.x 到 0.92.x 升级

### 升级指引

You will find that 0.92.0 runs a little differently to 0.90.x releases. Here are a few things to watch out for upgrading from 0.90.x to 0.92.0.

If you've not patience, here are the important things to know upgrading.

1. Once you upgrade, you can’t go back.
2. MSLAB is on by default. Watch that heap usage if you have a lot of regions.
3. Distributed splitting is on by defaul. It should make region server failover faster.
4. There’s a separate tarball for security.
5. If -XX:MaxDirectMemorySize is set in your hbase-env.sh, it’s going to enable the experimental off-heap cache (You may not want this).

### 3.3.1. 不可回退!

To move to 0.92.0, all you need to do is shutdown your cluster, replace your hbase 0.90.x with hbase 0.92.0 binaries (be sure you clear out all 0.90.x instances) and restart (You cannot do a rolling restart from 0.90.x to 0.92.x -- you must restart). On startup, the .META. table content is rewritten removing the table schema from the info:regioninfo column. Also, any flushes done post first startup will write out data in the new 0.92.0 file format, HFile V2. This means you cannot go back to 0.90.x once you’ve started HBase 0.92.0 over your HBase data directory.

### 3.3.2. MSLAB 缺省启用

In 0.92.0, the hbase.hregion.memstore.mslab.enabled flag is set to true (参考 Section 11.3.1.1, “Long GC pauses”). In 0.90.x it was false. When it is enabled, memstores will step allocate memory in MSLAB 2MB chunks even if the memstore has zero or just a few small elements. This is fine usually but if you had lots of regions per regionserver in a 0.90.x cluster (and MSLAB was off), you may find yourself OOME'ing on upgrade because the thousands of regions * number of column families * 2MB MSLAB (at a minimum) puts your heap over the top. Set hbase.hregion.memstore.mslab.enabled to false or set the MSLAB size down from 2MB by setting hbase.hregion.memstore.mslab.chunksize to something less.

### 3.3.3. 分布式分割缺省启用

Previous, WAL logs on crash were split by the Master alone. In 0.92.0, log splitting is done by the cluster (参考 “HBASE-1364 [performance] Distributed splitting of regionserver commit logs”). This should cut down significantly on the amount of time it takes splitting logs and getting regions back online again.

### 3.3.4. 内存计算改变

In 0.92.0, Appendix E, HFile format version 2 indices and bloom filters take up residence in the same LRU used caching blocks that come from the filesystem. In 0.90.x, the HFile v1 indices lived outside of the LRU so they took up space even if the index was on a ‘cold’ file, one that wasn’t being actively used. With the indices now in the LRU, you may find you have less space for block caching. Adjust your block cache accordingly. 参考 the Section 9.6.4, “Block Cache” for more detail. The block size default size has been changed in 0.92.0 from 0.2 (20 percent of heap) to 0.25.

Run 0.92.0 on Hadoop 1.0.x (or CDH3u3 when it ships). The performance benefits are worth making the move. Otherwise, our Hadoop prescription is as it has been; you need an Hadoop that supports a working sync. 参考 Section 2.3, “Hadoop”.

If running on Hadoop 1.0.x (or CDH3u3), enable local read. 参考 Practical Caching presentation for ruminations on the performance benefits ‘going local’ (and for how to enable local reads).

### 3.3.6. HBase 0.92.0 带 ZooKeeper 3.4.2

If you can, upgrade your zookeeper. If you can’t, 3.4.2 clients should work against 3.3.X ensembles (HBase makes use of 3.4.2 API).

### 3.3.7. 在线切换缺省关闭

In 0.92.0, we’ve added an experimental online schema alter facility (参考 hbase.online.schema.update.enable). Its off by default. Enable it at your own risk. Online alter and splitting tables do not play well together so be sure your cluster quiescent using this feature (for now).

### 3.3.8. WebUI

The webui has had a few additions made in 0.92.0. It now shows a list of the regions currently transitioning, recent compactions/flushes, and a process list of running processes (usually empty if all is well and requests are being handled promptly). Other additions including requests by region, a debugging servlet dump, etc.

### 3.3.10. 试验离堆(off-heap)缓存

(译者注：on-heap和off-heap是Terracotta 公司提出的概念。on-heap指java对象在GC内存储管理，效率较高，但GC只能管理2G内存，有时成为性能瓶颈。off-heap又叫BigMemory ，是JVM的GC机制的替代，在GC外存储，100倍速于DiskStore，cache量目前(2012年底)达到350GB)

A new cache was contributed to 0.92.0 to act as a solution between using the “on-heap” cache which is the current LRU cache the region servers have and the operating system cache which is out of our control. To enable, set “-XX:MaxDirectMemorySize” in hbase-env.sh to the value for maximum direct memory size and specify hbase.offheapcache.percentage in hbase-site.xml with the percentage that you want to dedicate to off-heap cache. This should only be set for servers and not for clients. Use at your own risk. See this blog post for additional information on this new experimental feature: http://www.cloudera.com/blog/2012/01/caching-in-hbase-slabcache/

### 3.3.11. HBase 复制的变动

0.92.0 adds two new features: multi-slave and multi-master replication. The way to enable this is the same as adding a new peer, so in order to have multi-master you would just run add_peer for each cluster that acts as a master to the other slave clusters. Collisions are handled at the timestamp level which may or may not be what you want, this needs to be evaluated on a per use case basis. Replication is still experimental in 0.92 and is disabled by default, run it at your own risk.

### 3.3.12. 对OOME ，RegionServer 现在退出

If an OOME, we now have the JVM kill -9 the regionserver process so it goes down fast. Previous, a RegionServer might stick around after incurring an OOME limping along in some wounded state. To disable this facility, and recommend you leave it in place, you’d need to edit the bin/hbase file. Look for the addition of the -XX:OnOutOfMemoryError="kill -9 %p" arguments (参考 [HBASE-4769] - ‘Abort RegionServer Immediately on OOME’)

### 3.3.13. HFile V2 和 “更大, 更少” 趋势

0.92.0 stores data in a new format, Appendix E, HFile format version 2. As HBase runs, it will move all your data from HFile v1 to HFile v2 format. This auto-migration will run in the background as flushes and compactions run. HFile V2 allows HBase run with larger regions/files. In fact, we encourage that all HBasers going forward tend toward Facebook axiom #1, run with larger, fewer regions. If you have lots of regions now -- more than 100s per host -- you should look into setting your region size up after you move to 0.92.0 (In 0.92.0, default size is not 1G, up from 256M), and then running online merge tool (参考 “HBASE-1621 merge tool should work on online cluster, but disabled table”).

## 3.4. 从HBase 0.20.x or 0.89.x 升级到 HBase 0.90.x

0.90.x 版本的HBase可以在 HBase 0.20.x 或者 HBase 0.89.x的数据上启动. 不需要转换数据文件， HBase 0.89.x 和 0.90.x 的region目录名是不一样的 -- 老版本用md5 hash 而不是jenkins hash 来命名region-- 这就意味着，一旦启动，再也不能回退到 HBase 0.20.x.

## Chapter 4.  HBase Shell

HBase Shell is 在(J)Ruby的IRB的基础上加上了HBase的命令。任何你可以在IRB里做的事情都可在在HBase Shell中做。

## 5.1. 概念视图

### 列名

Table 5.1. 表 webtable

Row KeyTime StampColumnFamily contentsColumnFamily anchor
"com.cnn.www"t9 anchor:cnnsi.com = "CNN"
"com.cnn.www"t8 anchor:my.look.ca = "CNN.com"
"com.cnn.www"t6contents:html = "<html>..."
"com.cnn.www"t5contents:html = "<html>..."
"com.cnn.www"t3contents:html = "<html>..."

## 5.2. 物理视图

Table 5.2. ColumnFamily anchor

Row KeyTime StampColumn Family anchor
"com.cnn.www"t9anchor:cnnsi.com = "CNN"
"com.cnn.www"t8anchor:my.look.ca = "CNN.com"

Table 5.3. ColumnFamily contents

Row KeyTime StampColumnFamily "contents:"
"com.cnn.www"t6contents:html = "<html>..."
"com.cnn.www"t5contents:html = "<html>..."
"com.cnn.www"t3contents:html = "<html>..."

## 5.6. Cells

{row, column, version} 元组就是一个HBase中的一个 cell。Cell的内容是不可分割的字节数组。

## 5.7. 数据模型操作

### 5.7.1. Get

Get 返回特定行的属性。 Gets 通过 HTable.get 执行。

### 5.7.2. Put

Put 要么向表增加新行 (如果key是新的) 或更新行 (如果key已经存在)。 Puts 通过 HTable.put (writeBuffer) 或 HTable.batch (non-writeBuffer)执行。

### 5.7.3. Scans

Scan 允许多行特定属性迭代。

HTable htable = ...      // instantiate HTable

Scan scan = new Scan();
scan.setStartRow( Bytes.toBytes("row"));                   // start key is inclusive
scan.setStopRow( Bytes.toBytes("row" +  (char)0));  // stop key is exclusive
ResultScanner rs = htable.getScanner(scan);
try {
for (Result r = rs.next(); r != null; r = rs.next()) {
// process result...
} finally {
rs.close();  // always close the ResultScanner!
}


### 5.7.4. Delete

Delete 从表中删除一行. 删除通过HTable.delete 执行。

HBase 没有修改数据的合适方法。所以通过创建名为墓碑(tombstones)的新标志进行处理。这些墓碑和死去的值，在主紧缩时清除。

## 5.8. 版本

rows和column key是用字节数组表示的，version则是用一个长整型表示。这个long的值使用 java.util.Date.getTime() 或者 System.currentTimeMillis()产生的。这就意味着他的含义是“当前时间和1970-01-01 UTC的时间差，单位毫秒。”

• 如果有多个包含版本写操作同时发起，HBase会保存全部还是会保持最新的一个？[16]

• 可以发起包含版本的写操作，但是他们的版本顺序和操作顺序相反吗?[17]

### 5.8.1. HBase的操作(包含版本操作)

#### 5.8.1.1. Get/Scan

Gets实在Scan的基础上实现的。可以详细参见下面的讨论 Get 同样可以用 Scan来描述.

• 如果想要返回返回两个以上的把版本,参见Get.setMaxVersions()

• 如果想要返回的版本不只是最近的，参见 Get.setTimeRange()

要向查询的最新版本要小于或等于给定的这个值，这就意味着给定的'最近'的值可以是某一个时间点。可以使用0到你想要的时间来设置，还要把max versions设置为1.

#### 5.8.1.2. 默认 Get 例子

        Get get = new Get(Bytes.toBytes("row1"));
Result r = htable.get(get);
byte[] b = r.getValue(Bytes.toBytes("cf"), Bytes.toBytes("attr"));  // returns current version of value          

#### 5.8.1.3. 含有的版本的Get例子

        Get get = new Get(Bytes.toBytes("row1"));
get.setMaxVersions(3);  // will return last 3 versions of row
Result r = htable.get(get);
byte[] b = r.getValue(Bytes.toBytes("cf"), Bytes.toBytes("attr"));  // returns current version of value
List<KeyValue> kv = r.getColumn(Bytes.toBytes("cf"), Bytes.toBytes("attr"));  // returns all versions of this column


#### 5.8.1.4. Put

##### 5.8.1.4.1. 不指明版本的例子

          Put put = new Put(Bytes.toBytes(row));
htable.put(put);


##### 5.8.1.4.2. 指明版本的例子

          Put put = new Put( Bytes.toBytes(row ));
long explicitTimeInMs = 555;  // just an example
htable.put(put);


#### 5.8.1.5. Delete

• Delete: 删除列的指定版本.

• Delete column: 删除列的所有版本.

• Delete family: 删除特定列族所有列

### 5.8.2. 现有的限制

#### 5.8.2.2. 主紧缩改变查询的结果

“设想一下，你一个cell有三个版本t1,t2和t3。你的maximun-version设置是2.当你请求获取全部版本的时候，只会返回两个，t2和t3。如果你将t2和t3删除，就会返回t1。但是如果在删除之前，发生了major compaction操作，那么什么值都不好返回了。[22]

## 5.11. 联合查询(Join)

HBase是否支持联合是一个网上常问问题。简单来说 : 不支持。至少不想传统RDBMS那样支持(如 SQL中带 equi-joins 或 outer-joins). 正如本章描述的，读数据模型是 Get 和 Scan.

[16目前，只有最新的那个是可以获取到的。.

[17可以

[18参考 HBASE-2406 for discussion of HBase versions. Bending time in HBase makes for a good read on the version, or time, dimension in HBase. It has more detail on versioning than is provided here. As of this writing, the limiitation Overwriting values at existing timestamps mentioned in the article no longer holds in HBase. This section is basically a synopsis of this article by Bruno Dumon.

[19] 参考 Lars Hofhansl's blog for discussion of his attempt adding another, Scanning in HBase: Prefix Delete Marker

[20当HBase执行一次major compaction,标记删除的数据会被实际的删除，删除标记也会被删除。

[22参考垃圾收集： Bending time in HBase

## 6.1.  模式(Schema) 创建

Configuration config = HBaseConfiguration.create();
String table = "myTable";

HColumnDescriptor cf1 = ...;
HColumnDescriptor cf2 = ...;
admin.modifyColumn(table, cf2);    // modifying existing ColumnFamily



## 6.3.  行键(RowKey)设计

### 6.3.2. 尽量最小化行和列的大小(为何我的存储文件指示很大？)

#### 6.3.2.4. 字节模式

long 类型有 8 字节. 8字节内可以保存无符号数字到18,446,744,073,709,551,615. 如果用字符串保存--假设一个字节一个字符--，需要将近3倍的字节数。

// long
//
long l = 1234567890L;
byte[] lb = Bytes.toBytes(l);
System.out.println("long bytes length: " + lb.length);   // returns 8

String s = "" + l;
byte[] sb = Bytes.toBytes(s);
System.out.println("long as string length: " + sb.length);    // returns 10

// hash
//
MessageDigest md = MessageDigest.getInstance("MD5");
byte[] digest = md.digest(Bytes.toBytes(s));
System.out.println("md5 digest bytes length: " + digest.length);    // returns 16

String sDigest = new String(digest);
byte[] sbDigest = Bytes.toBytes(sDigest);
System.out.println("md5 digest as string length: " + sbDigest.length);    // returns 26(译者注：实测值为22)


## 6.5.  支持数据类型

HBase 通过 Put 和 Result支持 "bytes-in/bytes-out" 接口，所以任何可被转为字节数组的东西可以作为值存入。输入可以是字符串，数字，复杂对象，甚至图像，只要他们能转为字节。

## 6.9.  第二索引和改变路径查询

There is no single answer on the best way to handle this because it depends on...

• Number of users
• Data size and data arrival rate
• Flexibility of reporting requirements (e.g., completely ad-hoc date selection vs. pre-configured ranges)
• Desired execution speed of query (e.g., 90 seconds may be reasonable to some for an ad-hoc report, whereas it may be too long for others)

... and solutions are also influenced by the size of the cluster and how much processing power you have to throw at the solution. Common techniques are in sub-sections below. This is a comprehensive, but not exhaustive, list of approaches.

It should not be a surprise that secondary indexes require additional cluster space and processing. This is precisely what happens in an RDBMS because the act of creating an alternate index requires both space and processing cycles to update. RBDMS products are more advanced in this regard to handle alternative index management out of the box. However, HBase scales better at larger data volumes, so this is a feature trade-off.

Pay attention to Chapter 11, Performance Tuning when implementing any of these approaches.

Additionally, see the David Butler response in this dist-list thread HBase, mail # user - Stargate+hbase

## 6.10. 模式(schema)设计对决

This section will describe common schema design questions that appear on the dist-list. These are general guidelines and not laws - each application must consider it's own needs.

### 6.10.1. Rows vs. Versions

A common question is whether one should prefer rows or HBase's built-in-versioning. The context is typically where there are "a lot" of versions of a row to be retained (e.g., where it is significantly above the HBase default of 3 max versions). The rows-approach would require storing a timstamp in some portion of the rowkey so that they would not overwite with each successive update.

Preference: Rows (generally speaking).

### 6.10.2. Rows vs. Columns

Another common question is whether one should prefer rows or columns. The context is typically in extreme cases of wide tables, such as having 1 row with 1 million attributes, or 1 million rows with 1 columns apiece.

Preference: Rows (generally speaking). To be clear, this guideline is in the context is in extremely wide cases, not in the standard use-case where one needs to store a few dozen or hundred columns.

## 6.12. 限制

HBase currently supports 'constraints' in traditional (SQL) database parlance. The advised usage for Constraints is in enforcing business rules for attributes in the table (eg. make sure values are in the range 1-10). Constraints could also be used to enforce referential integrity, but this is strongly discouraged as it will dramatically decrease the write throughput of the tables where integrity checking is enabled. Extensive documentation on using Constraints can be found at: Constraint since version 0.94.

## Chapter 7. HBase 和 MapReduce

### 7.1.2. 自定义分割器

For those interested in implementing custom splitters, see the method getSplits in TableInputFormatBase. That is where the logic for map-task assignment resides.

## 7.2.1 HBase MapReduce 读取例子

Configuration config = HBaseConfiguration.create();
Job job = new Job(config, "ExampleRead");
job.setJarByClass(MyReadJob.class);     // class that contains mapper

Scan scan = new Scan();
scan.setCaching(500);        // 1 is the default in Scan, which will be bad for MapReduce jobs
scan.setCacheBlocks(false);  // don't set to true for MR jobs
// set other scan attrs
...

TableMapReduceUtil.initTableMapperJob(
tableName,        // input HBase table name
scan,             // Scan instance to control CF and attribute selection
MyMapper.class,   // mapper
null,             // mapper output key
null,             // mapper output value
job);
job.setOutputFormatClass(NullOutputFormat.class);   // because we aren't emitting anything from mapper

boolean b = job.waitForCompletion(true);
if (!b) {
throw new IOException("error with job!");
}

...mapper需要继承于TableMapper...

public class MyMapper extends TableMapper<Text, LongWritable> {
public void map(ImmutableBytesWritable row, Result value, Context context)
throws InterruptedException, IOException {
// process data for the row from the Result instance.

### 7.2.2. HBase MapReduce 读/写 示例

Configuration config = HBaseConfiguration.create();
job.setJarByClass(MyReadWriteJob.class);    // class that contains mapper

Scan scan = new Scan();
scan.setCaching(500);        // 1 is the default in Scan, which will be bad for MapReduce jobs
scan.setCacheBlocks(false);  // don't set to true for MR jobs
// set other scan attrs

TableMapReduceUtil.initTableMapperJob(
sourceTable,      // input table
scan,	          // Scan instance to control CF and attribute selection
MyMapper.class,   // mapper class
null,	          // mapper output key
null,	          // mapper output value
job);
TableMapReduceUtil.initTableReducerJob(
targetTable,      // output table
null,             // reducer class
job);

boolean b = job.waitForCompletion(true);
if (!b) {
throw new IOException("error with job!");
}


TableMapReduceUtil做了什么需要解释, 特别是对 reducer. TableOutputFormat 作为 outputFormat 类, 几个参数在config中设置(e.g., TableOutputFormat.OUTPUT_TABLE), 同时设置reducer output key 到ImmutableBytesWritable 和 reducer value到 Writable. 这可以编程时设置到job和conf，但TableMapReduceUtil 使其变简单.

public static class MyMapper extends TableMapper<ImmutableBytesWritable, Put>  {

public void map(ImmutableBytesWritable row, Result value, Context context) throws IOException, InterruptedException {
// this example is just copying the data from the source table...
context.write(row, resultToPut(row,value));
}

private static Put resultToPut(ImmutableBytesWritable key, Result result) throws IOException {
Put put = new Put(key.get());
for (KeyValue kv : result.raw()) {
}
return put;
}
}


### 7.2.3. HBase MapReduce Read/Write 多表输出示例

TODO: MultiTableOutputFormat 示例.

### 7.2.4. HBase MapReduce 汇总到 HBase 示例

Configuration config = HBaseConfiguration.create();
Job job = new Job(config,"ExampleSummary");
job.setJarByClass(MySummaryJob.class);     // class that contains mapper and reducer

Scan scan = new Scan();
scan.setCaching(500);        // 1 is the default in Scan, which will be bad for MapReduce jobs
scan.setCacheBlocks(false);  // don't set to true for MR jobs
// set other scan attrs

TableMapReduceUtil.initTableMapperJob(
sourceTable,        // input table
scan,               // Scan instance to control CF and attribute selection
MyMapper.class,     // mapper class
Text.class,         // mapper output key
IntWritable.class,  // mapper output value
job);
TableMapReduceUtil.initTableReducerJob(
targetTable,        // output table
MyTableReducer.class,    // reducer class
job);

boolean b = job.waitForCompletion(true);
if (!b) {
throw new IOException("error with job!");
}


public static class MyMapper extends TableMapper<Text, IntWritable>  {

private final IntWritable ONE = new IntWritable(1);
private Text text = new Text();

public void map(ImmutableBytesWritable row, Result value, Context context) throws IOException, InterruptedException {
String val = new String(value.getValue(Bytes.toBytes("cf"), Bytes.toBytes("attr1")));
text.set(val);     // we can only emit Writables...

context.write(text, ONE);
}
}


public static class MyTableReducer extends TableReducer<Text, IntWritable, ImmutableBytesWritable>  {

public void reduce(Text key, Iterable<IntWritable> values, Context context) throws IOException, InterruptedException {
int i = 0;
for (IntWritable val : values) {
i += val.get();
}
Put put = new Put(Bytes.toBytes(key.toString()));

context.write(null, put);
}
}


### 7.2.5. HBase MapReduce 汇总到文件示例

This very similar to the summary example above, with exception that this is using HBase as a MapReduce source but HDFS as the sink. The differences are in the job setup and in the reducer. The mapper remains the same.

Configuration config = HBaseConfiguration.create();
Job job = new Job(config,"ExampleSummaryToFile");
job.setJarByClass(MySummaryFileJob.class);     // class that contains mapper and reducer

Scan scan = new Scan();
scan.setCaching(500);        // 1 is the default in Scan, which will be bad for MapReduce jobs
scan.setCacheBlocks(false);  // don't set to true for MR jobs
// set other scan attrs

TableMapReduceUtil.initTableMapperJob(
sourceTable,        // input table
scan,               // Scan instance to control CF and attribute selection
MyMapper.class,     // mapper class
Text.class,         // mapper output key
IntWritable.class,  // mapper output value
job);
job.setReducerClass(MyReducer.class);    // reducer class
FileOutputFormat.setOutputPath(job, new Path("/tmp/mr/mySummaryFile"));  // adjust directories as required

boolean b = job.waitForCompletion(true);
if (!b) {
throw new IOException("error with job!");
}

As stated above, the previous Mapper can run unchanged with this example. As for the Reducer, it is a "generic" Reducer instead of extending TableMapper and emitting Puts.
 public static class MyReducer extends Reducer<Text, IntWritable, Text, IntWritable>  {

public void reduce(Text key, Iterable<IntWritable> values, Context context) throws IOException, InterruptedException {
int i = 0;
for (IntWritable val : values) {
i += val.get();
}
context.write(key, new IntWritable(i));
}
}


### 7.2.6. HBase MapReduce 没有Reducer时汇总到 HBase

It is also possible to perform summaries without a reducer - if you use HBase as the reducer.

An HBase target table would need to exist for the job summary. The HTable method incrementColumnValue would be used to atomically increment values. From a performance perspective, it might make sense to keep a Map of values with their values to be incremeneted for each map-task, and make one update per key at during the cleanup method of the mapper. However, your milage may vary depending on the number of rows to be processed and unique keys.

In the end, the summary results are in HBase.

### 7.2.7. HBase MapReduce 汇总到 RDBMS

 public static class MyRdbmsReducer extends Reducer<Text, IntWritable, Text, IntWritable>  {

private Connection c = null;

public void setup(Context context) {
// create DB connection...
}

public void reduce(Text key, Iterable<IntWritable> values, Context context) throws IOException, InterruptedException {
// do summarization
// in this example the keys are Text, but this is just an example
}

public void cleanup(Context context) {
// close db connection
}

}


## 7.3. 在一个MapReduce Job中访问其他的HBase Tables

public class MyMapper extends TableMapper<Text, LongWritable> {
private HTable myOtherTable;

@Override
public void setup(Context context) {
myOtherTable = new HTable("myOtherTable");
}

## 8.1. 安全客户端访问HBase

### 8.1.1. 先决条件

HBase 必须使用 安全Hadoop/HBase的新 maven 配置文件： -P security. Secure Hadoop dependent classes are separated under a pseudo-module in the security/ directory and are only included if built with the secure Hadoop profile.

You need to have a working Kerberos KDC.

A HBase configured for secure client access is expected to be running on top of a secured HDFS cluster. HBase must be able to authenticate to HDFS services. HBase needs Kerberos credentials to interact with the Kerberos-enabled HDFS daemons. Authenticating a service should be done using a keytab file. The procedure for creating keytabs for HBase service is the same as for creating keytabs for Hadoop. Those steps are omitted here. Copy the resulting keytab files to wherever HBase Master and RegionServer processes are deployed and make them readable only to the user account under which the HBase daemons will run.

A Kerberos principal has three parts, with the form username/fully.qualified.domain.name@YOUR-REALM.COM. We recommend using hbase as the username portion.

The following is an example of the configuration properties for Kerberos operation that must be added to the hbase-site.xml file on every server machine in the cluster. Required for even the most basic interactions with a secure Hadoop configuration, independent of HBase security.

      <property>
<name>hbase.regionserver.kerberos.principal</name>
<value>hbase/_HOST@YOUR-REALM.COM</value>
</property>
<property>
<name>hbase.regionserver.keytab.file</name>
<value>/etc/hbase/conf/keytab.krb5</value>
</property>
<property>
<name>hbase.master.kerberos.principal</name>
<value>hbase/_HOST@YOUR-REALM.COM</value>
</property>
<property>
<name>hbase.master.keytab.file</name>
<value>/etc/hbase/conf/keytab.krb5</value>
</property>


Each HBase client user should also be given a Kerberos principal. This principal should have a password assigned to it (as opposed to a keytab file). The client principal's maxrenewlife should be set so that it can be renewed enough times for the HBase client process to complete. For example, if a user runs a long-running HBase client process that takes at most 3 days, we might create this user's principal within kadmin with: addprinc -maxrenewlife 3days

Long running daemons with indefinite lifetimes that require client access to HBase can instead be configured to log in from a keytab. For each host running such daemons, create a keytab withkadmin or kadmin.local. The procedure for creating keytabs for HBase service is the same as for creating keytabs for Hadoop. Those steps are omitted here. Copy the resulting keytab files to where the client daemon will execute and make them readable only to the user account under which the daemon will run.

### 8.1.2. 安全操作的服务器端配置

      <property>
<name>hbase.security.authentication</name>
<value>kerberos</value>
</property>
<property>
<name>hbase.security.authorization</name>
<value>true</value>
</property>
<property>
<name>hbase.rpc.engine</name>
</property>
<property>
<name>hbase.coprocessor.region.classes</name>
</property>


A full shutdown and restart of HBase service is required when deploying these configuration changes.

### 8.1.3. 客户端安全操作配置

      <property>
<name>hbase.security.authentication</name>
<value>kerberos</value>
</property>
<property>
<name>hbase.rpc.engine</name>
</property>


The client environment must be logged in to Kerberos from KDC or keytab via the kinit command before communication with the HBase cluster will be possible.

Be advised that if the hbase.security.authentication and hbase.rpc.engine properties in the client- and server-side site files do not match, the client will not be able to communicate with the cluster.

Once HBase is configured for secure RPC it is possible to optionally configure encrypted communication. To do so, 增加下列内容到 hbase-site.xml file on every client:

      <property>
<name>hbase.rpc.protection</name>
<value>privacy</value>
</property>


This configuration property can also be set on a per connection basis. Set it in the Configuration supplied to HTable:

      Configuration conf = HBaseConfiguration.create();
conf.set("hbase.rpc.protection", "privacy");
HTable table = new HTable(conf, tablename);


Expect a ~10% performance penalty for encrypted communication.

### 8.1.4. 客户端安全操作配置 - Thrift 网关

    <property>
<name>hbase.thrift.keytab.file</name>
<value>/etc/hbase/conf/hbase.keytab</value>
</property>
<property>
<name>hbase.thrift.kerberos.principal</name>
<value>$USER/_HOST@HADOOP.LOCALDOMAIN</value> </property>  Substitute the appropriate credential and keytab for$USER and $KEYTAB respectively. The Thrift gateway will authenticate with HBase using the supplied credential. No authentication will be performed by the Thrift gateway itself. All client access via the Thrift gateway will use the Thrift gateway's credential and have its privilege. ### 8.1.5. 客户端安全操作配置 - REST 网关 每个REST网关增加下列内容到 hbase-site.xml:  <property> <name>hbase.rest.keytab.file</name> <value>$KEYTAB</value>
</property>
<property>
<name>hbase.rest.kerberos.principal</name>
<value>$USER/_HOST@HADOOP.LOCALDOMAIN</value> </property>  Substitute the appropriate credential and keytab for$USER and $KEYTAB respectively. The REST gateway will authenticate with HBase using the supplied credential. No authentication will be performed by the REST gateway itself. All client access via the REST gateway will use the REST gateway's credential and have its privilege. It should be possible for clients to authenticate with the HBase cluster through the REST gateway in a pass-through manner via SPEGNO HTTP authentication. This is future work. ## 8.2. 访问控制 Newer releases of HBase (>= 0.92) support optional access control list (ACL-) based protection of resources on a column family and/or table basis. This describes how to set up Secure HBase for access control, with an example of granting and revoking user permission on table resources provided. ### 8.2.1. 先决条件 You must configure HBase for secure operation. Refer to the section "安全客户端访问HBase" and complete all of the steps described there. You must also configure ZooKeeper for secure operation. Changes to ACLs are synchronized throughout the cluster using ZooKeeper. Secure authentication to ZooKeeper must be enabled or otherwise it will be possible to subvert HBase access control via direct client access to ZooKeeper. Refer to the section on secure ZooKeeper configuration and complete all of the steps described there. ### 8.2.2. 概述 With Secure RPC and Access Control enabled, client access to HBase is authenticated and user data is private unless access has been explicitly granted. Access to data can be granted at a table or per column family basis. However, the following items have been left out of the initial implementation for simplicity: 1. Row-level or per value (cell): This would require broader changes for storing the ACLs inline with rows. It is a future goal. 2. Push down of file ownership to HDFS: HBase is not designed for the case where files may have different permissions than the HBase system principal. Pushing file ownership down into HDFS would necessitate changes to core code. Also, while HDFS file ownership would make applying quotas easy, and possibly make bulk imports more straightforward, it is not clear that it would offer a more secure setup. 3. HBase managed "roles" as collections of permissions: We will not model "roles" internally in HBase to begin with. We instead allow group names to be granted permissions, which allows external modeling of roles via group membership. Groups are created and manipulated externally to HBase, via the Hadoop group mapping service. Access control mechanisms are mature and fairly standardized in the relational database world. The HBase implementation approximates current convention, but HBase has a simpler feature set than relational databases, especially in terms of client operations. We don't distinguish between an insert (new record) and update (of existing record), for example, as both collapse down into a Put. Accordingly, the important operations condense to four permissions: READ, WRITE, CREATE, and ADMIN. Operation To Permission MappingPermissionOperationReadGetExistsScanWritePutDeleteLock/UnlockRowIncrementColumnValueCheckAndDelete/PutFlushCompactCreateCreateAlterDropAdminEnable/DisableSplitMajor CompactGrantRevokeShutdown Permissions can be granted in any of the following scopes, though CREATE and ADMIN permissions are effective only at table scope. • Table • Read: User can read from any column family in table • Write: User can write to any column family in table • Create: User can alter table attributes; add, alter, or drop column families; and drop the table. • Admin: User can alter table attributes; add, alter, or drop column families; and enable, disable, or drop the table. User can also trigger region (re)assignments or relocation. • Column Family • Read: User can read from the column family • Write: User can write to the column family There is also an implicit global scope for the superuser. The superuser is a principal, specified in the HBase site configuration file, that has equivalent access to HBase as the 'root' user would on a UNIX derived system. Normally this is the principal that the HBase processes themselves authenticate as. Although future versions of HBase Access Control may support multiple superusers, the superuser privilege will always include the principal used to run the HMaster process. Only the superuser is allowed to create tables, switch the balancer on or off, or take other actions with global consequence. Furthermore, the superuser has an implicit grant of all permissions to all resources. Tables have a new metadata attribute: OWNER, the user principal who owns the table. By default this will be set to the user principal who creates the table, though it may be changed at table creation time or during an alter operation by setting or changing the OWNER table attribute. Only a single user principal can own a table at a given time. A table owner will have all permissions over a given table. ### 8.2.3. Server-side Configuration for Access Control Enable the AccessController coprocessor in the cluster configuration and restart HBase. The restart can be a rolling one. Complete the restart of all Master and RegionServer processes before setting up ACLs. To enable the AccessController, modify the hbase-site.xml file on every server machine in the cluster to look like:  <property> <name>hbase.coprocessor.master.classes</name> <value>org.apache.hadoop.hbase.security.access.AccessController</value> </property> <property> <name>hbase.coprocessor.region.classes</name> <value>org.apache.hadoop.hbase.security.token.TokenProvider, org.apache.hadoop.hbase.security.access.AccessController</value> </property>  ### 8.2.4. Shell Enhancements for Access Control The HBase shell has been extended to provide simple commands for editing and updating user permissions. The following commands have been added for access control list management: Grant  grant <user> <permissions> <table> [ <column family> [ <column qualifier> ] ]  <permissions> is zero or more letters from the set "RWCA": READ('R'), WRITE('W'), CREATE('C'), ADMIN('A'). Note: Grants and revocations of individual permissions on a resource are both accomplished using the grant command. A separate revoke command is also provided by the shell, but this is for fast revocation of all of a user's access rights to a given resource only. Revoke  revoke <user> <table> [ <column family> [ <column qualifier> ] ]  Alter The alter command has been extended to allow ownership assignment:  alter 'tablename', {OWNER => 'username'}  User Permission The user_permission command shows all access permissions for the current user for a given table:  user_permission <table>  ## Chapter 9. 架构 ## 9.1. 概述 ### 9.1.1. NoSQL? HBase是一种 "NoSQL" 数据库. "NoSQL"是一个通用词表示数据库不是RDBMS ，后者支持 SQL 作为主要访问手段。有许多种 NoSQL 数据库: BerkeleyDB 是本地 NoSQL 数据库例子, 而 HBase 是大型分布式数据库。 技术上来说, HBase 更像是"数据存储(Data Store)" 多于 "数据库(Data Base)"。因为缺少很多RDBMS特性, 如列类型，第二索引，触发器，高级查询语言等. 然而, HBase 有许多特征同时支持线性化和模块化扩充。 HBase 集群通过增加RegionServers进行扩充。 它可以放在普通的服务器中。例如，如果集群从10个扩充到20个RegionServer，存储空间和处理容量都同时翻倍。 RDBMS 也能很好扩充， 但仅对一个点 - 特别是对一个单独数据库服务器的大小 - 同时，为了更好的性能，需要特殊的硬件和存储设备。 HBase 特性： • 强一致性读写: HBase 不是 "最终一致性(eventually consistent)" 数据存储. 这让它很适合高速计数聚合类任务。 • 自动分片(Automatic sharding): HBase 表通过region分布在集群中。数据增长时，region会自动分割并重新分布。 • RegionServer 自动故障转移 • Hadoop/HDFS 集成: HBase 支持本机外HDFS 作为它的分布式文件系统。 • MapReduce: HBase 通过MapReduce支持大并发处理， HBase 可以同时做源和目标. • Java 客户端 API: HBase 支持易于使用的 Java API 进行编程访问. • Thrift/REST API: HBase 也支持Thrift 和 REST 作为非Java 前端. • Block Cache 和 Bloom Filters: 对于大容量查询优化， HBase支持 Block Cache 和 Bloom Filters。 • 运维管理: HBase提供内置网页用于运维视角和JMX 度量. ### 9.1.2. 什么时候用 HBase? HBase不适合所有问题. 首先，确信有足够多数据，如果有上亿或上千亿行数据，HBase是很好的备选。 如果只有上千或上百万行，则用传统的RDBMS可能是更好的选择。因为所有数据可以在一两个节点保存，集群其他节点可能闲置。 其次，确信可以不依赖所有RDBMS的额外特性 (e.g., 列数据类型, 第二索引, 事物,高级查询语言等.) 一个建立在RDBMS上应用，如不能仅通过改变一个JDBC驱动移植到HBase。相对于移植， 需考虑从RDBMS 到 HBase是一次完全的重新设计。 第三， 确信你有足够硬件。甚至 HDFS 在小于5个数据节点时，干不好什么事情 (根据如 HDFS 块复制具有缺省值 3), 还要加上一个 NameNode. HBase 能在单独的笔记本上运行良好。但这应仅当成开发配置。 ### 9.1.3. HBase 和 Hadoop/HDFS 的区别? HDFS 是分布式文件系统，适合保存大文件。官方宣称它并非普通用途文件系统，不提供文件的个别记录的快速查询。 另一方面，HBase基于HDFS且提供大表的记录快速查找(和更新)。这有时可能引起概念混乱。 HBase 内部将数据放到索引好的 "存储文件(StoreFiles)" ，以便高速查询。存储文件位于 HDFS中。参考Chapter 5, 数据模型 和该章其他内容获取更多HBase如何归档的信息。 ## 9.2. 目录表(Catalog Tables) 目录表 -ROOT- 和 .META. 作为 HBase 表存在。他们被HBase shell的 list 命令过滤掉了， 但他们和其他表一样存在。 ### 9.2.1. ROOT -ROOT- 保存 .META. 表存在哪里的踪迹. -ROOT- 表结构如下: Key: • .META. region key (.META.,,1) Values: • info:regioninfo (序列化.META.的 HRegionInfo 实例 ) • info:server ( 保存 .META.的RegionServer的server:port) • info:serverstartcode ( 保存 .META.的RegionServer进程的启动时间) ### 9.2.2. META .META. 保存系统中所有region列表。 .META.表结构如下: Key: • Region key 格式 ([table],[region start key],[region id]) Values: • info:regioninfo (序列化.META.的 HRegionInfo 实例 ) • info:server ( 保存 .META.的RegionServer的server:port) • info:serverstartcode ( 保存 .META.的RegionServer进程的启动时间) 当表在分割过程中，会创建额外的两列, info:splitA 和 info:splitB 代表两个女儿 region. 这两列的值同样是序列化HRegionInfo 实例. region最终分割完毕后，这行会删除。 HRegionInfo的备注: 空 key 用于指示表的开始和结束。具有空开始键值的region是表内的首region。 如果 region 同时有空起始和结束key，说明它是表内的唯一region。 在需要编程访问(希望不要)目录元数据时，参考 Writables 工具. ### 9.2.3. 启动时序 META 地址首先在ROOT 中设置。META 会更新 server 和 startcode 的值. 需要 region-RegionServer 分配信息, 参考 Section 9.7.2, “Region-RegionServer 分配”. ## 9.3. 客户端 HBase客户端的 HTable类负责寻找相应的RegionServers来处理行。他是先查询 .META. 和 -ROOT 目录表。然后再确定region的位置。定位到所需要的区域后，客户端会直接 去访问相应的region(不经过master)，发起读写请求。这些信息会缓存在客户端，这样就不用每发起一个请求就去查一下。如果一个region已经废弃(原因可能是master load balance或者RegionServer死了)，客户端就会重新进行这个步骤，决定要去访问的新的地址。 参考 Section 9.5.2, “Runtime Impact” for more information about the impact of the Master on HBase Client communication. 管理集群操作是经由HBaseAdmin发起的 ### 9.3.1. 连接 关于连接的配置信息，参见Section 3.7, “连接HBase集群的客户端配置和依赖”. HTable不是线程安全的。建议使用同一个HBaseConfiguration实例来创建HTable实例。这样可以共享ZooKeeper和socket实例。例如，最好这样做： HBaseConfiguration conf = HBaseConfiguration.create(); HTable table1 = new HTable(conf, "myTable"); HTable table2 = new HTable(conf, "myTable"); 而不是这样： HBaseConfiguration conf1 = HBaseConfiguration.create(); HTable table1 = new HTable(conf1, "myTable"); HBaseConfiguration conf2 = HBaseConfiguration.create(); HTable table2 = new HTable(conf2, "myTable"); 如果你想知道的更多的关于HBase客户端connection的知识，可以参照： HConnectionManager. #### 9.3.1.1. 连接池 对需要高端多线程访问的应用 (如网页服务器或应用服务器需要在一个JVM服务很多应用线程)，参考 HTablePool. ### 9.3.2. 写缓冲和批量操作 若关闭了HTable中的 Section 11.7.4, “AutoFlush”Put操作会在写缓冲填满的时候向RegionServer发起请求。默认情况下，写缓冲是2MB.在Htable被废弃之前，要调用close()flushCommits()操作，这样写缓冲就不会丢失。 要想更好的细粒度控制 PutDelete的批量操作，可以参考Htable中的batch 方法. ### 9.3.3. 外部客户端 关于非Java客户端和定制协议信息，在 Chapter 10, 外部 API ### 9.3.4. 行锁 行锁 在客户端 API中仍然存在， 但是 不鼓励使用，因为管理不好，会锁定整个RegionServer. 这里是优秀ticket HBASE-2332 从终端移除该特性。 ## 9.4. 客户端请求过滤器 Get 和 Scan 实例可以用 filters 配置，以应用于 RegionServer. 过滤器可能会搞混，因为有很多类型的过滤器， 最好通过理解过滤器功能组来了解他们。 ### 9.4.1. 结构(Structural)过滤器 结构过滤器包含其他过滤器 #### 9.4.1.1. FilterList FilterList 代表一个过滤器列表，过滤器间具有 FilterList.Operator.MUST_PASS_ALL 或 FilterList.Operator.MUST_PASS_ONE 关系。下面示例展示两个过滤器的'或'关系(检查同一属性的'my value' 或'my other value' ). FilterList list = new FilterList(FilterList.Operator.MUST_PASS_ONE); SingleColumnValueFilter filter1 = new SingleColumnValueFilter( cf, column, CompareOp.EQUAL, Bytes.toBytes("my value") ); list.add(filter1); SingleColumnValueFilter filter2 = new SingleColumnValueFilter( cf, column, CompareOp.EQUAL, Bytes.toBytes("my other value") ); list.add(filter2); scan.setFilter(list);  ### 9.4.2. 列值 #### 9.4.2.1. SingleColumnValueFilter SingleColumnValueFilter 用于测试列值相等 (CompareOp.EQUAL ), 不等 (CompareOp.NOT_EQUAL),或范围 (e.g., CompareOp.GREATER). 下面示例检查列值和字符串'my value' 相等... SingleColumnValueFilter filter = new SingleColumnValueFilter( cf, column, CompareOp.EQUAL, Bytes.toBytes("my value") ); scan.setFilter(filter);  ### 9.4.3. 列值比较器 过滤器包内有好几种比较器类需要特别提及。这些比较器和其他过滤器一起使用, 如 Section 9.4.2.1, “SingleColumnValueFilter”. #### 9.4.3.1. RegexStringComparator RegexStringComparator 支持值比较的正则表达式 。 RegexStringComparator comp = new RegexStringComparator("my."); // any value that starts with 'my' SingleColumnValueFilter filter = new SingleColumnValueFilter( cf, column, CompareOp.EQUAL, comp ); scan.setFilter(filter);  参考 Oracle JavaDoc 了解 supported RegEx patterns in Java. #### 9.4.3.2. SubstringComparator SubstringComparator 用于检测一个子串是否存在于值中。大小写不敏感。 SubstringComparator comp = new SubstringComparator("y val"); // looking for 'my value' SingleColumnValueFilter filter = new SingleColumnValueFilter( cf, column, CompareOp.EQUAL, comp ); scan.setFilter(filter);  #### 9.4.3.3. BinaryPrefixComparator #### 9.4.3.4. BinaryComparator ### 9.4.4. 键值元数据 由于HBase 采用键值对保存内部数据，键值元数据过滤器评估一行的键是否存在(如 ColumnFamily:Column qualifiers) , 对应前节所述值的情况。 #### 9.4.4.1. FamilyFilter FamilyFilter 用于过滤列族。 通常，在Scan中选择ColumnFamilie优于在过滤器中做。 #### 9.4.4.2. QualifierFilter QualifierFilter 用于基于列名(即 Qualifier)过滤. #### 9.4.4.3. ColumnPrefixFilter ColumnPrefixFilter 可基于列名(即Qualifier)前缀过滤。 A ColumnPrefixFilter seeks ahead to the first column matching the prefix in each row and for each involved column family. It can be used to efficiently get a subset of the columns in very wide rows. Note: The same column qualifier can be used in different column families. This filter returns all matching columns. Example: Find all columns in a row and family that start with "abc" HTableInterface t = ...; byte[] row = ...; byte[] family = ...; byte[] prefix = Bytes.toBytes("abc"); Scan scan = new Scan(row, row); // (optional) limit to one row scan.addFamily(family); // (optional) limit to one family Filter f = new ColumnPrefixFilter(prefix); scan.setFilter(f); scan.setBatch(10); // set this if there could be many columns returned ResultScanner rs = t.getScanner(scan); for (Result r = rs.next(); r != null; r = rs.next()) { for (KeyValue kv : r.raw()) { // each kv represents a column } } rs.close();  #### 9.4.4.4. MultipleColumnPrefixFilter MultipleColumnPrefixFilter 和 ColumnPrefixFilter 行为差不多，但可以指定多个前缀。 Like ColumnPrefixFilter, MultipleColumnPrefixFilter efficiently seeks ahead to the first column matching the lowest prefix and also seeks past ranges of columns between prefixes. It can be used to efficiently get discontinuous sets of columns from very wide rows. Example: Find all columns in a row and family that start with "abc" or "xyz" HTableInterface t = ...; byte[] row = ...; byte[] family = ...; byte[][] prefixes = new byte[][] {Bytes.toBytes("abc"), Bytes.toBytes("xyz")}; Scan scan = new Scan(row, row); // (optional) limit to one row scan.addFamily(family); // (optional) limit to one family Filter f = new MultipleColumnPrefixFilter(prefixes); scan.setFilter(f); scan.setBatch(10); // set this if there could be many columns returned ResultScanner rs = t.getScanner(scan); for (Result r = rs.next(); r != null; r = rs.next()) { for (KeyValue kv : r.raw()) { // each kv represents a column } } rs.close();  #### 9.4.4.5. ColumnRangeFilter ColumnRangeFilter 可以进行高效内部扫描。 A ColumnRangeFilter can seek ahead to the first matching column for each involved column family. It can be used to efficiently get a 'slice' of the columns of a very wide row. i.e. you have a million columns in a row but you only want to look at columns bbbb-bbdd. Note: The same column qualifier can be used in different column families. This filter returns all matching columns. Example: Find all columns in a row and family between "bbbb" (inclusive) and "bbdd" (inclusive) HTableInterface t = ...; byte[] row = ...; byte[] family = ...; byte[] startColumn = Bytes.toBytes("bbbb"); byte[] endColumn = Bytes.toBytes("bbdd"); Scan scan = new Scan(row, row); // (optional) limit to one row scan.addFamily(family); // (optional) limit to one family Filter f = new ColumnRangeFilter(startColumn, true, endColumn, true); scan.setFilter(f); scan.setBatch(10); // set this if there could be many columns returned ResultScanner rs = t.getScanner(scan); for (Result r = rs.next(); r != null; r = rs.next()) { for (KeyValue kv : r.raw()) { // each kv represents a column } } rs.close();  Note: HBase 0.92 引入 ### 9.4.5. RowKey #### 9.4.5.1. RowFilter 通常认为行选择时Scan采用 startRow/stopRow 方法比较好。然而 RowFilter 也可以用。 ### 9.4.6. Utility #### 9.4.6.1. FirstKeyOnlyFilter This is primarily used for rowcount jobs. 参考 FirstKeyOnlyFilter. ## 9.5. 主服务器 HMaster is the implementation of the Master Server. The Master server is responsible for monitoring all RegionServer instances in the cluster, and is the interface for all metadata changes. In a distributed cluster, the Master typically runs on the Section 9.9.1, “NameNode”. ### 9.5.1. Startup Behavior If run in a multi-Master environment, all Masters compete to run the cluster. If the active Master loses it's lease in ZooKeeper (or the Master shuts down), then then the remaining Masters jostle to take over the Master role. ### 9.5.2. Runtime Impact A common dist-list question is what happens to an HBase cluster when the Master goes down. Because the HBase client talks directly to the RegionServers, the cluster can still function in a "steady state." Additionally, per Section 9.2, “Catalog Tables” ROOT and META exist as HBase tables (i.e., are not resident in the Master). However, the Master controls critical functions such as RegionServer failover and completing region splits. So while the cluster can still run for a time without the Master, the Master should be restarted as soon as possible. ### 9.5.3. Interface The methods exposed by HMasterInterface are primarily metadata-oriented methods: • Table (createTable, modifyTable, removeTable, enable, disable) • ColumnFamily (addColumn, modifyColumn, removeColumn) • Region (move, assign, unassign) For example, when the HBaseAdmin method disableTable is invoked, it is serviced by the Master server. ### 9.5.4. 进程 Master 后台运行几种线程: #### 9.5.4.1. LoadBalancer Periodically, and when there are not any regions in transition, a load balancer will run and move regions around to balance cluster load. 参考 Section 2.8.3.1, “Balancer” for configuring this property. 参考 Section 9.7.2, “Region-RegionServer Assignment” for more information on region assignment. #### 9.5.4.2. CatalogJanitor Periodically checks and cleans up the .META. table. 参考 Section 9.2.2, “META” for more information on META. ## 9.6. RegionServer HRegionServer is the RegionServer implementation. It is responsible for serving and managing regions. In a distributed cluster, a RegionServer runs on a Section 9.9.2, “DataNode”. ### 9.6.1. 接口 The methods exposed by HRegionRegionInterface contain both data-oriented and region-maintenance methods: • Data (get, put, delete, next, etc.) • Region (splitRegion, compactRegion, etc.) For example, when the HBaseAdmin method majorCompact is invoked on a table, the client is actually iterating through all regions for the specified table and requesting a major compaction directly to each region. ### 9.6.2. 进程 RegionServer 后台运行几种线程: #### 9.6.2.1. CompactSplitThread 检查分割并处理最小紧缩。 #### 9.6.2.2. MajorCompactionChecker 检查主紧缩。 #### 9.6.2.3. MemStoreFlusher 周期将写到内存存储的内容刷到文件存储。 #### 9.6.2.4. LogRoller 周期检查RegionServer 的 HLog. ### 9.6.3. 协处理器 协处理器在0.92版添加。 有一个详细帖子 Blog Overview of CoProcessors 供参考。文档最终会放到本参考手册，但该blog是当前能获取的大部分信息。 ### 9.6.4. 块缓存 #### 9.6.4.1. 设计 The Block Cache is an LRU cache that contains three levels of block priority to allow for scan-resistance and in-memory ColumnFamilies: • Single access priority: The first time a block is loaded from HDFS it normally has this priority and it will be part of the first group to be considered during evictions. The advantage is that scanned blocks are more likely to get evicted than blocks that are getting more usage. • Mutli access priority: If a block in the previous priority group is accessed again, it upgrades to this priority. It is thus part of the second group considered during evictions. • In-memory access priority: If the block's family was configured to be "in-memory", it will be part of this priority disregarding the number of times it was accessed. Catalog tables are configured like this. This group is the last one considered during evictions. For more information, see the LruBlockCache source #### 9.6.4.2. 使用 Block caching is enabled by default for all the user tables which means that any read operation will load the LRU cache. This might be good for a large number of use cases, but further tunings are usually required in order to achieve better performance. An important concept is the working set size, or WSS, which is: "the amount of memory needed to compute the answer to a problem". For a website, this would be the data that's needed to answer the queries over a short amount of time. The way to calculate how much memory is available in HBase for caching is:  number of region servers * heap size * hfile.block.cache.size * 0.85  The default value for the block cache is 0.25 which represents 25% of the available heap. The last value (85%) is the default acceptable loading factor in the LRU cache after which eviction is started. The reason it is included in this equation is that it would be unrealistic to say that it is possible to use 100% of the available memory since this would make the process blocking from the point where it loads new blocks. Here are some examples: • One region server with the default heap size (1GB) and the default block cache size will have 217MB of block cache available. • 20 region servers with the heap size set to 8GB and a default block cache size will have 34GB of block cache. • 100 region servers with the heap size set to 24GB and a block cache size of 0.5 will have about 1TB of block cache. Your data isn't the only resident of the block cache, here are others that you may have to take into account: • Catalog tables: The -ROOT- and .META. tables are forced into the block cache and have the in-memory priority which means that they are harder to evict. The former never uses more than a few hundreds of bytes while the latter can occupy a few MBs (depending on the number of regions). • HFiles indexes: HFile is the file format that HBase uses to store data in HDFS and it contains a multi-layered index in order seek to the data without having to read the whole file. The size of those indexes is a factor of the block size (64KB by default), the size of your keys and the amount of data you are storing. For big data sets it's not unusual to see numbers around 1GB per region server, although not all of it will be in cache because the LRU will evict indexes that aren't used. • Keys: Taking into account only the values that are being stored is missing half the picture since every value is stored along with its keys (row key, family, qualifier, and timestamp). 参考 Section 6.3.2, “Try to minimize row and column sizes”. • Bloom filters: Just like the HFile indexes, those data structures (when enabled) are stored in the LRU. Currently the recommended way to measure HFile indexes and bloom filters sizes is to look at the region server web UI and checkout the relevant metrics. For keys, sampling can be done by using the HFile command line tool and look for the average key size metric. It's generally bad to use block caching when the WSS doesn't fit in memory. This is the case when you have for example 40GB available across all your region servers' block caches but you need to process 1TB of data. One of the reasons is that the churn generated by the evictions will trigger more garbage collections unnecessarily. Here are two use cases: • Fully random reading pattern: This is a case where you almost never access the same row twice within a short amount of time such that the chance of hitting a cached block is close to 0. Setting block caching on such a table is a waste of memory and CPU cycles, more so that it will generate more garbage to pick up by the JVM. For more information on monitoring GC, see Section 12.2.3, “JVM Garbage Collection Logs”. • Mapping a table: In a typical MapReduce job that takes a table in input, every row will be read only once so there's no need to put them into the block cache. The Scan object has the option of turning this off via the setCaching method (set it to false). You can still keep block caching turned on on this table if you need fast random read access. An example would be counting the number of rows in a table that serves live traffic, caching every block of that table would create massive churn and would surely evict data that's currently in use. ### 9.6.5. 预写日志 (WAL) #### 9.6.5.1. Purpose 每个RegionServer会将更新(Puts, Deletes) 先记录到预写日志中(WAL)，然后将其更新在Section 9.7.5, “Store”Section 9.7.5.1, “MemStore”里面。这样就保证了HBase的写的可靠性。如果没有WAL,当RegionServer宕掉的时候，MemStore还没有flush，StoreFile还没有保存，数据就会丢失。HLog 是HBase的一个WAL实现，一个RegionServer有一个HLog实例。 WAL 保存在HDFS 的 /hbase/.logs/ 里面，每个region一个文件。 要想知道更多的信息，可以访问维基百科 Write-Ahead Log 的文章. #### 9.6.5.2. WAL Flushing TODO (describe). #### 9.6.5.3. WAL Splitting ##### 9.6.5.3.1. 当RegionServer宕掉的时候，如何恢复 When a RegionServer crashes, it will lose its ephemeral lease in ZooKeeper...TODO ##### 9.6.5.3.2. hbase.hlog.split.skip.errors 默认设置为 true,在split执行中发生的任何错误会被记录，有问题的WAL会被移动到HBase rootdir目录下的.corrupt目录，接着进行处理。如果设置为 false，异常会被抛出，split会记录错误。[23] ##### 9.6.5.3.3. 如何处理一个发生在当RegionServers' WALs 分割时候的EOFExceptions异常 如果我们在分割日志的时候发生EOF,就是hbase.hlog.split.skip.errors设置为 false，我们也会进行处理。一个EOF会发生在一行一行读取Log，但是Log中最后一行似乎只写了一半就停止了。如果在处理过程中发生了EOF，我们还会继续处理，除非这个文件是要处理的最后一个文件。[24] [23参考 HBASE-2958 When hbase.hlog.split.skip.errors is set to false, we fail the split but thats it. We need to do more than just fail split if this flag is set. [24要想知道背景知识, 参见HBASE-2643 Figure how to deal with eof splitting logs ## 9.7. 区域 区域是表获取和分布的基本元素，由每个列族的一个库(Store)组成。对象层级图如下： Table (HBase table) Region (Regions for the table) Store (Store per ColumnFamily for each Region for the table) MemStore (MemStore for each Store for each Region for the table) StoreFile (StoreFiles for each Store for each Region for the table) Block (Blocks within a StoreFile within a Store for each Region for the table)  关于HBase文件写到HDFS的描述，参考 Section 12.7.2, “浏览 HDFS的 HBase 对象”. ### 9.7.1. Region 大小 Region的大小是一个棘手的问题，需要考量如下几个因素。 • Regions是可用性和分布式的最基本单位 • HBase通过将region切分在许多机器上实现分布式。也就是说，你如果有16GB的数据，只分了2个region， 你却有20台机器，有18台就浪费了。 • region数目太多就会造成性能下降，现在比以前好多了。但是对于同样大小的数据，700个region比3000个要好。 • region数目太少就会妨碍可扩展性，降低并行能力。有的时候导致压力不够分散。这就是为什么，你向一个10节点的HBase集群导入200MB的数据，大部分的节点是idle的。 • RegionServer中1个region和10个region索引需要的内存量没有太多的差别。 最好是使用默认的配置，可以把热的表配小一点(或者受到split热点的region把压力分散到集群中)。如果你的cell的大小比较大(100KB或更大)，就可以把region的大小调到1GB。 参考 Section 2.5.2.6, “更大区域” 获取配置更多信息. ### 9.7.2. 区域-区域服务器分配 本节描述区域如何分配到区域服务器。 #### 9.7.2.1. 启动 当HBase启动时，区域分配如下(短版本): 1. 启动时主服务器调用AssignmentManager. 2. AssignmentManager 在META 中查找已经存在的区域分配。 3. 如果区域分配还有效(如 RegionServer 还在线) ，那么分配继续保持。 4. 如果区域分配失效，LoadBalancerFactory 被调用来分配区域。 DefaultLoadBalancer 将随机分配区域到RegionServer. 5. META 随 RegionServer 分配更新(如果需要) ， RegionServer 启动区域开启代码(RegionServer 启动时进程) #### 9.7.2.2. 故障转移 当区域服务器出故障退出时 (短版本): 1. 区域立即不可获取，因为区域服务器退出。 2. 主服务器会检测到区域服务器退出。 3. 区域分配会失效并被重新分配，如同启动时序。 #### 9.7.2.3. 区域负载均衡 区域可以定期移动，见 Section 9.5.4.1, “LoadBalancer”. ### 9.7.3. 区域-区域服务器本地化 Over time, Region-RegionServer locality is achieved via HDFS block replication. The HDFS client does the following by default when choosing locations to write replicas: 1. First replica is written to local node 2. Second replica is written to another node in same rack 3. Third replica is written to a node in another rack (if sufficient nodes) Thus, HBase eventually achieves locality for a region after a flush or a compaction. In a RegionServer failover situation a RegionServer may be assigned regions with non-local StoreFiles (because none of the replicas are local), however as new data is written in the region, or the table is compacted and StoreFiles are re-written, they will become "local" to the RegionServer. For more information, see HDFS Design on Replica Placement and also Lars George's blog on HBase and HDFS locality. ### 9.7.4. 区域分割 区域服务器的分割操作是不可见的，因为Master不会参与其中。区域服务器切割region的步骤是，先将该region下线，然后切割，将其子region加入到META元信息中，再将他们加入到原本的区域服务器中，最后汇报Master.参见Section 2.8.2.7, “管理 Splitting”来手动管理切割操作(以及为何这么做)。 #### 9.7.4.1. 自定义分割策略 缺省分割策略可以被重写，采用自定义RegionSplitPolicy (HBase 0.94+).一般自定义分割策略应该扩展HBase的缺省分割策略: ConstantSizeRegionSplitPolicy. 策略可以HBaseConfiguration 全局使用，或基于每张表： HTableDescriptor myHtd = ...; myHtd.setValue(HTableDescriptor.SPLIT_POLICY, MyCustomSplitPolicy.class.getName());  ### 9.7.5. 存储 一个存储包含了一个内存存储(MemStore)和若干个文件存储(StoreFile--HFile).一个存储可以定位到一个列族中的一个区. #### 9.7.5.1. MemStore MemStores是Store中的内存Store,可以进行修改操作。修改的内容是KeyValues。当flush的是，现有的memstore会生成快照，然后清空。在执行快照的时候，HBase会继续接收修改操作，保存在memstore外面，直到快照完成。 #### 9.7.5.2. StoreFile (HFile) 文件存储是数据存在的地方。 ##### 9.7.5.2.1. HFile Format hfile文件格式是基于BigTable [2006]论文中的SSTable。构建在Hadoop的tfile上面(直接使用了tfile的单元测试和压缩工具)。 Schubert Zhang 的博客HFile: A Block-Indexed File Format to Store Sorted Key-Value Pairs详细介绍了HBases的hfile。Matteo Bertozzi也做了详细的介绍HBase I/O: HFile For more information, see the HFile source code. Also see Appendix E, HFile format version 2 for information about the HFile v2 format that was included in 0.92. ##### 9.7.5.2.2. HFile 工具 要想看到hfile内容的文本化版本，你可以使用org.apache.hadoop.hbase.io.hfile.HFile 工具。可以这样用： $ ${HBASE_HOME}/bin/hbase org.apache.hadoop.hbase.io.hfile.HFile   例如，你想看文件 hdfs://10.81.47.41:9000/hbase/TEST/1418428042/DSMP/4759508618286845475的内容, 就执行如下的命令:  $ ${HBASE_HOME}/bin/hbase org.apache.hadoop.hbase.io.hfile.HFile -v -f hdfs://10.81.47.41:9000/hbase/TEST/1418428042/DSMP/4759508618286845475   如果你没有输入-v,就仅仅能看到一个hfile的汇总信息。其他功能的用法可以看HFile的文档。 ##### 9.7.5.2.3. StoreFile Directory Structure on HDFS For more information of what StoreFiles look like on HDFS with respect to the directory structure, see Section 12.7.2, “Browsing HDFS for HBase Objects”. #### 9.7.5.3. Blocks StoreFiles are composed of blocks. The blocksize is configured on a per-ColumnFamily basis. Compression happens at the block level within StoreFiles. For more information on compression, see Appendix C, Compression In HBase. For more information on blocks, see the HFileBlock source code. #### 9.7.5.4. KeyValue The KeyValue class is the heart of data storage in HBase. KeyValue wraps a byte array and takes offsets and lengths into passed array at where to start interpreting the content as KeyValue. The KeyValue format inside a byte array is: • keylength • valuelength • key • value The Key is further decomposed as: • rowlength • row (i.e., the rowkey) • columnfamilylength • columnfamily • columnqualifier • timestamp • keytype (e.g., Put, Delete, DeleteColumn, DeleteFamily) KeyValue instances are not split across blocks. For example, if there is an 8 MB KeyValue, even if the block-size is 64kb this KeyValue will be read in as a coherent block. For more information, see the KeyValue source code. ##### 9.7.5.4.1. Example To emphasize the points above, examine what happens with two Puts for two different columns for the same row: • Put #1: rowkey=row1, cf:attr1=value1 • Put #2: rowkey=row1, cf:attr2=value2 Even though these are for the same row, a KeyValue is created for each column: Key portion for Put #1: • rowlength ------------> 4 • row -----------------> row1 • columnfamilylength ---> 2 • columnfamily --------> cf • columnqualifier ------> attr1 • timestamp -----------> server time of Put • keytype -------------> Put Key portion for Put #2: • rowlength ------------> 4 • row -----------------> row1 • columnfamilylength ---> 2 • columnfamily --------> cf • columnqualifier ------> attr2 • timestamp -----------> server time of Put • keytype -------------> Put It is critical to understand that the rowkey, ColumnFamily, and column (aka columnqualifier) are embedded within the KeyValue instance. The longer these identifiers are, the bigger the KeyValue is. #### 9.7.5.5. 紧缩 有两种类型的紧缩：次紧缩和主紧缩。minor紧缩通常会将数个小的相邻的文件合并成一个大的。Minor不会删除打上删除标记的数据，也不会删除过期的数据，Major紧缩会删除过期的数据。有些时候minor紧缩就会将一个store中的全部文件紧缩，实际上这个时候他本身就是一个major压‹缩。对于一个minor紧缩是如何紧缩的，可以参见ascii diagram in the Store source code. 在执行一个major紧缩之后，一个store只会有一个sotrefile,通常情况下这样可以提供性能。注意：major紧缩将会将store中的数据全部重写，在一个负载很大的系统中，这个操作是很伤的。所以在大型系统中，通常会自己Section 2.8.2.8, “管理 Splitting” 紧缩 不会 进行分区合并。参考 Section 14.2.2, “Merge” 获取更多合并的信息。 ##### 9.7.5.5.1. Compaction File Selection To understand the core algorithm for StoreFile selection, there is some ASCII-art in the Store source code that will serve as useful reference. It has been copied below: /* normal skew: * * older ----> newer * _ * | | _ * | | | | _ * --|-|- |-|- |-|---_-------_------- minCompactSize * | | | | | | | | _ | | * | | | | | | | | | | | | * | | | | | | | | | | | | */  Important knobs: • hbase.store.compaction.ratio Ratio used in compaction file selection algorithm (default 1.2f). • hbase.hstore.compaction.min (.90 hbase.hstore.compactionThreshold) (files) Minimum number of StoreFiles per Store to be selected for a compaction to occur (default 2). • hbase.hstore.compaction.max (files) Maximum number of StoreFiles to compact per minor compaction (default 10). • hbase.hstore.compaction.min.size (bytes) Any StoreFile smaller than this setting with automatically be a candidate for compaction. Defaults to hbase.hregion.memstore.flush.size (128 mb). • hbase.hstore.compaction.max.size (.92) (bytes) Any StoreFile larger than this setting with automatically be excluded from compaction (default Long.MAX_VALUE). The minor compaction StoreFile selection logic is size based, and selects a file for compaction when the file <= sum(smaller_files) * hbase.hstore.compaction.ratio. ##### 9.7.5.5.2. Minor Compaction File Selection - Example #1 (Basic Example) This example mirrors an example from the unit test TestCompactSelection. • hbase.store.compaction.ratio = 1.0f • hbase.hstore.compaction.min = 3 (files) • hbase.hstore.compaction.max = 5 (files) • hbase.hstore.compaction.min.size = 10 (bytes) • hbase.hstore.compaction.max.size = 1000 (bytes) The following StoreFiles exist: 100, 50, 23, 12, and 12 bytes apiece (oldest to newest). With the above parameters, the files that would be selected for minor compaction are 23, 12, and 12. Why? • 100 --> No, because sum(50, 23, 12, 12) * 1.0 = 97. • 50 --> No, because sum(23, 12, 12) * 1.0 = 47. • 23 --> Yes, because sum(12, 12) * 1.0 = 24. • 12 --> Yes, because the previous file has been included, and because this does not exceed the the max-file limit of 5 • 12 --> Yes, because the previous file had been included, and because this does not exceed the the max-file limit of 5. ##### 9.7.5.5.3. Minor Compaction File Selection - Example #2 (Not Enough Files To Compact) This example mirrors an example from the unit test TestCompactSelection. • hbase.store.compaction.ratio = 1.0f • hbase.hstore.compaction.min = 3 (files) • hbase.hstore.compaction.max = 5 (files) • hbase.hstore.compaction.min.size = 10 (bytes) • hbase.hstore.compaction.max.size = 1000 (bytes) The following StoreFiles exist: 100, 25, 12, and 12 bytes apiece (oldest to newest). With the above parameters, the files that would be selected for minor compaction are 23, 12, and 12. Why? • 100 --> No, because sum(25, 12, 12) * 1.0 = 47 • 25 --> No, because sum(12, 12) * 1.0 = 24 • 12 --> No. Candidate because sum(12) * 1.0 = 12, there are only 2 files to compact and that is less than the threshold of 3 • 12 --> No. Candidate because the previous StoreFile was, but there are not enough files to compact ##### 9.7.5.5.4. Minor Compaction File Selection - Example #3 (Limiting Files To Compact) This example mirrors an example from the unit test TestCompactSelection. • hbase.store.compaction.ratio = 1.0f • hbase.hstore.compaction.min = 3 (files) • hbase.hstore.compaction.max = 5 (files) • hbase.hstore.compaction.min.size = 10 (bytes) • hbase.hstore.compaction.max.size = 1000 (bytes) The following StoreFiles exist: 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, and 1 bytes apiece (oldest to newest). With the above parameters, the files that would be selected for minor compaction are 7, 6, 5, 4, 3. Why? • 7 --> Yes, because sum(6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1) * 1.0 = 21. Also, 7 is less than the min-size • 6 --> Yes, because sum(5, 4, 3, 2, 1) * 1.0 = 15. Also, 6 is less than the min-size. • 5 --> Yes, because sum(4, 3, 2, 1) * 1.0 = 10. Also, 5 is less than the min-size. • 4 --> Yes, because sum(3, 2, 1) * 1.0 = 6. Also, 4 is less than the min-size. • 3 --> Yes, because sum(2, 1) * 1.0 = 3. Also, 3 is less than the min-size. • 2 --> No. Candidate because previous file was selected and 2 is less than the min-size, but the max-number of files to compact has been reached. • 1 --> No. Candidate because previous file was selected and 1 is less than the min-size, but max-number of files to compact has been reached. ##### 9.7.5.5.5. Impact of Key Configuration Options hbase.store.compaction.ratio. A large ratio (e.g., 10) will produce a single giant file. Conversely, a value of .25 will produce behavior similar to the BigTable compaction algorithm - resulting in 4 StoreFiles. hbase.hstore.compaction.min.size. Because this limit represents the "automatic include" limit for all StoreFiles smaller than this value, this value may need to be adjusted downwards in write-heavy environments where many 1 or 2 mb StoreFiles are being flushed, because every file will be targeted for compaction and the resulting files may still be under the min-size and require further compaction, etc. [25For description of the development process -- why static blooms rather than dynamic -- and for an overview of the unique properties that pertain to blooms in HBase, as well as possible future directions, see the Development Process section of the document BloomFilters in HBase attached to HBase-1200. [26The bloom filters described here are actually version two of blooms in HBase. In versions up to 0.19.x, HBase had a dynamic bloom option based on work done by the European Commission One-Lab Project 034819. The core of the HBase bloom work was later pulled up into Hadoop to implement org.apache.hadoop.io.BloomMapFile. Version 1 of HBase blooms never worked that well. Version 2 is a rewrite from scratch though again it starts with the one-lab work. ## 9.8. 批量装载(Bulk Loading) ### 9.8.1. 概述 HBase 有好几种方法将数据装载到表。最直接的方式即可以通过MapReduce任务，也可以通过普通客户端API。但是这都不是高效方法。 批量装载特性采用 MapReduce 任务，将表数据输出为HBase的内部数据格式，然后可以将产生的存储文件直接装载到运行的集群中。批量装载比简单使用 HBase API 消耗更少的CPU和网络资源。 ### 9.8.2. 批量装载架构 HBase 批量装载过程包含两个主要步骤。 #### 9.8.2.1. 通过MapReduce 任务准备数据 批量装载第一步，从MapReduce任务通过HFileOutputFormat产生HBase数据文件(StoreFiles) 。输出数据为HBase的内部数据格式，以便随后装载到集群更高效。 为了处理高效， HFileOutputFormat 必须比配置为每个HFile适合在一个分区内。为了做到这一点，输出将被批量装载到HBase的任务，使用Hadoop 的TotalOrderPartitioner 类来分开map输出为分开的键空间区间。对应于表内每个分区(region)的键空间。 HFileOutputFormat 包含一个方便的函数, configureIncrementalLoad(), 可以基于表当前分区边界自动设置TotalOrderPartitioner #### 9.8.2.2. 完成数据装载 After the data has been prepared using HFileOutputFormat, it is loaded into the cluster using completebulkload. This command line tool iterates through the prepared data files, and for each one determines the region the file belongs to. It then contacts the appropriate Region Server which adopts the HFile, moving it into its storage directory and making the data available to clients. If the region boundaries have changed during the course of bulk load preparation, or between the preparation and completion steps, the completebulkloads utility will automatically split the data files into pieces corresponding to the new boundaries. This process is not optimally efficient, so users should take care to minimize the delay between preparing a bulk load and importing it into the cluster, especially if other clients are simultaneously loading data through other means. ### 9.8.3. 采用completebulkload 工具导入准备的数据 After a data import has been prepared, either by using the importtsv tool with the "importtsv.bulk.output" option or by some other MapReduce job using the HFileOutputFormat, the completebulkload tool is used to import the data into the running cluster. The completebulkload tool simply takes the output path where importtsv or your MapReduce job put its results, and the table name to import into. For example: $ hadoop jar hbase-VERSION.jar completebulkload [-c /path/to/hbase/config/hbase-site.xml] /user/todd/myoutput mytable

The -c config-file option can be used to specify a file containing the appropriate hbase parameters (e.g., hbase-site.xml) if not supplied already on the CLASSPATH (In addition, the CLASSPATH must contain the directory that has the zookeeper configuration file if zookeeper is NOT managed by HBase).

Note: If the target table does not already exist in HBase, this tool will create the table automatically.

This tool will run quickly, after which point the new data will be visible in the cluster.

### 9.8.5. 高级使用

Although the importtsv tool is useful in many cases, advanced users may want to generate data programatically, or import data from other formats. To get started doing so, dig into ImportTsv.javaand check the JavaDoc for HFileOutputFormat.

The import step of the bulk load can also be done programatically. 参考 the LoadIncrementalHFiles class 获取更多信息。

## 9.9. HDFS

### 9.9.1. NameNode

NameNode 负责维护文件系统元数据。参考上述HDFS结构链接获取更多信息。

### 9.9.2. DataNode

DataNode 负责存储HDFS 块。 参考上述HDFS结构链接获取更多信息。

[23] 参考 HBASE-2958 When hbase.hlog.split.skip.errors is set to false, we fail the split but thats it. We need to do more than just fail split if this flag is set.

[25] For description of the development process -- why static blooms rather than dynamic -- and for an overview of the unique properties that pertain to blooms in HBase, as well as possible future directions, see the Development Process section of the documentBloomFilters in HBase attached to HBase-1200.

[26] The bloom filters described here are actually version two of blooms in HBase. In versions up to 0.19.x, HBase had a dynamic bloom option based on work done by the European Commission One-Lab Project 034819. The core of the HBase bloom work was later pulled up into Hadoop to implement org.apache.hadoop.io.BloomMapFile. Version 1 of HBase blooms never worked that well. Version 2 is a rewrite from scratch though again it starts with the one-lab work.

## Chapter 10. 外部 API

This chapter will cover access to HBase either through non-Java languages, or through custom protocols.

## 10.3. Thrift

### 10.3.1. 过滤器语言

#### 10.3.1.1. 用例

This allows the user to perform server-side filtering when accessing HBase over Thrift. The user specifies a filter via a string. The string is parsed on the server to construct the filter

#### 10.3.1.2. 通用过滤字符串语法

A simple filter expression is expressed as: “FilterName (argument, argument, ... , argument)”

You must specify the name of the filter followed by the argument list in parenthesis. Commas separate the individual arguments

If the argument represents a string, it should be enclosed in single quotes.

If it represents a boolean, an integer or a comparison operator like <, >, != etc. it should not be enclosed in quotes

The filter name must be one word. All ASCII characters are allowed except for whitespace, single quotes and parenthesis.

The filter’s arguments can contain any ASCII character. If single quotes are present in the argument, they must be escaped by a preceding single quote

#### 10.3.1.3. Compound Filters and Operators

Currently, two binary operators – AND/OR and two unary operators – WHILE/SKIP are supported.

Note: the operators are all in uppercase

AND – as the name suggests, if this operator is used, the key-value must pass both the filters

OR – as the name suggests, if this operator is used, the key-value must pass at least one of the filters

SKIP – For a particular row, if any of the key-values don’t pass the filter condition, the entire row is skipped

WHILE - For a particular row, it continues to emit key-values until a key-value is reached that fails the filter condition

Compound Filters: Using these operators, a hierarchy of filters can be created. For example: “(Filter1 AND Filter2) OR (Filter3 AND Filter4)”

#### 10.3.1.4. Order of Evaluation

Parenthesis have the highest precedence. The SKIP and WHILE operators are next and have the same precedence.The AND operator has the next highest precedence followed by the OR operator.

For example:

A filter string of the form:“Filter1 AND Filter2 OR Filter3” will be evaluated as:“(Filter1 AND Filter2) OR Filter3”

A filter string of the form:“Filter1 AND SKIP Filter2 OR Filter3” will be evaluated as:“(Filter1 AND (SKIP Filter2)) OR Filter3”

#### 10.3.1.5. 比较运算符

1. LESS (<)

2. LESS_OR_EQUAL (<=)

3. EQUAL (=)

4. NOT_EQUAL (!=)

5. GREATER_OR_EQUAL (>=)

6. GREATER (>)

7. NO_OP (no operation)

#### 10.3.1.6. 比较器(Comparator)

1. BinaryComparator - This lexicographically compares against the specified byte array using Bytes.compareTo(byte[], byte[])

2. BinaryPrefixComparator - This lexicographically compares against a specified byte array. It only compares up to the length of this byte array.

3. RegexStringComparator - This compares against the specified byte array using the given regular expression. Only EQUAL and NOT_EQUAL comparisons are valid with this comparator

4. SubStringComparator - This tests if the given substring appears in a specified byte array. The comparison is case insensitive. Only EQUAL and NOT_EQUAL comparisons are valid with this comparator

The general syntax of a comparator is: ComparatorType:ComparatorValue

The ComparatorType for the various comparators is as follows:

1. BinaryComparator - binary

2. BinaryPrefixComparator - binaryprefix

3. RegexStringComparator - regexstring

4. SubStringComparator - substring

The ComparatorValue can be any value.

Example1: >, 'binary:abc' will match everything that is lexicographically greater than "abc"

Example2: =, 'binaryprefix:abc' will match everything whose first 3 characters are lexicographically equal to "abc"

Example3: !=, 'regexstring:ab*yz' will match everything that doesn't begin with "ab" and ends with "yz"

Example4: =, 'substring:abc123' will match everything that begins with the substring "abc123"

#### 10.3.1.7.  PHP 客户端编程使用过滤器示例

<? $_SERVER['PHP_ROOT'] = realpath(dirname(__FILE__).'/..'); require_once$_SERVER['PHP_ROOT'].'/flib/__flib.php';
flib_init(FLIB_CONTEXT_SCRIPT);
require_module('storage/hbase');
$hbase = new HBase('<server_name_running_thrift_server>', <port on which thrift server is running>);$hbase->open();
$client =$hbase->getClient();
$result =$client->scannerOpenWithFilterString('table_name', "(PrefixFilter ('row2') AND (QualifierFilter (>=, 'binary:xyz'))) AND (TimestampsFilter ( 123, 456))");
$to_print =$client->scannerGetList($result,1); while ($to_print) {
print_r($to_print);$to_print = $client->scannerGetList($result,1);
}
$client->scannerClose($result);
?>


#### 10.3.1.8. 过滤字符串示例

• “PrefixFilter (‘Row’) AND PageFilter (1) AND FirstKeyOnlyFilter ()” will return all key-value pairs that match the following conditions:

1) The row containing the key-value should have prefix “Row”

2) The key-value must be located in the first row of the table

3) The key-value pair must be the first key-value in the row

• “(RowFilter (=, ‘binary:Row 1’) AND TimeStampsFilter (74689, 89734)) OR ColumnRangeFilter (‘abc’, true, ‘xyz’, false))” will return all key-value pairs that match both the following conditions:

1) The key-value is in a row having row key “Row 1”

2) The key-value must have a timestamp of either 74689 or 89734.

Or it must match the following condition:

1) The key-value pair must be in a column that is lexicographically >= abc and < xyz

• “SKIP ValueFilter (0)” will skip the entire row if any of the values in the row is not 0

#### 10.3.1.9. 独有过滤器语法

1. KeyOnlyFilter

Description: This filter doesn’t take any arguments. It returns only the key component of each key-value.

Syntax: KeyOnlyFilter ()

Example: "KeyOnlyFilter ()"

2. FirstKeyOnlyFilter

Description: This filter doesn’t take any arguments. It returns only the first key-value from each row.

Syntax: FirstKeyOnlyFilter ()

Example: "FirstKeyOnlyFilter ()"

3. PrefixFilter

Description: This filter takes one argument – a prefix of a row key. It returns only those key-values present in a row that starts with the specified row prefix

Syntax: PrefixFilter (‘<row_prefix>’)

Example: "PrefixFilter (‘Row’)"

4. ColumnPrefixFilter

Description: This filter takes one argument – a column prefix. It returns only those key-values present in a column that starts with the specified column prefix. The column prefix must be of the form: “qualifier”

Syntax:ColumnPrefixFilter(‘<column_prefix>’)

Example: "ColumnPrefixFilter(‘Col’)"

5. MultipleColumnPrefixFilter

Description: This filter takes a list of column prefixes. It returns key-values that are present in a column that starts with any of the specified column prefixes. Each of the column prefixes must be of the form: “qualifier”

Syntax:MultipleColumnPrefixFilter(‘<column_prefix>’, ‘<column_prefix>’, …, ‘<column_prefix>’)

Example: "MultipleColumnPrefixFilter(‘Col1’, ‘Col2’)"

6. ColumnCountGetFilter

Description: This filter takes one argument – a limit. It returns the first limit number of columns in the table

Syntax: ColumnCountGetFilter (‘<limit>’)

Example: "ColumnCountGetFilter (4)"

7. PageFilter

Description: This filter takes one argument – a page size. It returns page size number of rows from the table.

Syntax: PageFilter (‘<page_size>’)

Example: "PageFilter (2)"

8. ColumnPaginationFilter

Description: This filter takes two arguments – a limit and offset. It returns limit number of columns after offset number of columns. It does this for all the rows

Syntax: ColumnPaginationFilter(‘<limit>’, ‘<offest>’)

Example: "ColumnPaginationFilter (3, 5)"

9. InclusiveStopFilter

Description: This filter takes one argument – a row key on which to stop scanning. It returns all key-values present in rows up to and including the specified row

Syntax: InclusiveStopFilter(‘<stop_row_key>’)

Example: "InclusiveStopFilter ('Row2')"

10. TimeStampsFilter

Description: This filter takes a list of timestamps. It returns those key-values whose timestamps matches any of the specified timestamps

Syntax: TimeStampsFilter (<timestamp>, <timestamp>, ... ,<timestamp>)

Example: "TimeStampsFilter (5985489, 48895495, 58489845945)"

11. RowFilter

Description: This filter takes a compare operator and a comparator. It compares each row key with the comparator using the compare operator and if the comparison returns true, it returns all the key-values in that row

Syntax: RowFilter (<compareOp>, ‘<row_comparator>’)

Example: "RowFilter (<=, ‘xyz)"

12. Family Filter

Description: This filter takes a compare operator and a comparator. It compares each qualifier name with the comparator using the compare operator and if the comparison returns true, it returns all the key-values in that column

Syntax: QualifierFilter (<compareOp>, ‘<qualifier_comparator>’)

Example: "QualifierFilter (=, ‘Column1’)"

13. QualifierFilter

Description: This filter takes a compare operator and a comparator. It compares each qualifier name with the comparator using the compare operator and if the comparison returns true, it returns all the key-values in that column

Syntax: QualifierFilter (<compareOp>,‘<qualifier_comparator>’)

Example: "QualifierFilter (=,‘Column1’)"

14. ValueFilter

Description: This filter takes a compare operator and a comparator. It compares each value with the comparator using the compare operator and if the comparison returns true, it returns that key-value

Syntax: ValueFilter (<compareOp>,‘<value_comparator>’)

Example: "ValueFilter (!=, ‘Value’)"

15. DependentColumnFilter

Description: This filter takes two arguments – a family and a qualifier. It tries to locate this column in each row and returns all key-values in that row that have the same timestamp. If the row doesn’t contain the specified column – none of the key-values in that row will be returned.

The filter can also take an optional boolean argument – dropDependentColumn. If set to true, the column we were depending on doesn’t get returned.

The filter can also take two more additional optional arguments – a compare operator and a value comparator, which are further checks in addition to the family and qualifier. If the dependent column is found, its value should also pass the value check and then only is its timestamp taken into consideration

Syntax: DependentColumnFilter (‘<family>’, ‘<qualifier>’, <boolean>, <compare operator>, ‘<value comparator’)

Syntax: DependentColumnFilter (‘<family>’, ‘<qualifier>’, <boolean>)

Syntax: DependentColumnFilter (‘<family>’, ‘<qualifier>’)

Example: "DependentColumnFilter (‘conf’, ‘blacklist’, false, >=, ‘zebra’)"

Example: "DependentColumnFilter (‘conf’, 'blacklist', true)"

Example: "DependentColumnFilter (‘conf’, 'blacklist')"

16. SingleColumnValueFilter

Description: This filter takes a column family, a qualifier, a compare operator and a comparator. If the specified column is not found – all the columns of that row will be emitted. If the column is found and the comparison with the comparator returns true, all the columns of the row will be emitted. If the condition fails, the row will not be emitted.

This filter also takes two additional optional boolean arguments – filterIfColumnMissing and setLatestVersionOnly

If the filterIfColumnMissing flag is set to true the columns of the row will not be emitted if the specified column to check is not found in the row. The default value is false.

If the setLatestVersionOnly flag is set to false, it will test previous versions (timestamps) too. The default value is true.

These flags are optional and if you must set neither or both

Syntax: SingleColumnValueFilter(<compare operator>, ‘<comparator>’, ‘<family>’, ‘<qualifier>’,<filterIfColumnMissing_boolean>, <latest_version_boolean>)

Syntax: SingleColumnValueFilter(<compare operator>, ‘<comparator>’, ‘<family>’, ‘<qualifier>)

Example: "SingleColumnValueFilter (<=, ‘abc’,‘FamilyA’, ‘Column1’, true, false)"

Example: "SingleColumnValueFilter (<=, ‘abc’,‘FamilyA’, ‘Column1’)"

17. SingleColumnValueExcludeFilter

Description: This filter takes the same arguments and behaves same as SingleColumnValueFilter – however, if the column is found and the condition passes, all the columns of the row will be emitted except for the tested column value.

Syntax: SingleColumnValueExcludeFilter(<compare operator>, '<comparator>', '<family>', '<qualifier>',<latest_version_boolean>, <filterIfColumnMissing_boolean>)

Syntax: SingleColumnValueExcludeFilter(<compare operator>, '<comparator>', '<family>', '<qualifier>')

Example: "SingleColumnValueExcludeFilter (‘<=’, ‘abc’,‘FamilyA’, ‘Column1’, ‘false’, ‘true’)"

Example: "SingleColumnValueExcludeFilter (‘<=’, ‘abc’, ‘FamilyA’, ‘Column1’)"

18. ColumnRangeFilter

Description: This filter is used for selecting only those keys with columns that are between minColumn and maxColumn. It also takes two boolean variables to indicate whether to include the minColumn and maxColumn or not.

If you don’t want to set the minColumn or the maxColumn – you can pass in an empty argument.

Syntax: ColumnRangeFilter (‘<minColumn>’, <minColumnInclusive_bool>, ‘<maxColumn>’, <maxColumnInclusive_bool>)

Example: "ColumnRangeFilter (‘abc’, true, ‘xyz’, false)"

## 10.4. C/C++ Apache HBase Client

Facebook的 Chip Turner 写了个纯 C/C++ 客户端。 Check it out.

## 11.1. 操作系统

### 11.1.1. 内存

RAM, RAM, RAM. 不要饿着 HBase.

### 11.1.2. 64-bit

使用 64-bit 平台(和64-bit JVM).

### 11.1.3. 交换区

小心交换，将交换区设为0。

## 11.2. 网络

要考虑的重要事项：

• 设备交换机容量
• 系统连接数量
• 上行容量

### 11.2.1. 单交换机

单交换机配置最重要的因素，是硬件交换容量，所有系统连接到交换机产生的流量的处理能力。一些低价硬件商品，相对全交换机，具有较低交换能力。

### 11.2.2. 多交换机

多交换机在系统结构中是潜在陷阱。低价硬件的最常用配置是1Gbps上行连接到另一个交换机。 该常被忽略的窄点很容易成为集群通讯的瓶颈。特别是MapReduce任务通过该上行连接同时读写大量数据时，会导致饱和。

缓解该问题很简单，可以通过多种途径完成：

• 针对要创建的集群容量，采用合适硬件。
• 采用更大单交换机配置，如单48 端口相较2x 24 端口为优。
• 配置上行端口聚合(port trunking)来利用多网络接口增加交换机带宽。(译者注：port trunk：
将交换机上的多个端口在物理上连接起来，在逻辑上捆绑在一起，形成一个拥有较大带宽的端口，组成一个干路，以达到平衡负载和提供备份线路，扩充带宽的目的。
)        

### 11.2.3. 多机架

多机架配置带来多交换机同样的潜在问题。导致性能降低的原因主要来自两个方面：

• 较低的交换机容量性能
• 到其他机架的上行链路不足

如果机架上的交换机有合适交换容量，可以处理所有主机全速通信，那么下一个问题就是如何自动导航更多的交错在机架中的集群。最简单的避免横跨多机架问题的办法，是采用端口聚合来创建到其他机架的捆绑的上行的连接。然而该方法下行侧，是潜在被使用的端口开销。举例：从机架A到机架B创建 8Gbps 端口通道，采用24端口中的8个来和其他机架互通，ROI(投资回报率)很低。采用太少端口意味着不能从集群中传出最多的东西。

机架间采用10Gbe 链接将极大增加性能，确保交换机都支持10Gbe 上行连接或支持扩展卡，后者相对上行连接，允许你节省机器端口。

### 11.2.4. 网络接口

所有网络接口功能正常吗？你确定？参考故障诊断用例：Section 13.3.1, “Case Study #1 (Performance Issue On A Single Node)”.

可以从 wiki Performance Tuning看起。这个文档讲了一些主要的影响性能的方面:RAM, 压缩, JVM 设置, 等等。然后，可以看看下面的补充内容。

### 打开RPC-level日志

在区域服务器打开RPC-level的日志对于深度的优化是有好处的。一旦打开，日志将喷涌而出。所以不建议长时间打开，只能看一小段时间。要想启用RPC-level的职责，可以使用区域服务器 UI点击Log Level。将 org.apache.hadoop.ipc 的日志级别设为DEBUG。然后tail 区域服务器的日志，进行分析。

要想关闭，只要把日志级别设为INFO就可以了.

## 11.3. Java

### 11.3.1. 垃圾收集和Apache HBase

#### 11.3.1.1. 长时间GC停顿

在这个PPT Avoiding Full GCs with MemStore-Local Allocation Buffers, Todd Lipcon描述了在HBase中常见的两种“世界停止”式的GC操作，尤其是在加载的时候。一种是CMS失败的模式(译者注:CMS是一种GC的算法)，另一种是老一代的堆碎片导致的。要想定位第一种，只要将CMS执行的时间提前就可以了，加入-XX:CMSInitiatingOccupancyFraction参数，把值调低。可以先从60%和70%开始(这个值调的越低，触发的GC次数就越多，消耗的CPU时间就越长)。要想定位第二种错误，Todd加入了一个实验性的功能，在HBase 0.90.x中这个是要明确指定的(在0.92.x中，这个是默认项)，将你的Configuration中的hbase.hregion.memstore.mslab.enabled设置为true。详细信息，可以看这个PPT. [27]. Be aware that when enabled, each MemStore instance will occupy at least an MSLAB instance of memory. If you have thousands of regions or lots of regions each with many column families, this allocation of MSLAB may be responsible for a good portion of your heap allocation and in an extreme case cause you to OOME. Disable MSLAB in this case, or lower the amount of memory it uses or float less regions per server.

GC日志的更多信息，参考 Section 12.2.3, “JVM 垃圾收集日志.

## 11.4. 配置

### 11.4.1. Regions的数目

HBase中region的数目可以根据Section 3.6.5, “更大的 Regions”调整.也可以参见 Section 12.3.1, “Region大小”

### 11.4.2. 管理紧缩

对于大型的系统，你需要考虑管理紧缩和分割

### 11.4.3. hbase.regionserver.handler.count

参见hbase.regionserver.handler.count.这个参数的本质是设置一个RegsionServer可以同时处理多少请求。 如果定的太高，吞吐量反而会降低;如果定的太低，请求会被阻塞，得不到响应。你可以打开RPC-level日志读Log，来决定对于你的集群什么值是合适的。(请求队列也是会消耗内存的)

### 11.4.4. hfile.block.cache.size

参见 hfile.block.cache.size. 对于区域服务器进程的内存设置。

### 11.4.5. hbase.regionserver.global.memstore.upperLimit

参见 hbase.regionserver.global.memstore.upperLimit. 这个内存设置是根据区域服务器的需要来设定。

### 11.4.6. hbase.regionserver.global.memstore.lowerLimit

参见 hbase.regionserver.global.memstore.lowerLimit. 这个内存设置是根据区域服务器的需要来设定。

### 11.4.7. hbase.hstore.blockingStoreFiles

参见hbase.hstore.blockingStoreFiles. 如果在区域服务器的Log中block,提高这个值是有帮助的。

### 11.4.8. hbase.hregion.memstore.block.multiplier

参见 hbase.hregion.memstore.block.multiplier. 如果有足够的RAM，提高这个值。

## 11.5. ZooKeeper

配置ZooKeeper信息，请参考 Section 2.5, “ZooKeeper”  , 参看关于使用专用磁盘部分。

## 11.6. 模式设计

### 11.6.2. 键和属性长度

参考 Section 6.3.2, “Try to minimize row and column sizes”. 参考  Section 11.6.7.1, “However...” 获取压缩申请终止( compression caveats)

### 11.6.3. 表的区域大小

区域大小可以通过基于每张表设置，当某些表需要与缺省设置的区域大小不同时，通过 HTableDescriptor 的setFileSize 的事件设置。

参考 Section 11.4.1, “Number of Regions” 获取更多信息。

### 11.6.4. 布隆过滤(Bloom Filters)

布隆过滤可以每列族单独启用。使用 HColumnDescriptor.setBloomFilterType(NONE | ROW | ROWCOL) 对列族单独启用布隆。 Default = NONE 没有布隆过滤。对 ROW，行键的哈希在每次插入行时将被添加到布隆。对 ROWCOL，行键 + 列族 + 列族修饰的哈希将在每次插入行时添加到布隆。

### 11.6.5. 列族块大小

The blocksize can be configured for each ColumnFamily in a table, and this defaults to 64k. Larger cell values require larger blocksizes. There is an inverse relationship between blocksize and the resulting StoreFile indexes (i.e., if the blocksize is doubled then the resulting indexes should be roughly halved).

参考 HColumnDescriptor and Section 9.7.5, “Store”获取更多信息。

### 11.6.6. 内存中的列族

ColumnFamilies can optionally be defined as in-memory. Data is still persisted to disk, just like any other ColumnFamily. In-memory blocks have the highest priority in the Section 9.6.4, “Block Cache”, but it is not a guarantee that the entire table will be in memory.

参考 HColumnDescriptor 获取更多信息。

### 11.6.7. 压缩

生产系统应该采用列族压缩定义。 参考 Appendix C, Compression In HBase 获取更多信息。

#### 11.6.7.1. 然而...

Compression deflates data on disk. When it's in-memory (e.g., in the MemStore) or on the wire (e.g., transferring between RegionServer and Client) it's inflated. So while using ColumnFamily compression is a best practice, but it's not going to completely eliminate the impact of over-sized Keys, over-sized ColumnFamily names, or over-sized Column names.

参考 Section 6.3.2, “Try to minimize row and column sizes” on for schema design tips, and Section 9.7.5.4, “KeyValue” for more information on HBase stores data internally.

## 11.7. 写到 HBase

### 11.7.1. 批量装载

如果可以的话，尽量使用批量导入工具，参见 Section 9.8, “批量装载”.否则就要详细看看下面的内容。

### 11.7.2. 表创建: 预创建区域(Region)

默认情况下HBase创建表会新建一个区域。执行批量导入，意味着所有的client会写入这个区域，直到这个区域足够大，以至于分裂。一个有效的提高批量导入的性能的方式，是预创建空的区域。最好稍保守一点，因为过多的区域会实实在在的降低性能。下面是一个预创建区域的例子。 (注意：这个例子里需要根据应用的key进行调整。):

public static boolean createTable(HBaseAdmin admin, HTableDescriptor table, byte[][] splits)
throws IOException {
try {
return true;
} catch (TableExistsException e) {
logger.info("table " + table.getNameAsString() + " already exists");
return false;
}
}

public static byte[][] getHexSplits(String startKey, String endKey, int numRegions) {
byte[][] splits = new byte[numRegions-1][];
BigInteger lowestKey = new BigInteger(startKey, 16);
BigInteger highestKey = new BigInteger(endKey, 16);
BigInteger range = highestKey.subtract(lowestKey);
BigInteger regionIncrement = range.divide(BigInteger.valueOf(numRegions));
for(int i=0; i < numRegions-1;i++) {
byte[] b = String.format("%016x", key).getBytes();
splits[i] = b;
}
return splits;
}

### 11.7.3.  表创建: 延迟log刷写

Puts的缺省行为使用 Write Ahead Log (WAL)，会导致 HLog 编辑立即写盘。如果采用延迟刷写，WAL编辑会保留在内存中，直到刷写周期来临。好处是集中和异步写HLog，潜在问题是如果RegionServer退出，没有刷写的日志将丢失。但这也比Puts时不使用WAL安全多了。

延迟log刷写可以通过 HTableDescriptor 在表上设置，hbase.regionserver.optionallogflushinterval缺省值是1000ms.

### 11.7.4. HBase 客户端: 自动刷写

当你进行大量的Put的时候，要确认你的HTable的setAutoFlush是关闭着的。否则的话，每执行一个Put就要想区域服务器发一个请求。通过 htable.add(Put) 和 htable.add( <List> Put)来将Put添加到写缓冲中。如果autoFlush = false，要等到写缓冲都填满的时候才会发起请求。要想显式的发起请求，可以调用flushCommits。在HTable实例上进行的close操作也会发起flushCommits

### 11.7.5. HBase 客户端: 在Puts上关闭WAL

一个经常讨论的在Puts上增加吞吐量的选项是调用 writeToWAL(false)。关闭它意味着 RegionServer 不再将 Put 写到 Write Ahead Log, 仅写到内存。然而后果是如果出现 RegionServer 失败，将导致数据丢失。如果调用writeToWAL(false) ，需保持高度警惕。你会发现实际上基本没有不同，如果你的负载很好的分布到集群中。

### 11.7.6. HBase 客户端: RegionServer 成组写入

In addition to using the writeBuffer, grouping Puts by RegionServer can reduce the number of client RPC calls per writeBuffer flush. There is a utility HTableUtil currently on TRUNK that does this, but you can either copy that or implement your own verison for those still on 0.90.x or earlier.

### 11.7.7. MapReduce: 跳过 Reducer

When writing a lot of data to an HBase table from a MR job (e.g., with TableOutputFormat), and specifically where Puts are being emitted from the Mapper, skip the Reducer step. When a Reducer step is used, all of the output (Puts) from the Mapper will get spooled to disk, then sorted/shuffled to other Reducers that will most likely be off-node. It's far more efficient to just write directly to HBase.

For summary jobs where HBase is used as a source and a sink, then writes will be coming from the Reducer step (e.g., summarize values then write out result). This is a different processing problem than from the the above case.

### 11.7.8. Anti-Pattern: One Hot Region

If all your data is being written to one region at a time, then re-read the section on processing timeseries data.

Also, if you are pre-splitting regions and all your data is still winding up in a single region even though your keys aren't monotonically increasing, confirm that your keyspace actually works with the split strategy. There are a variety of reasons that regions may appear "well split" but won't work with your data. As the HBase client communicates directly with the RegionServers, this can be obtained via HTable.getRegionLocation.

## 11.8. 从HBase读

### 11.8.1. Scan 缓存

如果HBase的输入源是一个MapReduce Job，要确保输入的ScansetCaching值要比默认值0要大。使用默认值就意味着map-task每一行都会去请求一下region-server。可以把这个值设为500，这样就可以一次传输500行。当然这也是需要权衡的，过大的值会同时消耗客户端和服务端很大的内存，不是越大越好。

#### 11.8.1.1. Scan Caching in MapReduce Jobs

Scan settings in MapReduce jobs deserve special attention. Timeouts can result (e.g., UnknownScannerException) in Map tasks if it takes longer to process a batch of records before the client goes back to the RegionServer for the next set of data. This problem can occur because there is non-trivial processing occuring per row. If you process rows quickly, set caching higher. If you process rows more slowly (e.g., lots of transformations per row, writes), then set caching lower.

Timeouts can also happen in a non-MapReduce use case (i.e., single threaded HBase client doing a Scan), but the processing that is often performed in MapReduce jobs tends to exacerbate this issue.

### 11.8.2. Scan 属性选择

当Scan用来处理大量的行的时候(尤其是作为MapReduce的输入)，要注意的是选择了什么字段。如果调用了 scan.addFamily，这个列族的所有属性都会返回。如果只是想过滤其中的一小部分，就指定那几个column，否则就会造成很大浪费，影响性能。

### 11.8.3. MapReduce - 输入分割

For MapReduce jobs that use HBase tables as a source, if there a pattern where the "slow" map tasks seem to have the same Input Split (i.e., the RegionServer serving the data), see the Troubleshooting Case Study in Section 13.3.1, “Case Study #1 (Performance Issue On A Single Node)”.

### 11.8.4. 关闭 ResultScanners

这与其说是提高性能，倒不如说是避免发生性能问题。如果你忘记了关闭ResultScanners，会导致RegionServer出现问题。所以一定要把ResultScanner包含在try/catch 块中...

Scan scan = new Scan();
// set attrs...
ResultScanner rs = htable.getScanner(scan);
try {
for (Result r = rs.next(); r != null; r = rs.next()) {
// process result...
} finally {
rs.close();  // always close the ResultScanner!
}
htable.close();

### 11.8.5. 块缓存

Scan实例可以在RegionServer中使用块缓存，可以由setCacheBlocks方法控制。如果Scan是MapReduce的输入源，要将这个值设置为 false。对于经常读到的行，就建议使用块缓冲。

### 11.8.6.  行键的负载优化

scan一个表的时候， 如果仅仅需要行键（不需要no families, qualifiers, values 和 timestamps）,在加入FilterList的时候，要使用Scanner的setFilter方法的时候，要填上MUST_PASS_ALL操作参数(译者注：相当于And操作符)。一个FilterList要包含一个 FirstKeyOnlyFilter 和一个 KeyOnlyFilter.通过这样的filter组合，就算在最坏的情况下，RegionServer只会从磁盘读一个值，同时最小化客户端的网络带宽占用。

### 11.8.7. 并发: 监测数据扩散

当优化大量读取时，监测数据扩散到目标表。如果目标表含区域太少，读取时感觉像只有很少节点提供服务一样。

### 11.8.8. 布隆过滤(Bloom Filters)

启用布隆过滤可以节省必须读磁盘过程，可以有助于改进读取延迟。

#### 11.8.8.1. Bloom StoreFile footprint

Bloom filters add an entry to the StoreFile general FileInfo data structure and then two extra entries to the StoreFilemetadata section.

##### 11.8.8.1.1. BloomFilter in the StoreFile FileInfo data structure

FileInfo has a BLOOM_FILTER_TYPE entry which is set to NONE, ROW or ROWCOL.

##### 11.8.8.1.2. BloomFilter entries in StoreFile metadata

BLOOM_FILTER_META holds Bloom Size, Hash Function used, etc. Its small in size and is cached on StoreFile.Reader load

BLOOM_FILTER_DATA is the actual bloomfilter data. Obtained on-demand. Stored in the LRU cache, if it is enabled (Its enabled by default).

#### 11.8.8.2. 布隆过滤(Bloom Filter) 配置

##### 11.8.8.2.1. io.hfile.bloom.enabled 全局杀死开关

配置文件的io.hfile.bloom.enabled 是一个当出错时的杀死开关。Default = true.

##### 11.8.8.2.2. io.hfile.bloom.error.rate

io.hfile.bloom.error.rate = 平均误报率( average false positive rate ). 缺省 = 1%. 降低率为 ½ (如 .5%) == +1 位每布隆入口。

##### 11.8.8.2.3. io.hfile.bloom.max.fold

io.hfile.bloom.max.fold = 保证最小折叠速率(guaranteed minimum fold rate). 大多时候不要管. Default = 7, 或压缩到原来大小的至少 1/128. 想获取更多本选项的意义，参看本文档 开发进程 节 BloomFilters in HBase

## 11.9. 从HBase删除

### 11.9.1. 将 HBase 表当 Queues用

HBase tables are sometimes used as queues. In this case, special care must be taken to regularly perform major compactions on tables used in this manner. As is documented in Chapter 5, Data Model, marking rows as deleted creates additional StoreFiles which then need to be processed on reads. Tombstones only get cleaned up with major compactions.

### 11.9.2. 删除的 RPC 行为

Be aware that htable.delete(Delete) doesn't use the writeBuffer. It will execute an RegionServer RPC with each invocation. For a large number of deletes, consider htable.delete(List).

## 11.10. HDFS

由于 HBase 在 Section 9.9, “HDFS” 上运行，it is important to understand how it works and how it affects HBase.

### 11.10.1. Current Issues With Low-Latency Reads

The original use-case for HDFS was batch processing. As such, there low-latency reads were historically not a priority. With the increased adoption of HBase this is changing, and several improvements are already in development. 参考 the Umbrella Jira Ticket for HDFS Improvements for HBase.

### 11.10.2. Leveraging local data

Since Hadoop 1.0.0 (also 0.22.1, 0.23.1, CDH3u3 and HDP 1.0) via HDFS-2246, it is possible for the DFSClient to take a "short circuit" and read directly from disk instead of going through the DataNode when the data is local. What this means for HBase is that the RegionServers can read directly off their machine's disks instead of having to open a socket to talk to the DataNode, the former being generally much faster[30]. Also see HBase, mail # dev - read short circuit thread for more discussion around short circuit reads.

To enable "short circuit" reads, you must set two configurations. First, the hdfs-site.xml needs to be amended. Set the property dfs.block.local-path-access.user to be the only user that can use the shortcut. This has to be the user that started HBase. Then in hbase-site.xml, set dfs.client.read.shortcircuit to be true

For optimal performance when short-circuit reads are enabled, it is recommended that HDFS checksums are disabled. To maintain data integrity with HDFS checksums disabled, HBase can be configured to write its own checksums into its datablocks and verify against these. See Section 11.4.9, “hbase.regionserver.checksum.verify”.

The DataNodes need to be restarted in order to pick up the new configuration. Be aware that if a process started under another username than the one configured here also has the shortcircuit enabled, it will get an Exception regarding an unauthorized access but the data will still be read.

### 11.10.3. Performance Comparisons of HBase vs. HDFS

A fairly common question on the dist-list is why HBase isn't as performant as HDFS files in a batch context (e.g., as a MapReduce source or sink). The short answer is that HBase is doing a lot more than HDFS (e.g., reading the KeyValues, returning the most current row or specified timestamps, etc.), and as such HBase is 4-5 times slower than HDFS in this processing context. Not that there isn't room for improvement (and this gap will, over time, be reduced), but HDFS will always be faster in this use-case.

## 11.11. Amazon EC2

Performance questions are common on Amazon EC2 environments because it is a shared environment. You will not see the same throughput as a dedicated server. In terms of running tests on EC2, run them several times for the same reason (i.e., it's a shared environment and you don't know what else is happening on the server).

If you are running on EC2 and post performance questions on the dist-list, please state this fact up-front that because EC2 issues are practically a separate class of performance issues.

## 11.12. Case Studies

For Performance and Troubleshooting Case Studies, see Chapter 13, Case Studies.

[27] The latest jvms do better regards fragmentation so make sure you are running a recent release. Read down in the message,Identifying concurrent mode failures caused by fragmentation.

[28] For description of the development process -- why static blooms rather than dynamic -- and for an overview of the unique properties that pertain to blooms in HBase, as well as possible future directions, see the Development Process section of the document BloomFilters in HBase attached to HBase-1200.

[29] The bloom filters described here are actually version two of blooms in HBase. In versions up to 0.19.x, HBase had a dynamic bloom option based on work done by the European Commission One-Lab Project 034819. The core of the HBase bloom work was later pulled up into Hadoop to implement org.apache.hadoop.io.BloomMapFile. Version 1 of HBase blooms never worked that well. Version 2 is a rewrite from scratch though again it starts with the one-lab work.

[30] See JD's Performance Talk

## 12.1. 一般准则

错误很少仅仅单独出现在HBase中，通常是某一个地方出了问题，引起各处大量异常和调用栈跟踪信息。遇到这样的错误，最好的办法是往上查日志，找到最初的异常。例如区域服务器会在退出的时候打印一些度量信息。Grep这个转储 应该可以找到最初的异常信息。

区域服务器的自杀是很“正常”的。当一些事情发生错误的，他们就会自杀。如果ulimit和xcievers(最重要的两个设定，详见Section 2.2.5, “ ulimit 和 nproc ”)没有修改，HDFS将无法运转正常，在HBase看来，HDFS死掉了。假想一下，你的MySQL突然无法访问它的文件系统，他会怎么做。同样的事情会发生在HBase和HDFS上。还有一个造成区域服务器切腹自杀的常见的原因是，他们执行了一个长时间的GC操作，这个时间超过了ZooKeeper的会话时长。关于GC停顿的详细信息，参见Todd Lipcon的 3 part blog post by Todd Lipcon 和上面的 Section 11.3.1.1, “长时间GC停顿”.

## 12.2. Logs

重要日志的位置( <user>是启动服务的用户，<hostname> 是机器的名字)

NameNode: $HADOOP_HOME/logs/hadoop-<user>-namenode-<hostname>.log DataNode: $HADOOP_HOME/logs/hadoop-<user>-datanode-<hostname>.log

JobTracker: $HADOOP_HOME/logs/hadoop-<user>-jobtracker-<hostname>.log TaskTracker: $HADOOP_HOME/logs/hadoop-<user>-jobtracker-<hostname>.log

HMaster: $HBASE_HOME/logs/hbase-<user>-master-<hostname>.log RegionServer: $HBASE_HOME/logs/hbase-<user>-regionserver-<hostname>.log

ZooKeeper: TODO

### 12.2.1. Log 位置

对于单节点模式，Log都会在一台机器上，但是对于生产环境，都会运行在一个集群上。

#### 12.2.1.1. NameNode

NameNode的日志在NameNode server上。HBase Master 通常也运行在NameNode server上，ZooKeeper通常也是这样。

对于小一点的机器，JobTracker也通常运行在NameNode server上面。

#### 12.2.1.2. DataNode

每一台DataNode server有一个HDFS的日志，Region有一个HBase日志。

### 12.2.2. 日志级别

#### 12.2.2.1. 启用 RPC级别日志

Enabling the RPC-level logging on a RegionServer can often given insight on timings at the server. Once enabled, the amount of log spewed is voluminous. It is not recommended that you leave this logging on for more than short bursts of time. To enable RPC-level logging, browse to the RegionServer UI and click on Log Level. Set the log level to DEBUG for the package org.apache.hadoop.ipc(Thats right, for hadoop.ipc, NOT, hbase.ipc). Then tail the RegionServers log. Analyze.

To disable, set the logging level back to INFO level.

### 12.2.3. JVM 垃圾收集日志

HBase is memory intensive, and using the default GC you can see long pauses in all threads including the Juliet Pause aka "GC of Death". To help debug this or confirm this is happening GC logging can be turned on in the Java virtual machine.

To enable, in hbase-env.sh add:


export HBASE_OPTS="-XX:+UseConcMarkSweepGC -verbose:gc -XX:+PrintGCDetails -XX:+PrintGCTimeStamps -Xloggc:/home/hadoop/hbase/logs/gc-hbase.log"


Adjust the log directory to wherever you log. Note: The GC log does NOT roll automatically, so you'll have to keep an eye on it so it doesn't fill up the disk.

At this point you should see logs like so:

64898.952: [GC [1 CMS-initial-mark: 2811538K(3055704K)] 2812179K(3061272K), 0.0007360 secs] [Times: user=0.00 sys=0.00, real=0.00 secs]
64898.953: [CMS-concurrent-mark-start]
64898.971: [GC 64898.971: [ParNew: 5567K->576K(5568K), 0.0101110 secs] 2817105K->2812715K(3061272K), 0.0102200 secs] [Times: user=0.07 sys=0.00, real=0.01 secs]


In this section, the first line indicates a 0.0007360 second pause for the CMS to initially mark. This pauses the entire VM, all threads for that period of time.

The third line indicates a "minor GC", which pauses the VM for 0.0101110 seconds - aka 10 milliseconds. It has reduced the "ParNew" from about 5.5m to 576k. Later on in this cycle we see:


64901.445: [CMS-concurrent-mark: 1.542/2.492 secs] [Times: user=10.49 sys=0.33, real=2.49 secs]
64901.445: [CMS-concurrent-preclean-start]
64901.453: [GC 64901.453: [ParNew: 5505K->573K(5568K), 0.0062440 secs] 2868746K->2864292K(3061272K), 0.0063360 secs] [Times: user=0.05 sys=0.00, real=0.01 secs]
64901.476: [GC 64901.476: [ParNew: 5563K->575K(5568K), 0.0072510 secs] 2869283K->2864837K(3061272K), 0.0073320 secs] [Times: user=0.05 sys=0.01, real=0.01 secs]
64901.500: [GC 64901.500: [ParNew: 5517K->573K(5568K), 0.0120390 secs] 2869780K->2865267K(3061272K), 0.0121150 secs] [Times: user=0.09 sys=0.00, real=0.01 secs]
64901.529: [GC 64901.529: [ParNew: 5507K->569K(5568K), 0.0086240 secs] 2870200K->2865742K(3061272K), 0.0087180 secs] [Times: user=0.05 sys=0.00, real=0.01 secs]
64901.554: [GC 64901.555: [ParNew: 5516K->575K(5568K), 0.0107130 secs] 2870689K->2866291K(3061272K), 0.0107820 secs] [Times: user=0.06 sys=0.00, real=0.01 secs]
64901.578: [CMS-concurrent-preclean: 0.070/0.133 secs] [Times: user=0.48 sys=0.01, real=0.14 secs]
64901.578: [CMS-concurrent-abortable-preclean-start]
64901.584: [GC 64901.584: [ParNew: 5504K->571K(5568K), 0.0087270 secs] 2871220K->2866830K(3061272K), 0.0088220 secs] [Times: user=0.05 sys=0.00, real=0.01 secs]
64901.609: [GC 64901.609: [ParNew: 5512K->569K(5568K), 0.0063370 secs] 2871771K->2867322K(3061272K), 0.0064230 secs] [Times: user=0.06 sys=0.00, real=0.01 secs]
64901.615: [CMS-concurrent-abortable-preclean: 0.007/0.037 secs] [Times: user=0.13 sys=0.00, real=0.03 secs]
64901.616: [GC[YG occupancy: 645 K (5568 K)]64901.616: [Rescan (parallel) , 0.0020210 secs]64901.618: [weak refs processing, 0.0027950 secs] [1 CMS-remark: 2866753K(3055704K)] 2867399K(3061272K), 0.0049380 secs] [Times: user=0.00 sys=0.01, real=0.01 secs]
64901.621: [CMS-concurrent-sweep-start]


The first line indicates that the CMS concurrent mark (finding garbage) has taken 2.4 seconds. But this is a _concurrent_ 2.4 seconds, Java has not been paused at any point in time.

There are a few more minor GCs, then there is a pause at the 2nd last line:


64901.616: [GC[YG occupancy: 645 K (5568 K)]64901.616: [Rescan (parallel) , 0.0020210 secs]64901.618: [weak refs processing, 0.0027950 secs] [1 CMS-remark: 2866753K(3055704K)] 2867399K(3061272K), 0.0049380 secs] [Times: user=0.00 sys=0.01, real=0.01 secs]


The pause here is 0.0049380 seconds (aka 4.9 milliseconds) to 'remark' the heap.

At this point the sweep starts, and you can watch the heap size go down:

64901.637: [GC 64901.637: [ParNew: 5501K->569K(5568K), 0.0097350 secs] 2871958K->2867441K(3061272K), 0.0098370 secs] [Times: user=0.05 sys=0.00, real=0.01 secs]
...  lines removed ...
64904.936: [GC 64904.936: [ParNew: 5532K->568K(5568K), 0.0070720 secs] 1365024K->1360689K(3061272K), 0.0071930 secs] [Times: user=0.05 sys=0.00, real=0.01 secs]
64904.953: [CMS-concurrent-sweep: 2.030/3.332 secs] [Times: user=9.57 sys=0.26, real=3.33 secs]


At this point, the CMS sweep took 3.332 seconds, and heap went from about ~ 2.8 GB to 1.3 GB (approximate).

The key points here is to keep all these pauses low. CMS pauses are always low, but if your ParNew starts growing, you can see minor GC pauses approach 100ms, exceed 100ms and hit as high at 400ms.

This can be due to the size of the ParNew, which should be relatively small. If your ParNew is very large after running HBase for a while, in one example a ParNew was about 150MB, then you might have to constrain the size of ParNew (The larger it is, the longer the collections take but if its too small, objects are promoted to old gen too quickly). In the below we constrain new gen size to 64m.


export HBASE_OPTS="-XX:NewSize=64m -XX:MaxNewSize=64m <cms options from above> <gc logging options from above>"


For more information on GC pauses, see the 3 part blog post by Todd Lipcon and Section 11.3.1.1, “Long GC pauses” above.

## 12.3. 资源

### 12.3.2. 邮件列表

Ask a question on the HBase mailing lists. The 'dev' mailing list is aimed at the community of developers actually building HBase and for features currently under development, and 'user' is generally used for questions on released versions of HBase. Before going to the mailing list, make sure your question has not already been answered by searching the mailing list archives first. Use Section 12.3.1, “search-hadoop.com”. Take some time crafting your question[31]; a quality question that includes all context and exhibits evidence the author has tried to find answers in the manual and out on lists is more likely to get a prompt response.

### 12.3.3. IRC

#hbase on irc.freenode.net

## 12.4. 工具

### 12.4.1. 内置工具

#### 12.4.1.1. 主服务器Web接口

主服务器启动了一个缺省端口是 60010的web接口。

The Master web UI lists created tables and their definition (e.g., ColumnFamilies, blocksize, etc.). Additionally, the available RegionServers in the cluster are listed along with selected high-level metrics (requests, number of regions, usedHeap, maxHeap). The Master web UI allows navigation to each RegionServer's web UI.

#### 12.4.1.2. 区域服务器Web接口

区域服务器启动了一个缺省端口是 60030的web接口。

The RegionServer web UI lists online regions and their start/end keys, as well as point-in-time RegionServer metrics (requests, regions, storeFileIndexSize, compactionQueueSize, etc.).

参考 Section 14.4, “HBase Metrics” 获取更多度量信息。

#### 12.4.1.3. zkcli

zkcli是一个研究 ZooKeeper相关问题的有用工具。调用：

./hbase zkcli -server host:port <cmd> <args>


命令 (和参数) ：

	connect host:port
get path [watch]
ls path [watch]
set path data [version]
delquota [-n|-b] path
quit
printwatches on|off
create [-s] [-e] path data acl
stat path [watch]
close
ls2 path [watch]
history
listquota path
setAcl path acl
getAcl path
sync path
redo cmdno
delete path [version]
setquota -n|-b val path


### 12.4.2.1 tail

tail是一个命令行工具，可以用来看日志的尾巴。加入的"-f"参数后，就会在数据更新的时候自己刷新。用它来看日志很方便。例如，一个机器需要花很多时间来启动或关闭，你可以tail他的master log(也可以是region server的log)。

### 12.4.2.2 top

top是一个很重要的工具来看你的机器各个进程的资源占用情况。下面是一个生产环境的例子：

top - 14:46:59 up 39 days, 11:55,  1 user,  load average: 3.75, 3.57, 3.84
Tasks: 309 total,   1 running, 308 sleeping,   0 stopped,   0 zombie
Cpu(s):  4.5%us,  1.6%sy,  0.0%ni, 91.7%id,  1.4%wa,  0.1%hi,  0.6%si,  0.0%st
Mem:  24414432k total, 24296956k used,   117476k free,     7196k buffers
Swap: 16008732k total,	14348k used, 15994384k free, 11106908k cached

PID USER  	PR  NI  VIRT  RES  SHR S %CPU %MEM	TIME+  COMMAND
15558 hadoop	18  -2 3292m 2.4g 3556 S   79 10.4   6523:52 java
13268 hadoop	18  -2 8967m 8.2g 4104 S   21 35.1   5170:30 java
8895 hadoop	18  -2 1581m 497m 3420 S   11  2.1   4002:32 java
…


默认情况下进程列表不是很有用，我们可以看到3个Java进程使用了111%的CPU。要想知道哪个进程是什么，可以输入"c"，每一行就会扩展信息。输入“1”可以显示CPU的每个核的具体状况。

### 12.4.2.3  jps

jps是JDK集成的一个工具，可以用来看当前用户的Java进程id。(如果是root,可以看到所有用户的id)，例如:

hadoop@sv4borg12:~$jps 1322 TaskTracker 17789 HRegionServer 27862 Child 1158 DataNode 25115 HQuorumPeer 2950 Jps 19750 ThriftServer 18776 jmx  按顺序看 • Hadoop TaskTracker,管理本地的Task • HBase RegionServer,提供region的服务 • Child, 一个 MapReduce task,无法看出详细类型 • Hadoop DataNode, 管理blocks • HQuorumPeer, ZooKeeper集群的成员 • Jps, 就是这个进程 • ThriftServer, 当thrif启动后，就会有这个进程 • jmx, 这个是本地监控平台的进程。你可以不用这个。 你可以看到这个进程启动是全部命令行信息。 hadoop@sv4borg12:~$ ps aux | grep HRegionServer


### 12.4.2.4  jstack

jstack 是一个最重要(除了看Log)的java工具，可以看到具体的Java进程的在做什么。可以先用Jps看到进程的Id,然后就可以用jstack。他会按线程的创建顺序显示线程的列表，还有这个线程在做什么。下面是例子：

这个主线程是一个RegionServer正在等master返回什么信息。

      "regionserver60020" prio=10 tid=0x0000000040ab4000 nid=0x45cf waiting on condition [0x00007f16b6a96000..0x00007f16b6a96a70]
at sun.misc.Unsafe.park(Native Method)
- parking to wait for  <0x00007f16cd5c2f30> (a java.util.concurrent.locks.AbstractQueuedSynchronizer$ConditionObject) at java.util.concurrent.locks.LockSupport.parkNanos(LockSupport.java:198) at java.util.concurrent.locks.AbstractQueuedSynchronizer$ConditionObject.awaitNanos(AbstractQueuedSynchronizer.java:1963)

The MemStore flusher thread that is currently flushing to a file:
"regionserver60020.cacheFlusher" daemon prio=10 tid=0x0000000040f4e000 nid=0x45eb in Object.wait() [0x00007f16b5b86000..0x00007f16b5b87af0]
at java.lang.Object.wait(Native Method)
at java.lang.Object.wait(Object.java:485)
- locked <0x00007f16cb14b3a8> (a org.apache.hadoop.ipc.Client$Call) at org.apache.hadoop.ipc.RPC$Invoker.invoke(RPC.java:221)
at $Proxy1.complete(Unknown Source) at sun.reflect.GeneratedMethodAccessor38.invoke(Unknown Source) at sun.reflect.DelegatingMethodAccessorImpl.invoke(DelegatingMethodAccessorImpl.java:25) at java.lang.reflect.Method.invoke(Method.java:597) at org.apache.hadoop.io.retry.RetryInvocationHandler.invokeMethod(RetryInvocationHandler.java:82) at org.apache.hadoop.io.retry.RetryInvocationHandler.invoke(RetryInvocationHandler.java:59) at$Proxy1.complete(Unknown Source)
at org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.DFSClient$DFSOutputStream.closeInternal(DFSClient.java:3390) - locked <0x00007f16cb14b470> (a org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.DFSClient$DFSOutputStream)
at org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.DFSClient$DFSOutputStream.close(DFSClient.java:3304) at org.apache.hadoop.fs.FSDataOutputStream$PositionCache.close(FSDataOutputStream.java:61)
at org.apache.hadoop.hbase.io.hfile.HFile$Writer.close(HFile.java:650) at org.apache.hadoop.hbase.regionserver.StoreFile$Writer.close(StoreFile.java:853)
- locked <0x00007f16d00e6f08> (a java.lang.Object)
at org.apache.hadoop.hbase.regionserver.Store.access$100(Store.java:80) at org.apache.hadoop.hbase.regionserver.Store$StoreFlusherImpl.flushCache(Store.java:1359)


一个处理线程是在等一些东西(例如put, delete, scan...):

"IPC Server handler 16 on 60020" daemon prio=10 tid=0x00007f16b011d800 nid=0x4a5e waiting on condition [0x00007f16afefd000..0x00007f16afefd9f0]
at sun.misc.Unsafe.park(Native Method)
- parking to wait for  <0x00007f16cd3f8dd8> (a java.util.concurrent.locks.AbstractQueuedSynchronizer$ConditionObject) at java.util.concurrent.locks.LockSupport.park(LockSupport.java:158) at java.util.concurrent.locks.AbstractQueuedSynchronizer$ConditionObject.await(AbstractQueuedSynchronizer.java:1925)
at org.apache.hadoop.hbase.ipc.HBaseServer$Handler.run(HBaseServer.java:1013)  有一个线程正在忙，在递增一个counter(这个阶段是正在创建一个scanner来读最新的值): "IPC Server handler 66 on 60020" daemon prio=10 tid=0x00007f16b006e800 nid=0x4a90 runnable [0x00007f16acb77000..0x00007f16acb77cf0] java.lang.Thread.State: RUNNABLE at org.apache.hadoop.hbase.regionserver.KeyValueHeap.<init>(KeyValueHeap.java:56) at org.apache.hadoop.hbase.regionserver.StoreScanner.<init>(StoreScanner.java:79) at org.apache.hadoop.hbase.regionserver.Store.getScanner(Store.java:1202) at org.apache.hadoop.hbase.regionserver.HRegion$RegionScanner.<init>(HRegion.java:2209)
at sun.reflect.GeneratedMethodAccessor20.invoke(Unknown Source)
at sun.reflect.DelegatingMethodAccessorImpl.invoke(DelegatingMethodAccessorImpl.java:25)
at java.lang.reflect.Method.invoke(Method.java:597)
at org.apache.hadoop.hbase.ipc.HBaseRPC$Server.call(HBaseRPC.java:560) at org.apache.hadoop.hbase.ipc.HBaseServer$Handler.run(HBaseServer.java:1027)

还有一个线程在从HDFS获取数据。

"IPC Client (47) connection to sv4borg9/10.4.24.40:9000 from hadoop" daemon prio=10 tid=0x00007f16a02d0000 nid=0x4fa3 runnable [0x00007f16b517d000..0x00007f16b517dbf0]
at sun.nio.ch.EPollArrayWrapper.epollWait(Native Method)
at sun.nio.ch.EPollArrayWrapper.poll(EPollArrayWrapper.java:215)
at sun.nio.ch.EPollSelectorImpl.doSelect(EPollSelectorImpl.java:65)
at sun.nio.ch.SelectorImpl.lockAndDoSelect(SelectorImpl.java:69)
- locked <0x00007f17d5b68c00> (a sun.nio.ch.Util$1) - locked <0x00007f17d5b68be8> (a java.util.Collections$UnmodifiableSet)
- locked <0x00007f1877959b50> (a sun.nio.ch.EPollSelectorImpl)
at sun.nio.ch.SelectorImpl.select(SelectorImpl.java:80)
at org.apache.hadoop.net.SocketIOWithTimeout$SelectorPool.select(SocketIOWithTimeout.java:332) at org.apache.hadoop.net.SocketIOWithTimeout.doIO(SocketIOWithTimeout.java:157) at org.apache.hadoop.net.SocketInputStream.read(SocketInputStream.java:155) at org.apache.hadoop.net.SocketInputStream.read(SocketInputStream.java:128) at java.io.FilterInputStream.read(FilterInputStream.java:116) at org.apache.hadoop.ipc.Client$Connection$PingInputStream.read(Client.java:304) at java.io.BufferedInputStream.fill(BufferedInputStream.java:218) at java.io.BufferedInputStream.read(BufferedInputStream.java:237) - locked <0x00007f1808539178> (a java.io.BufferedInputStream) at java.io.DataInputStream.readInt(DataInputStream.java:370) at org.apache.hadoop.ipc.Client$Connection.receiveResponse(Client.java:569)
at org.apache.hadoop.ipc.Client$Connection.run(Client.java:477)  这里是一个RegionServer死了，master正在试着恢复。 "LeaseChecker" daemon prio=10 tid=0x00000000407ef800 nid=0x76cd waiting on condition [0x00007f6d0eae2000..0x00007f6d0eae2a70] -- java.lang.Thread.State: WAITING (on object monitor) at java.lang.Object.wait(Native Method) at java.lang.Object.wait(Object.java:485) at org.apache.hadoop.ipc.Client.call(Client.java:726) - locked <0x00007f6d1cd28f80> (a org.apache.hadoop.ipc.Client$Call)
at org.apache.hadoop.ipc.RPC$Invoker.invoke(RPC.java:220) at$Proxy1.recoverBlock(Unknown Source)
at org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.DFSClient$DFSOutputStream.processDatanodeError(DFSClient.java:2636) at org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.DFSClient$DFSOutputStream.<init>(DFSClient.java:2832)


### 12.4.2.5  OpenTSDB

OpenTSDB是一个Ganglia的很好的替代品，因为他使用HBase来存储所有的时序而不需要采样。使用OpenTSDB来监控你的HBase是一个很好的实践

这里有一个例子，集群正在同时进行上百个紧缩，严重影响了IO性能。(TODO: 在这里插入compactionQueueSize的图片)

给集群构建一个图表监控是一个很好的实践。包括集群和每台机器。这样就可以快速定位到问题。例如，在StumbleUpon，每个机器有一个图表监控，包括OS和HBase，涵盖所有的重要的信息。你也可以登录到机器上，获取更多的信息。

## 12.5. 客户端

HBase 客户端的更多信息， 参考 Section 9.3, “Client”.

### 12.5.1. ScannerTimeoutException 或 UnknownScannerException

当从客户端到RegionServer的RPC请求超时。例如如果Scan.setCacheing的值设置为500，RPC请求就要去获取500行的数据，每500次.next()操作获取一次。因为数据是以大块的形式传到客户端的，就可能造成超时。将这个 serCacheing的值调小是一个解决办法，但是这个值要是设的太小就会影响性能。

### 12.5.2. 普通操作时，Shell 或客户端应用抛出很多不太重要的异常

Since 0.20.0 the default log level for org.apache.hadoop.hbase.*is DEBUG.

On your clients, edit $HBASE_HOME/conf/log4j.properties and change this: log4j.logger.org.apache.hadoop.hbase=DEBUG to this: log4j.logger.org.apache.hadoop.hbase=INFO, or evenlog4j.logger.org.apache.hadoop.hbase=WARN. ### 12.5.3. 压缩时客户端长时暂停 这是一个在HBase区列表中经常被问的问题。场景一般是客户端正在插入大量数据到相对未优化的HBase集群中时发生。压缩正好加重暂停，尽管这不是问题源头。 参考 Section 11.7.2, “ Table Creation: Pre-Creating Regions ” ，关于预先创建区域的模式部分，并确认表没有在单个区域中启动。 参考 Section 11.4, “HBase Configurations” 获取集群配置相关信息, 特别是 hbase.hstore.blockingStoreFileshbase.hregion.memstore.block.multiplierMAX_FILESIZE (region size), 和 MEMSTORE_FLUSHSIZE. A slightly longer explanation of why pauses can happen is as follows: Puts are sometimes blocked on the MemStores which are blocked by the flusher thread which is blocked because there are too many files to compact because the compactor is given too many small files to compact and has to compact the same data repeatedly. This situation can occur even with minor compactions. Compounding this situation, HBase doesn't compress data in memory. Thus, the 64MB that lives in the MemStore could become a 6MB file after compression - which results in a smaller StoreFile. The upside is that more data is packed into the same region, but performance is achieved by being able to write larger files - which is why HBase waits until the flushize before writing a new StoreFile. And smaller StoreFiles become targets for compaction. Without compression the files are much bigger and don't need as much compaction, however this is at the expense of I/O. For additional information, see this thread on Long client pauses with compression. ### 12.5.4. ZooKeeper 客户端连接错误 错误类似于... 11/07/05 11:26:41 WARN zookeeper.ClientCnxn: Session 0x0 for server null, unexpected error, closing socket connection and attempting reconnect java.net.ConnectException: Connection refused: no further information at sun.nio.ch.SocketChannelImpl.checkConnect(Native Method) at sun.nio.ch.SocketChannelImpl.finishConnect(Unknown Source) at org.apache.zookeeper.ClientCnxn$SendThread.run(ClientCnxn.java:1078)
11/07/05 11:26:43 INFO zookeeper.ClientCnxn: Opening socket connection to
server localhost/127.0.0.1:2181
11/07/05 11:26:44 WARN zookeeper.ClientCnxn: Session 0x0 for server null,
unexpected error, closing socket connection and attempting reconnect
java.net.ConnectException: Connection refused: no further information
at sun.nio.ch.SocketChannelImpl.checkConnect(Native Method)
at sun.nio.ch.SocketChannelImpl.finishConnect(Unknown Source)
at org.apache.zookeeper.ClientCnxn$SendThread.run(ClientCnxn.java:1078) 11/07/05 11:26:45 INFO zookeeper.ClientCnxn: Opening socket connection to server localhost/127.0.0.1:2181  ... 要么是 ZooKeeper 不在了，或网络不可达问题。 工具 Section 12.4.1.3, “zkcli” 可以帮助调查 ZooKeeper 问题。 ### 12.5.5. 客户端内存耗尽，但堆大小看起来不太变化( off-heap/direct heap 在增长) You are likely running into the issue that is described and worked through in the mail thread HBase, mail # user - Suspected memory leak and continued over in HBase, mail # dev - FeedbackRe: Suspected memory leak. A workaround is passing your client-side JVM a reasonable value for -XX:MaxDirectMemorySize. By default, the MaxDirectMemorySize is equal to your -Xmx max heapsize setting (if -Xmx is set). Try seting it to something smaller (for example, one user had success setting it to 1g when they had a client-side heap of 12g). If you set it too small, it will bring on FullGCs so keep it a bit hefty. You want to make this setting client-side only especially if you are running the new experiemental server-side off-heap cache since this feature depends on being able to use big direct buffers (You may have to keep separate client-side and server-side config dirs). ### 12.5.6. 客户端变慢，在调用管理方法(flush, compact, 等)时发生 该客户端问题在 HBASE-5073 版本 0.90.6中修订。 客户端的ZooKeeper 内存泄露，而客户端被管理API的额外调用产生的ZooKeeper事件连续调用。 ### 12.5.7. 安全客户端不能连接 ([由 GSSException 引起: No valid credentials provided (Mechanism level: Failed to find any Kerberos tgt)]) There can be several causes that produce this symptom. First, check that you have a valid Kerberos ticket. One is required in order to set up communication with a secure Apache HBase cluster. Examine the ticket currently in the credential cache, if any, by running the klist command line utility. If no ticket is listed, you must obtain a ticket by running the kinit command with either a keytab specified, or by interactively entering a password for the desired principal. Then, consult the Java Security Guide troubleshooting section. The most common problem addressed there is resolved by setting javax.security.auth.useSubjectCredsOnly system property value to false. Because of a change in the format in which MIT Kerberos writes its credentials cache, there is a bug in the Oracle JDK 6 Update 26 and earlier that causes Java to be unable to read the Kerberos credentials cache created by versions of MIT Kerberos 1.8.1 or higher. If you have this problematic combination of components in your environment, to work around this problem, first log in with kinit and then immediately refresh the credential cache with kinit -R. The refresh will rewrite the credential cache without the problematic formatting. Finally, depending on your Kerberos configuration, you may need to install the Java Cryptography Extension, or JCE. Insure the JCE jars are on the classpath on both server and client systems. You may also need to download the unlimited strength JCE policy files. Uncompress and extract the downloaded file, and install the policy jars into <java-home>/lib/security. ## 12.6. MapReduce ### 12.6.1. 你认为自己在用集群, 实际上你在用本地(Local) 如下的调用栈在使用 ImportTsv时发生，但同样的事可以在错误配置的任何任务中发生。  WARN mapred.LocalJobRunner: job_local_0001 java.lang.IllegalArgumentException: Can't read partitions file at org.apache.hadoop.hbase.mapreduce.hadoopbackport.TotalOrderPartitioner.setConf(TotalOrderPartitioner.java:111) at org.apache.hadoop.util.ReflectionUtils.setConf(ReflectionUtils.java:62) at org.apache.hadoop.util.ReflectionUtils.newInstance(ReflectionUtils.java:117) at org.apache.hadoop.mapred.MapTask$NewOutputCollector.<init>(MapTask.java:560)
at org.apache.hadoop.mapred.LocalJobRunner$Job.run(LocalJobRunner.java:210) Caused by: java.io.FileNotFoundException: File _partition.lst does not exist. at org.apache.hadoop.fs.RawLocalFileSystem.getFileStatus(RawLocalFileSystem.java:383) at org.apache.hadoop.fs.FilterFileSystem.getFileStatus(FilterFileSystem.java:251) at org.apache.hadoop.fs.FileSystem.getLength(FileSystem.java:776) at org.apache.hadoop.io.SequenceFile$Reader.<init>(SequenceFile.java:1424)
at org.apache.hadoop.io.SequenceFile$Reader.<init>(SequenceFile.java:1419) at org.apache.hadoop.hbase.mapreduce.hadoopbackport.TotalOrderPartitioner.readPartitions(TotalOrderPartitioner.java:296)  .. 看到调用栈的关键部分了吗？就是...  at org.apache.hadoop.mapred.LocalJobRunner$Job.run(LocalJobRunner.java:210)


LocalJobRunner 意思就是任务跑在本地，不在集群。

## 12.7. NameNode

NameNode 更多信息, 参考 Section 9.9, “HDFS”.

### 12.7.1. 表和区域的HDFS 工具

要确定HBase 用了HDFS多大空间，可在NameNode使用 hadoop shell命令，例如...

hadoop fs -dus /hbase/

...返回全部HBase对象磁盘占用的情况。

hadoop fs -dus /hbase/myTable

...返回HBase表'myTable'磁盘占用的情况。

hadoop fs -du /hbase/myTable

...返回HBase的'myTable'表的各区域列表的磁盘占用情况。

更多关于 HDFS shell 命令的信息，参考 HDFS 文件系统 Shell 文档.

### 12.7.2. 浏览 HDFS ，查看 HBase 对象

有时需要浏览HDFS上的 HBase对象 。对象包括WALs (Write Ahead Logs), 表，区域，存储文件等。最简易的方法是在NameNode web应用中查看，端口 50070。NameNode web 应用提供到集群中所有 DataNode 的链接，可以无缝浏览。

存储在HDFS集群中的HBase表的目录结构是...

/hbase
/<Table>             (Tables in the cluster)
/<Region>           (Regions for the table)
/<ColumnFamiy>      (ColumnFamilies for the Region for the table)
/<StoreFile>        (StoreFiles for the ColumnFamily for the Regions for the table)


HDFS 中的HBase WAL目录结构是..

/hbase
/.logs
/<RegionServer>    (RegionServers)
/<HLog>           (WAL HLog files for the RegionServer)


参考HDFS User Guide 获取其他非Shell诊断工具如fsck.

#### 12.7.2.1. 用例

查询HDFS，获取HBase对象的两个通常用例是研究未紧缩表的程度。如果每个列族有大量存储文件(StoreFile)，这表示需要主紧缩。另外，在主紧缩之后，如果存储文件的比较小，意味着表的列族要减少。

## 12.8. 网络

### 12.8.1. 网络峰值(Network Spikes)

如果看到周期性网络峰值，你可能需要检查compactionQueues，是不是主紧缩正在进行。

参考 Section 2.8.2.8, “Managed Compactions” ，获取更多管理紧缩的信息。

### 12.8.2. 回环IP(Loopback IP)

HBase 希望回环 IP 地址是 127.0.0.1. 参考开始章节 Section 2.2.3, “Loopback IP”.

### 12.8.3. 网络接口

所有网络接口是否正常？你确定吗？参考故障诊断用例研究 Section 12.14, “Case Studies”.

## 12.9. 区域服务器

RegionServer 的更多信息，参考 Section 9.6, “RegionServer”.

### 12.9.1. 启动错误

#### 12.9.1.1. 主服务器启动了，但区域服务器没有启动

主服务器相信区域服务器有IP地址127.0.0.1 - 这是 localhost 并被解析到主服务器自己的localhost.

区域服务器错误的通知主服务器他们的IP地址是127.0.0.1.

修改区域服务器的 /etc/hosts 从...

# Do not remove the following line, or various programs
# that require network functionality will fail.
127.0.0.1               fully.qualified.regionservername regionservername  localhost.localdomain localhost
::1             localhost6.localdomain6 localhost6


... 改到 (将主名称从localhost中移掉)...

# Do not remove the following line, or various programs
# that require network functionality will fail.
127.0.0.1               localhost.localdomain localhost
::1             localhost6.localdomain6 localhost6


因为LZO压缩算法需要在集群中的每台机器都要安装，这是一个启动失败的常见错误。如果你获得了如下信息

11/02/20 01:32:15 ERROR lzo.GPLNativeCodeLoader: Could not load native gpl library


就意味着你的压缩库出现了问题。参见配置章节的 LZO compression configuration.

### 12.9.2. 运行时错误

#### 12.9.2.1. RegionServer Hanging

Are you running an old JVM (< 1.6.0_u21?)? When you look at a thread dump, does it look like threads are BLOCKED but no one holds the lock all are blocked on? 参考 HBASE 3622 Deadlock in HBaseServer (JVM bug?). Adding -XX:+UseMembar to the HBase HBASE_OPTS in conf/hbase-env.sh may fix it.

Also, are you using Section 9.3.4, “RowLocks”? These are discouraged because they can lock up the RegionServers if not managed properly.

#### 12.9.2.2. java.io.IOException...打开太多文件(Too many open files)

如果看到如下消息...

2010-09-13 01:24:17,336 WARN org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.server.datanode.DataNode:
Disk-related IOException in BlockReceiver constructor. Cause is java.io.IOException: Too many open files
at java.io.UnixFileSystem.createFileExclusively(Native Method)
at java.io.File.createNewFile(File.java:883)


... 参见快速入门的章节 ulimit and nproc configuration.

#### 12.9.2.3. xceiverCount 258 exceeds the limit of concurrent xcievers 256

这个时常会出现在DataNode的日志中。

参见快速入门章节的 xceivers configuration.

#### 12.9.2.4. 系统不稳定,DataNode或者其他系统进程有 "java.lang.OutOfMemoryError: unable to create new native thread in exceptions"的错误

参见快速入门章节的 ulimit and nproc configuration.. 最新的Linux发行版缺省值是 1024 - 这对HBase实在太小了。

#### 12.9.2.5. DFS不稳定或者RegionServer租期超时

如果你收到了如下的消息:

2009-02-24 10:01:33,516 WARN org.apache.hadoop.hbase.util.Sleeper: We slept xxx ms, ten times longer than scheduled: 10000
2009-02-24 10:01:33,516 WARN org.apache.hadoop.hbase.util.Sleeper: We slept xxx ms, ten times longer than scheduled: 15000
2009-02-24 10:01:36,472 WARN org.apache.hadoop.hbase.regionserver.HRegionServer: unable to report to master for xxx milliseconds - retrying


... 或者看到了全GC压缩操作，你可能正在执行一个全GC。

#### 12.9.2.6. "No live nodes contain current block" and/or YouAreDeadException

这个错误有可能是OS的文件句柄溢出，也可能是网络故障导致节点无法访问。

参见快速入门章节 ulimit and nproc configuration，检查你的网络。

#### 12.9.2.7. ZooKeeper 会话超时事件

Master or RegionServers shutting down with messages like those in the logs:

WARN org.apache.zookeeper.ClientCnxn: Exception
closing session 0x278bd16a96000f to sun.nio.ch.SelectionKeyImpl@355811ec
java.io.IOException: TIMED OUT
at org.apache.zookeeper.ClientCnxn$SendThread.run(ClientCnxn.java:906) WARN org.apache.hadoop.hbase.util.Sleeper: We slept 79410ms, ten times longer than scheduled: 5000 INFO org.apache.zookeeper.ClientCnxn: Attempting connection to server hostname/IP:PORT INFO org.apache.zookeeper.ClientCnxn: Priming connection to java.nio.channels.SocketChannel[connected local=/IP:PORT remote=hostname/IP:PORT] INFO org.apache.zookeeper.ClientCnxn: Server connection successful WARN org.apache.zookeeper.ClientCnxn: Exception closing session 0x278bd16a96000d to sun.nio.ch.SelectionKeyImpl@3544d65e java.io.IOException: Session Expired at org.apache.zookeeper.ClientCnxn$SendThread.readConnectResult(ClientCnxn.java:589)
at org.apache.zookeeper.ClientCnxn$SendThread.doIO(ClientCnxn.java:709) at org.apache.zookeeper.ClientCnxn$SendThread.run(ClientCnxn.java:945)


The JVM is doing a long running garbage collecting which is pausing every threads (aka "stop the world"). Since the RegionServer's local ZooKeeper client cannot send heartbeats, the session times out. By design, we shut down any node that isn't able to contact the ZooKeeper ensemble after getting a timeout so that it stops serving data that may already be assigned elsewhere.

• Make sure you give plenty of RAM (in hbase-env.sh), the default of 1GB won't be able to sustain long running imports.
• Make sure you don't swap, the JVM never behaves well under swapping.
• Make sure you are not CPU starving the RegionServer thread. For example, if you are running a MapReduce job using 6 CPU-intensive tasks on a machine with 4 cores, you are probably starving the RegionServer enough to create longer garbage collection pauses.
• Increase the ZooKeeper session timeout

If you wish to increase the session timeout, add the following to your hbase-site.xml to increase the timeout from the default of 60 seconds to 120 seconds.

<property>
<name>zookeeper.session.timeout</name>
<value>1200000</value>
</property>
<property>
<name>hbase.zookeeper.property.tickTime</name>
<value>6000</value>
</property>


Be aware that setting a higher timeout means that the regions served by a failed RegionServer will take at least that amount of time to be transfered to another RegionServer. For a production system serving live requests, we would instead recommend setting it lower than 1 minute and over-provision your cluster in order the lower the memory load on each machines (hence having less garbage to collect per machine).

参考  Section 12.11.2, “ZooKeeper, The Cluster Canary” for other general information about ZooKeeper troubleshooting.

#### 12.9.2.8. 无服务区域异常(NotServingRegionException)

This exception is "normal" when found in the RegionServer logs at DEBUG level. This exception is returned back to the client and then the client goes back to .META. to find the new location of the moved region.

However, if the NotServingRegionException is logged ERROR, then the client ran out of retries and something probably wrong.

#### 12.9.2.9. 区域列示先是域名，然后IP

修复 DNS. HBase 0.92.x以前的版本，反向 DNS 需要和正向查询相同答案。 参考 HBASE 3431 RegionServer is not using the name given it by the master; double entry in master listing of servers 获取详细细节。

#### 12.9.2.10. 大量类似 '2011-01-10 12:40:48,407 INFO org.apache.hadoop.io.compress.CodecPool: Got brand-new compressor' 日志消息

没有采用本地压缩库版本。 参考 HBASE-1900 Put back native support when hadoop 0.21 is released。从hadoop的HBase库目录复制本地库或建立链接到正确位置，该消息将消失。

#### 12.9.2.11. Server handler X on 60020 caught: java.nio.channels.ClosedChannelException

If you see this type of message it means that the region server was trying to read/send data from/to a client but it already went away. Typical causes for this are if the client was killed (you see a storm of messages like this when a MapReduce job is killed or fails) or if the client receives a SocketTimeoutException. It's harmless, but you should consider digging in a bit more if you aren't doing something to trigger them.

## 12.10. Master

Master 更多信息, 参考 Section 9.5, “Master”.

### 12.10.1. 启动错误

#### 12.10.1.1. Master says that you need to run the hbase migrations script

Upon running that, the hbase migrations script says no files in root directory.

HBase expects the root directory to either not exist, or to have already been initialized by hbase running a previous time. If you create a new directory for HBase using Hadoop DFS, this error will occur. Make sure the HBase root directory does not currently exist or has been initialized by a previous run of HBase. Sure fire solution is to just use Hadoop dfs to delete the HBase root and let HBase create and initialize the directory itself.

## 12.11. ZooKeeper

### 12.11.1. 启动错误

#### 12.11.1.1. 找不到地址: xyz in list of ZooKeeper quorum servers

A ZooKeeper server wasn't able to start, throws that error. xyz is the name of your server.

This is a name lookup problem. HBase tries to start a ZooKeeper server on some machine but that machine isn't able to find itself in the hbase.zookeeper.quorumconfiguration.

Use the hostname presented in the error message instead of the value you used. If you have a DNS server, you can set hbase.zookeeper.dns.interface andhbase.zookeeper.dns.nameserver in hbase-site.xml to make sure it resolves to the correct FQDN.

### 12.11.2. ZooKeeper, The Cluster Canary

ZooKeeper is the cluster's "canary in the mineshaft". It'll be the first to notice issues if any so making sure its happy is the short-cut to a humming cluster.

参考  ZooKeeper Operating Environment Troubleshooting 页。 It has suggestions and tools for checking disk and networking performance; i.e. the operating environment your ZooKeeper and HBase are running in.

Additionally, the utility Section 12.4.1.3, “zkcli” may help investigate ZooKeeper issues.

## 12.12. Amazon EC2

### 12.12.1. ZooKeeper 在 Amazon EC2上看起来不工作？

HBase does not start when deployed as Amazon EC2 instances. Exceptions like the below appear in the Master and/or RegionServer logs:

  2009-10-19 11:52:27,030 INFO org.apache.zookeeper.ClientCnxn: Attempting
connection to server ec2-174-129-15-236.compute-1.amazonaws.com/10.244.9.171:2181
2009-10-19 11:52:27,032 WARN org.apache.zookeeper.ClientCnxn: Exception
closing session 0x0 to sun.nio.ch.SelectionKeyImpl@656dc861
java.net.ConnectException: Connection refused


Security group policy is blocking the ZooKeeper port on a public address. Use the internal EC2 host names when configuring the ZooKeeper quorum peer list.

### 12.12.2.  Amazon EC2 上不稳定？

关于 HBase 和Amazon EC2 的问题，经常在HBase 讨论列表上被问起。搜索旧线索，使用 Search Hadoop

### 12.12.3. 远程Java连接到EC2集群不工作

参考 Andrew回复，更新在用户列表：Remote Java client connection into EC2 instance.

## 12.13. HBase 和 Hadoop 版本问题

### 12.13.1. 当想在adoop-0.20.205.x (或 hadoop-1.0.x)运行 0.90.x 时报NoClassDefFoundError

HBase 0.90.x does not ship with hadoop-0.20.205.x, etc. To make it run, you need to replace the hadoop jars that HBase shipped with in its lib directory with those of the Hadoop you want to run HBase on. If even after replacing Hadoop jars you get the below exception:

sv4r6s38: Exception in thread "main" java.lang.NoClassDefFoundError: org/apache/commons/configuration/Configuration


you need to copy under hbase/lib, the commons-configuration-X.jar you find in your Hadoop's lib directory. That should fix the above complaint.

## 12.14. 用例研究

性能和故障诊断用例，参考 Chapter 13, Case Studies.

[31]参考获取答案

## 13.1. 概述

This chapter will describe a variety of performance and troubleshooting case studies that can provide a useful blueprint on diagnosing cluster issues.

For more information on Performance and Troubleshooting, see Chapter 11, Performance Tuning and Chapter 12, Troubleshooting and Debugging HBase.

## 13.2. 模式设计

### 13.2.1. 数据列表

The following is an exchange from the user dist-list regarding a fairly common question: how to handle per-user list data in HBase.

*** QUESTION ***

We're looking at how to store a large amount of (per-user) list data in HBase, and we were trying to figure out what kind of access pattern made the most sense. One option is store the majority of the data in a key, so we could have something like:

<FixedWidthUserName><FixedWidthValueId1>:"" (no value)

The other option we had was to do this entirely using:
<FixedWidthUserName><FixedWidthPageNum0>:<FixedWidthLength><FixedIdNextPageNum><ValueId1><ValueId2><ValueId3>...


where each row would contain multiple values. So in one case reading the first thirty values would be:

scan { STARTROW => 'FixedWidthUsername' LIMIT => 30}

And in the second case it would be
get 'FixedWidthUserName\x00\x00\x00\x00'


The general usage pattern would be to read only the first 30 values of these lists, with infrequent access reading deeper into the lists. Some users would have <= 30 total values in these lists, and some users would have millions (i.e. power-law distribution)

The single-value format seems like it would take up more space on HBase, but would offer some improved retrieval / pagination flexibility. Would there be any significant performance advantages to be able to paginate via gets vs paginating with scans?

My initial understanding was that doing a scan should be faster if our paging size is unknown (and caching is set appropriately), but that gets should be faster if we'll always need the same page size. I've ended up hearing different people tell me opposite things about performance. I assume the page sizes would be relatively consistent, so for most use cases we could guarantee that we only wanted one page of data in the fixed-page-length case. I would also assume that we would have infrequent updates, but may have inserts into the middle of these lists (meaning we'd need to update all subsequent rows).

Thanks for help / suggestions / follow-up questions.

If I understand you correctly, you're ultimately trying to store triples in the form "user, valueid, value", right? E.g., something like:

"user123, firstname, Paul",
"user234, lastname, Smith"


(But the usernames are fixed width, and the valueids are fixed width).

And, your access pattern is along the lines of: "for user X, list the next 30 values, starting with valueid Y". Is that right? And these values should be returned sorted by valueid?

The tl;dr version is that you should probably go with one row per user+value, and not build a complicated intra-row pagination scheme on your own unless you're really sure it is needed.

Your two options mirror a common question people have when designing HBase schemas: should I go "tall" or "wide"? Your first schema is "tall": each row represents one value for one user, and so there are many rows in the table for each user; the row key is user + valueid, and there would be (presumably) a single column qualifier that means "the value". This is great if you want to scan over rows in sorted order by row key (thus my question above, about whether these ids are sorted correctly). You can start a scan at any user+valueid, read the next 30, and be done. What you're giving up is the ability to have transactional guarantees around all the rows for one user, but it doesn't sound like you need that. Doing it this way is generally recommended (see here#schema.smackdown).

Your second option is "wide": you store a bunch of values in one row, using different qualifiers (where the qualifier is the valueid). The simple way to do that would be to just store ALL values for one user in a single row. I'm guessing you jumped to the "paginated" version because you're assuming that storing millions of columns in a single row would be bad for performance, which may or may not be true; as long as you're not trying to do too much in a single request, or do things like scanning over and returning all of the cells in the row, it shouldn't be fundamentally worse. The client has methods that allow you to get specific slices of columns.

Note that neither case fundamentally uses more disk space than the other; you're just "shifting" part of the identifying information for a value either to the left (into the row key, in option one) or to the right (into the column qualifiers in option 2). Under the covers, every key/value still stores the whole row key, and column family name. (If this is a bit confusing, take an hour and watch Lars George's excellent video about understanding HBase schema design: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_HLoH_PgrLk).

A manually paginated version has lots more complexities, as you note, like having to keep track of how many things are in each page, re-shuffling if new values are inserted, etc. That seems significantly more complex. It might have some slight speed advantages (or disadvantages!) at extremely high throughput, and the only way to really know that would be to try it out. If you don't have time to build it both ways and compare, my advice would be to start with the simplest option (one row per user+value). Start simple and iterate! :)

## 13.3. 性能/故障诊断

### 13.3.1. 用例 #1 (单节点性能问题)

#### 13.3.1.1.场景

Following a scheduled reboot, one data node began exhibiting unusual behavior. Routine MapReduce jobs run against HBase tables which regularly completed in five or six minutes began taking 30 or 40 minutes to finish. These jobs were consistently found to be waiting on map and reduce tasks assigned to the troubled data node (e.g., the slow map tasks all had the same Input Split). The situation came to a head during a distributed copy, when the copy was severely prolonged by the lagging node.

#### 13.3.1.2. 硬件

Datanodes:

• Two 12-core processors
• Six Enerprise SATA disks
• 24GB of RAM
• Two bonded gigabit NICs

Network:

• 10 Gigabit top-of-rack switches
• 20 Gigabit bonded interconnects between racks.

#### 13.3.1.3. 假设

##### 13.3.1.3.1. HBase "热点" 区域

We hypothesized that we were experiencing a familiar point of pain: a "hot spot" region in an HBase table, where uneven key-space distribution can funnel a huge number of requests to a single HBase region, bombarding the RegionServer process and cause slow response time. Examination of the HBase Master status page showed that the number of HBase requests to the troubled node was almost zero. Further, examination of the HBase logs showed that there were no region splits, compactions, or other region transitions in progress. This effectively ruled out a "hot spot" as the root cause of the observed slowness.

##### 13.3.1.3.2. HBase 分区具有非本地数据

Our next hypothesis was that one of the MapReduce tasks was requesting data from HBase that was not local to the datanode, thus forcing HDFS to request data blocks from other servers over the network. Examination of the datanode logs showed that there were very few blocks being requested over the network, indicating that the HBase region was correctly assigned, and that the majority of the necessary data was located on the node. This ruled out the possibility of non-local data causing a slowdown.

##### 13.3.1.3.3. Excessive I/O Wait Due To Swapping Or An Over-Worked Or Failing Hard Disk

After concluding that the Hadoop and HBase were not likely to be the culprits, we moved on to troubleshooting the datanode's hardware. Java, by design, will periodically scan its entire memory space to do garbage collection. If system memory is heavily overcommitted, the Linux kernel may enter a vicious cycle, using up all of its resources swapping Java heap back and forth from disk to RAM as Java tries to run garbage collection. Further, a failing hard disk will often retry reads and/or writes many times before giving up and returning an error. This can manifest as high iowait, as running processes wait for reads and writes to complete. Finally, a disk nearing the upper edge of its performance envelope will begin to cause iowait as it informs the kernel that it cannot accept any more data, and the kernel queues incoming data into the dirty write pool in memory. However, using vmstat(1) and free(1), we could see that no swap was being used, and the amount of disk IO was only a few kilobytes per second.

##### 13.3.1.3.4. Slowness Due To High Processor Usage

Next, we checked to see whether the system was performing slowly simply due to very high computational load. top(1) showed that the system load was higher than normal, but vmstat(1) and mpstat(1)showed that the amount of processor being used for actual computation was low.

##### 13.3.1.3.5. Network Saturation (The Winner)

Since neither the disks nor the processors were being utilized heavily, we moved on to the performance of the network interfaces. The datanode had two gigabit ethernet adapters, bonded to form an active-standby interface. ifconfig(8) showed some unusual anomalies, namely interface errors, overruns, framing errors. While not unheard of, these kinds of errors are exceedingly rare on modern hardware which is operating as it should:


$/sbin/ifconfig bond0 bond0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:00:00:00:00:00 inet addr:10.x.x.x Bcast:10.x.x.255 Mask:255.255.255.0 UP BROADCAST RUNNING MASTER MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1 RX packets:2990700159 errors:12 dropped:0 overruns:1 frame:6 <--- Look Here! Errors! TX packets:3443518196 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0 collisions:0 txqueuelen:0 RX bytes:2416328868676 (2.4 TB) TX bytes:3464991094001 (3.4 TB)  These errors immediately lead us to suspect that one or more of the ethernet interfaces might have negotiated the wrong line speed. This was confirmed both by running an ICMP ping from an external host and observing round-trip-time in excess of 700ms, and by running ethtool(8) on the members of the bond interface and discovering that the active interface was operating at 100Mbs/, full duplex. $ sudo ethtool eth0
Settings for eth0:
Supported ports: [ TP ]
100baseT/Half 100baseT/Full
1000baseT/Full
Supports auto-negotiation: Yes
100baseT/Half 100baseT/Full
1000baseT/Full
Speed: 100Mb/s                                     <--- Look Here!  Should say 1000Mb/s!
Duplex: Full
Port: Twisted Pair
Transceiver: internal
Auto-negotiation: on
MDI-X: Unknown
Supports Wake-on: umbg
Wake-on: g
Current message level: 0x00000003 (3)


In normal operation, the ICMP ping round trip time should be around 20ms, and the interface speed and duplex should read, "1000MB/s", and, "Full", respectively.

#### 13.3.1.4. 结论

After determining that the active ethernet adapter was at the incorrect speed, we used the ifenslave(8) command to make the standby interface the active interface, which yielded an immediate improvement in MapReduce performance, and a 10 times improvement in network throughput:

On the next trip to the datacenter, we determined that the line speed issue was ultimately caused by a bad network cable, which was replaced.

### 13.3.2. 用例 #2 (性能研究 2012)

Investigation results of a self-described "we're not sure what's wrong, but it seems slow" problem. http://gbif.blogspot.com/2012/03/hbase-performance-evaluation-continued.html

### 13.3.3. Case Study #3 (Performance Research 2010))

Investigation results of general cluster performance from 2010. Although this research is on an older version of the codebase, this writeup is still very useful in terms of approach.http://hstack.org/hbase-performance-testing/

### 13.3.4. Case Study #4 (xcievers Config)

Case study of configuring xceivers, and diagnosing errors from mis-configurations. http://www.larsgeorge.com/2012/03/hadoop-hbase-and-xceivers.html

## Chapter 14. HBase 运维管理

This chapter will cover operational tools and practices required of a running HBase cluster. The subject of operations is related to the topics of  Chapter 12, Troubleshooting and Debugging HBase, Chapter 11, Performance Tuning, and  Chapter 2, Configuration but is a distinct topic in itself.

## 14.1. HBase 工具和实用程序

这里我们给出HBase工具列表，可用于管理，分析，修复和调试。

### 14.1.1. 驱动

There is a Driver class that is executed by the HBase jar can be used to invoke frequently accessed utilities. For example,

HADOOP_CLASSPATH=${HBASE_HOME}/bin/hbase classpath${HADOOP_HOME}/bin/hadoop jar ${HBASE_HOME}/hbase-VERSION.jar  ... will return... An example program must be given as the first argument. Valid program names are: completebulkload: Complete a bulk data load. copytable: Export a table from local cluster to peer cluster export: Write table data to HDFS. import: Import data written by Export. importtsv: Import data in TSV format. rowcounter: Count rows in HBase table verifyrep: Compare the data from tables in two different clusters. WARNING: It doesn't work for incrementColumnValues'd cells since the timestamp is chan  ... for allowable program names. ### 14.1.2. HBase hbck #### An fsck for your HBase install To run hbck against your HBase cluster run $ ./bin/hbase hbck

At the end of the commands output it prints OK or INCONSISTENCY. If your cluster reports inconsistencies, pass -details to see more detail emitted. If inconsistencies, run hbck a few times because the inconsistency may be transient (e.g. cluster is starting up or a region is splitting). Passing -fix may correct the inconsistency (This latter is an experimental feature).

### 14.1.4. WAL 工具

#### 14.1.4.1. HLog tool

The main method on HLog offers manual split and dump facilities. Pass it WALs or the product of a split, the content of the recovered.edits. directory.

You can get a textual dump of a WAL file content by doing the following:

 $./bin/hbase org.apache.hadoop.hbase.regionserver.wal.HLog --dump hdfs://example.org:8020/hbase/.logs/example.org,60020,1283516293161/10.10.21.10%3A60020.1283973724012  The return code will be non-zero if issues with the file so you can test wholesomeness of file by redirecting STDOUT to /dev/null and testing the program return. Similarly you can force a split of a log file directory by doing: $ ./bin/hbase org.apache.hadoop.hbase.regionserver.wal.HLog --split hdfs://example.org:8020/hbase/.logs/example.org,60020,1283516293161/
##### 14.1.4.1.1. HLogPrettyPrinter

HLogPrettyPrinter is a tool with configurable options to print the contents of an HLog.

### 14.1.6. CopyTable

CopyTable is a utility that can copy part or of all of a table, either to the same cluster or another cluster. The usage is as follows:

$bin/hbase org.apache.hadoop.hbase.mapreduce.CopyTable [--starttime=X] [--endtime=Y] [--new.name=NEW] [--peer.adr=ADR] tablename  Options: • starttime Beginning of the time range. Without endtime means starttime to forever. • endtime End of the time range. Without endtime means starttime to forever. • versions Number of cell versions to copy. • new.name New table's name. • peer.adr Address of the peer cluster given in the format hbase.zookeeper.quorum:hbase.zookeeper.client.port:zookeeper.znode.parent • families Comma-separated list of ColumnFamilies to copy. • all.cells Also copy delete markers and uncollected deleted cells (advanced option). Args: • tablename Name of table to copy. Example of copying 'TestTable' to a cluster that uses replication for a 1 hour window: $ bin/hbase org.apache.hadoop.hbase.mapreduce.CopyTable
--starttime=1265875194289 --endtime=1265878794289
--peer.adr=server1,server2,server3:2181:/hbase TestTable

### Scanner Caching

Caching for the input Scan is configured via hbase.client.scanner.caching in the job configuration.

参考 Jonathan Hsieh's Online HBase Backups with CopyTable blog post for more on CopyTable.

### 14.1.7. 导出

导出实用工具可以将表的内容输出成HDFS的序列化文件，如下调用：



### 14.1.9. ImportTsv

ImportTsv is a utility that will load data in TSV format into HBase. It has two distinct usages: loading data from TSV format in HDFS into HBase via Puts, and preparing StoreFiles to be loaded via the completebulkload.

$bin/hbase org.apache.hadoop.hbase.mapreduce.ImportTsv -Dimporttsv.columns=a,b,c <tablename> <hdfs-inputdir>  To generate StoreFiles for bulk-loading: $ bin/hbase org.apache.hadoop.hbase.mapreduce.ImportTsv -Dimporttsv.columns=a,b,c -Dimporttsv.bulk.output=hdfs://storefile-outputdir <tablename> <hdfs-data-inputdir>


These generated StoreFiles can be loaded into HBase via Section 14.1.10, “CompleteBulkLoad”.

#### 14.1.9.1. ImportTsv 选项

Running ImportTsv with no arguments prints brief usage information:
Usage: importtsv -Dimporttsv.columns=a,b,c <tablename> <inputdir>

Imports the given input directory of TSV data into the specified table.

The column names of the TSV data must be specified using the -Dimporttsv.columns
option. This option takes the form of comma-separated column names, where each
column name is either a simple column family, or a columnfamily:qualifier. The special
column name HBASE_ROW_KEY is used to designate that this column should be used
as the row key for each imported record. You must specify exactly one column
to be the row key, and you must specify a column name for every column that exists in the
input data.

By default importtsv will load data directly into HBase. To instead generate
HFiles of data to prepare for a bulk data load, pass the option:
-Dimporttsv.bulk.output=/path/for/output
Note: if you do not use this option, then the target table must already exist in HBase

Other options that may be specified with -D include:
-Dimporttsv.skip.bad.lines=false - fail if encountering an invalid line
'-Dimporttsv.separator=|' - eg separate on pipes instead of tabs
-Dimporttsv.timestamp=currentTimeAsLong - use the specified timestamp for the import


#### 14.1.9.2. ImportTsv 示例

For example, assume that we are loading data into a table called 'datatsv' with a ColumnFamily called 'd' with two columns "c1" and "c2".

Assume that an input file exists as follows:

row1	c1	c2
row2	c1	c2
row3	c1	c2
row4	c1	c2
row5	c1	c2
row6	c1	c2
row7	c1	c2
row8	c1	c2
row9	c1	c2
row10	c1	c2


For ImportTsv to use this imput file, the command line needs to look like this:



.. 通过驱动..



For example:

$bin/hbase org.apache.hadoop.hbase.mapreduce.WALPlayer /backuplogdir oldTable1,oldTable2 newTable1,newTable2  ### 14.1.12. RowCounter RowCounter 实用工具可以统计表的行数。这是一个好工具，如果担心元数据可能存在不一致，可以用于确认HBase可以读取表的所有分块。 $ bin/hbase org.apache.hadoop.hbase.mapreduce.RowCounter <tablename> [<column1> <column2>...]


Note: caching for the input Scan is configured via hbase.client.scanner.caching in the job configuration.

## 14.2. 区域管理

### 14.2.1. 主紧缩

注意：主紧缩进行区域合并。更多关于紧缩的信息，参考 Section 9.7.5.5, “Compaction”

### 14.2.2. 合并

Merge is a utility that can merge adjoining regions in the same table (see org.apache.hadoop.hbase.util.Merge).

$bin/hbase org.apache.hbase.util.Merge <tablename> <region1> <region2>  If you feel you have too many regions and want to consolidate them, Merge is the utility you need. Merge must run be done when the cluster is down. 参考 the O'Reilly HBase Book for an example of usage. Additionally, there is a Ruby script attached to HBASE-1621 for region merging. ## 14.3. 节点管理 ### 14.3.1. 节点下线 你可以在HBase的特定的节点上运行下面的脚本来停止RegionServer: $ ./bin/hbase-daemon.sh stop regionserver

RegionServer会首先关闭所有的region然后把它自己关闭，在停止的过程中，RegionServer的会向Zookeeper报告说他已经过期了。master会发现RegionServer已经死了，会把它当作崩溃的server来处理。他会将region分配到其他的节点上去。

RegionServer下线有一个缺点就是其中的Region会有好一会离线。Regions是被按顺序关闭的。如果一个server上有很多region,从第一个region会被下线，到最后一个region被关闭，并且Master确认他已经死了，该region才可以上线，整个过程要花很长时间。在HBase 0.90.2中，我们加入了一个功能，可以让节点逐渐的摆脱他的负载，最后关闭。HBase 0.90.2加入了 graceful_stop.sh脚本，可以这样用，

$./bin/graceful_stop.sh Usage: graceful_stop.sh [--config &conf-dir>] [--restart] [--reload] [--thrift] [--rest] &hostname> thrift If we should stop/start thrift before/after the hbase stop/start rest If we should stop/start rest before/after the hbase stop/start restart If we should restart after graceful stop reload Move offloaded regions back on to the stopped server debug Move offloaded regions back on to the stopped server hostname Hostname of server we are to stop 要下线一台RegionServer可以这样做 $ ./bin/graceful_stop.sh HOSTNAME

这里的HOSTNAME是RegionServer的host you would decommission.

### On HOSTNAME

传递到graceful_stop.shHOSTNAME必须和hbase使用的hostname一致，hbase用它来区分RegionServers。可以用master的UI来检查RegionServers的id。通常是hostname,也可能是FQDN。不管HBase使用的哪一个，你可以将它传到 graceful_stop.sh脚本中去，目前他还不支持使用IP地址来推断hostname。所以使用IP就会发现server不在运行，也没有办法下线了。

graceful_stop.sh 脚本会一个一个将region从RegionServer中移除出去，以减少改RegionServer的负载。他会先移除一个region,然后再将这个region安置到一个新的地方，再移除下一个，直到全部移除。最后graceful_stop.sh脚本会让RegionServer stop.,Master会注意到RegionServer已经下线了，这个时候所有的region已经重新部署好。RegionServer就可以干干净净的结束，没有WAL日志需要分割。

hbase(main):001:0> balance_switch false
true
0 row(s) in 0.3590 seconds

上面是将balancer关掉，要想开启：

hbase(main):001:0> balance_switch true
false
0 row(s) in 0.3590 seconds

### 14.3.2. 依次重启

你还可以让这个脚本重启一个RegionServer,不改变上面的Region的位置。要想保留数据的位置，你可以依次重启(Rolling Restart),就像这样:

$for i in cat conf/regionservers|sort; do ./bin/graceful_stop.sh --restart --reload --debug$i; done &> /tmp/log.txt &


Tail /tmp/log.txt来看脚本的运行过程.上面的脚本只对RegionServer进行操作。要确认load balancer已经关掉。还需要在之前更新master。下面是一段依次重启的伪脚本,你可以借鉴它：

1. 确认你的版本，保证配置已经rsync到整个集群中。如果版本是0.90.2，需要打上HBASE-3744 和 HBASE-3756两个补丁。

2. 运行hbck确保你的集群是一致的

$./bin/hbase hbck 当发现不一致的时候，可以修复他。 3. 重启Master: $ ./bin/hbase-daemon.sh stop master; ./bin/hbase-daemon.sh start master

4. 关闭region balancer:

$echo "balance_switch false" | ./bin/hbase 5. 在每个RegionServer上运行graceful_stop.sh $ for i in cat conf/regionservers|sort; do ./bin/graceful_stop.sh --restart --reload --debug $i; done &> /tmp/log.txt &  如果你在RegionServer还开起来thrift和rest server。还需要加上--thrift or --rest 选项 (参见 graceful_stop.sh 脚本的用法). 6. 再次重启Master.这会把已经死亡的server列表清空，重新开启balancer. 7. 运行 hbck 保证集群是一直的 ## 14.4. HBase 度量 ### 14.4.1. 度量安装 参见 Metrics 可以获得一个enable Metrics emission的指导。 ### 14.4.2. 区域服务器度量 #### 14.4.2.1. hbase.regionserver.blockCacheCount 内存中的Block cache item数量。这个是存储文件(HFiles)的缓存中的数量。 #### 14.4.2.2. hbase.regionserver.blockCacheEvictedCount Number of blocks that had to be evicted from the block cache due to heap size constraints. #### 14.4.2.3. hbase.regionserver.blockCacheFree 内存中的Block cache memory 剩余 (单位 bytes). #### 14.4.2.4. hbase.regionserver.blockCacheHitCachingRatio Block cache hit caching ratio (0 to 100). The cache-hit ratio for reads configured to look in the cache (i.e., cacheBlocks=true). #### 14.4.2.5. hbase.regionserver.blockCacheHitCount Number of blocks of StoreFiles (HFiles) read from the cache. #### 14.4.2.6. hbase.regionserver.blockCacheHitRatio Block cache 命中率(0 到 100). Includes all read requests, although those with cacheBlocks=false will always read from disk and be counted as a "cache miss" #### 14.4.2.7. hbase.regionserver.blockCacheMissCount StoreFiles (HFiles)请求的未在缓存中的分块数量。 #### 14.4.2.8. hbase.regionserver.blockCacheSize 内存中的Block cache 大小 (单位 bytes). i.e., memory in use by the BlockCache #### 14.4.2.9. hbase.regionserver.compactionQueueSize compaction队列的大小. 这个值是需要进行compaction的region数目 #### 14.4.2.10. hbase.regionserver.flushQueueSize Number of enqueued regions in the MemStore awaiting flush. #### 14.4.2.11. hbase.regionserver.fsReadLatency_avg_time 文件系统延迟 (ms). 这个值是平均读HDFS的延迟时间 #### 14.4.2.12. hbase.regionserver.fsReadLatency_num_ops 文件系统读操作。 #### 14.4.2.13. hbase.regionserver.fsSyncLatency_avg_time 文件系统同步延迟(ms). Latency to sync the write-ahead log records to the filesystem. #### 14.4.2.14. hbase.regionserver.fsSyncLatency_num_ops Number of operations to sync the write-ahead log records to the filesystem. #### 14.4.2.15. hbase.regionserver.fsWriteLatency_avg_time 文件系统写延迟(ms). Total latency for all writers, including StoreFiles and write-head log. #### 14.4.2.16. hbase.regionserver.fsWriteLatency_num_ops Number of filesystem write operations, including StoreFiles and write-ahead log. #### 14.4.2.17. hbase.regionserver.memstoreSizeMB 所有的RegionServer的memstore大小 (MB) #### 14.4.2.18. hbase.regionserver.regions RegionServer服务的regions数量 #### 14.4.2.19. hbase.regionserver.requests 读写请求的全部数量。请求是指RegionServer的RPC数量，因此一次Get一个请求，但一个缓存设为1000的Scan也会在每次调用'next'时导致一个请求。一个批量load是一个Hfile一个请求。 #### 14.4.2.20. hbase.regionserver.storeFileIndexSizeMB 当前RegionServer的storefile索引的总大小(MB) #### 14.4.2.21. hbase.regionserver.stores RegionServer打开的stores数量。一个stores对应一个列族。例如，一个包含列族的表有3个region在这个RegionServer上，对应一个 列族就会有3个store. #### 14.4.2.22. hbase.regionserver.storeFiles RegionServer打开的存储文件(HFile)数量。这个值一定大于等于store的数量。 ## 14.5. HBase 监控 ### 14.5.1. 概述 下面的度量方法对每个区域服务器的宏观监控被证明是是最重要的，特别是在像 OpenTSDB这样的系统中。如果你的集群具有性能问题，你可能得参考本组信息。 HBase: • Requests • Compactions queue OS: • IO Wait • User CPU Java: • GC HBase度量的更多信息，参考 Section 14.4, “HBase Metrics”. ### 14.5.2. 查询太慢的日志 HBase查询太慢的日志由可分析的 JSON结构描述。客户端操作 (Gets, Puts, Deletes, 等)的属性， 要么运行太久，或产生输出太多。“运行太久”和“输出太多”的门限可配置，如后面所述。输出产生在主区域服务器日志中，以便和其他日志事件一起发现更多细节。它也前置区分标签(responseTooSlow)(responseTooLarge)(operationTooSlow)(operationTooLarge)，以便当用户只希望看到慢查询时，用grep过滤。 #### 14.5.2.1. 配置 有两个配置节可用于调整查询太慢日志的门限。 • hbase.ipc.warn.response.time 不被记录太慢日志的查询执行的最大毫秒数(millisecond) 。缺省10000, 即 10 秒。可设 -1 禁止通过时间长短记入日志。 • hbase.ipc.warn.response.size 不被记录日志的查询可返回的最大字节数。缺省 100 MB，可设为 -1 禁止通过大小记入日志。 #### 14.5.2.2. 度量 查询太慢日志暴露给了JMX 度量。 • hadoop.regionserver_rpc_slowResponse 是一个全局度量，反射所有超时记入日志的响应。 • hadoop.regionserver_rpc_methodName.aboveOneSec 一个度量，反射所有超过一秒时间的响应。 #### 14.5.2.3. 输出 输出以操作做标签，如 (operationTooSlow) 。如果调用是客户端操作，如 Put, Get, 或 Delete，会暴露详细指纹信息。否则，标签为 (responseTooSlow) ，也同样提供可分析的JSON 输出，但具有较少细节信息，完全依赖于RPC自身的超时和超量设置。 TooLarge 代替 TooSlow 如果响应大小引起日志记录。在大小和时长都引起日志记录时，也是 TooLarge 后置。 #### 14.5.2.4. 示例 2011-09-08 10:01:25,824 WARN org.apache.hadoop.ipc.HBaseServer: (operationTooSlow): {"tables":{"riley2":{"puts":[{"totalColumns":11,"families":{"actions":[{"timestamp":1315501284459,"qualifier":"0","vlen":9667580},{"timestamp":1315501284459,"qualifier":"1","vlen":10122412},{"timestamp":1315501284459,"qualifier":"2","vlen":11104617},{"timestamp":1315501284459,"qualifier":"3","vlen":13430635}]},"row":"cfcd208495d565ef66e7dff9f98764da:0"}],"families":["actions"]}},"processingtimems":956,"client":"10.47.34.63:33623","starttimems":1315501284456,"queuetimems":0,"totalPuts":1,"class":"HRegionServer","responsesize":0,"method":"multiPut"} 注意，在"tables"结构里的所有东西，是MultiPut的指纹打印的输出。其余的信息是RPC相关的，如处理时间和客户端IP/port。 客户端的其他操作的模式和通用结构与此相同，但根据单个操作的类型会有一定的不同。如果调用不是客户端操作，则指纹细节信息将完全没有。 对本示例而言，指出了缓慢的原因可能是简单的超大 ( 100MB) multiput，通过 "vlen" 即 value length告知，multiPut中的每个put的域有该信息。 ## 14.6. 集群复制 参见 集群复制. ## 14.7. HBase 备份 有两种通常策略进行 HBase 备份：停止整个集群再备份，和在正在使用的集群上备份。 每一种途径都有优缺点。 更多信息，参考Sematext的Blog HBase Backup Options. ### 14.7.1. 全停止备份 一些环境可以容忍暂时停止 HBase 集群，如用于后台容量分析，并不提供前台页面。 好处是 NameNode/Master 和 RegionServers是停止的， 不会有任何机会丢失正在处理改变的保存文件或元数据。明显的坏处是集群被 关闭。步骤包括： #### 14.7.1.1. 停止 HBase #### 14.7.1.2. Distcp Distcp 既用于将HDFS里面的HBase 目录下的内容拷贝到当前集群的另一个目录，也可以拷贝到另一个集群。 注意： Distcp 工作的情形是集群关闭，没有正在改变的文件。Distcp 不推荐用于正工作着的集群。 #### 14.7.1.3. 恢复 (如有必要) 通过distcp，从 HDFS备份的数据被拷贝到 '真实' 的hbase 目录。 复制动作产生新的 HDFS 元数据， 所以并不需要从备份的NameNode 元数据恢复, 因为是通过distcp从一个特定的 HDFS 目录 (如, HBase 部分)复制， 不是整个HDFS 文件系统。 ### 14.7.2. 工作集群备份 - Replication 这种方法假设有另一个集群。参考HBase的 replication 。 ### 14.7.3. 工作集群备份 - CopyTable 14.1.6节, “CopyTable” 工具，即可用于将一个表复制到同集群的另一个表，也可将表复制到另一个集群的另一个表。 由于集群在工作，有丢失正在改变的数据的风险。 ### 14.7.4. 工作集群备份 - Export 14.1.7节, “Export” 是一种将 HDFS 内容导出到同一集群的方法。 恢复数据， 14.1.8节, “Import” 工具可以使用。 由于集群在工作，有丢失正在改变的数据的风险。 ## 14.8. 容量计划 ### 14.8.1.存储 一个常见问题是HBase管理员需要估算一个HBase集群要用多大存储量。可以通过几个方面去考虑，最重要的是集群要加载什么数据。 开始于对HBase内部处理数据(KeyValue)的可靠了解。 #### 14.8.1.1. KeyValue HBase storage will be dominated by KeyValues. 参考 Section 9.7.5.4, “KeyValue” and Section 6.3.2, “Try to minimize row and column sizes” for how HBase stores data internally. It is critical to understand that there is a KeyValue instance for every attribute stored in a row, and the rowkey-length, ColumnFamily name-length and attribute lengths will drive the size of the database more than any other factor. #### 14.8.1.2. StoreFiles and Blocks KeyValue instances are aggregated into blocks, and the blocksize is configurable on a per-ColumnFamily basis. Blocks are aggregated into StoreFile's. 参考 Section 9.7, “Regions”. #### 14.8.1.3. HDFS Block Replication Because HBase runs on top of HDFS, factor in HDFS block replication into storage calculations. ### 14.8.2. 区域 Another common question for HBase administrators is determining the right number of regions per RegionServer. This affects both storage and hardware planning. 参考 Section 11.4.1, “Number of Regions”. ## 15.2. IDEs ### 15.2.1. Eclipse #### 15.2.1.1. Code Formatting 参考 HBASE-3678 Add Eclipse-based Apache Formatter to HBase Wiki for an Eclipse formatter to help ensure your code conforms to HBase'y coding convention. The issue includes instructions for loading the attached formatter. In addition to the automatic formatting, make sure you follow the style guidelines explained in Section 15.10.5, “Common Patch Feedback” Also, no @author tags - that's a rule. Quality Javadoc comments are appreciated. And include the Apache license. #### 15.2.1.2. Subversive Plugin Download and install the Subversive plugin. Set up an SVN Repository target from Section 15.1.1, “SVN”, then check out the code. #### 15.2.1.3. Git Plugin If you cloned the project via git, download and install the Git plugin (EGit). Attach to your local git repo (via the Git Repositories window) and you'll be able to see file revision history, generate patches, etc. #### 15.2.1.4. HBase Project Setup in Eclipse The easiest way is to use the m2eclipse plugin for Eclipse. Eclipse Indigo or newer has m2eclipse built-in, or it can be found here:http://www.eclipse.org/m2e/. M2Eclipse provides Maven integration for Eclipse - it even lets you use the direct Maven commands from within Eclipse to compile and test your project. To import the project, you merely need to go to File->Import...Maven->Existing Maven Projects and then point Eclipse at the HBase root directory; m2eclipse will automatically find all the hbase modules for you. If you install m2eclipse and import HBase in your workspace, you will have to fix your eclipse Build Path. Remove target folder, add target/generated-jamon and target/generated-sources/java folders. You may also remove from your Build Path the exclusions on the src/main/resources and src/test/resources to avoid error message in the console 'Failed to execute goal org.apache.maven.plugins:maven-antrun-plugin:1.6:run (default) on project hbase: 'An Ant BuildException has occured: Replace: source file .../target/classes/hbase-default.xml doesn't exist'. This will also reduce the eclipse build cycles and make your life easier when developing. #### 15.2.1.5. Import into eclipse with the command line For those not inclined to use m2eclipse, you can generate the Eclipse files from the command line. First, run (you should only have to do this once): mvn clean install -DskipTests and then close Eclipse and execute... mvn eclipse:eclipse ... from your local HBase project directory in your workspace to generate some new .project and .classpathfiles. Then reopen Eclipse, and import the .project file in the HBase directory to a workspace. #### 15.2.1.6. Maven Classpath Variable The M2_REPO classpath variable needs to be set up for the project. This needs to be set to your local Maven repository, which is usually ~/.m2/repository If this classpath variable is not configured, you will see compile errors in Eclipse like this... Description Resource Path Location Type The project cannot be built until build path errors are resolved hbase Unknown Java Problem Unbound classpath variable: 'M2_REPO/asm/asm/3.1/asm-3.1.jar' in project 'hbase' hbase Build path Build Path Problem Unbound classpath variable: 'M2_REPO/com/github/stephenc/high-scale-lib/high-scale-lib/1.1.1/high-scale-lib-1.1.1.jar' in project 'hbase' hbase Build path Build Path Problem Unbound classpath variable: 'M2_REPO/com/google/guava/guava/r09/guava-r09.jar' in project 'hbase' hbase Build path Build Path Problem Unbound classpath variable: 'M2_REPO/com/google/protobuf/protobuf-java/2.3.0/protobuf-java-2.3.0.jar' in project 'hbase' hbase Build path Build Path Problem Unbound classpath variable:  #### 15.2.1.7. Eclipse Known Issues Eclipse will currently complain about Bytes.java. It is not possible to turn these errors off.  Description Resource Path Location Type Access restriction: The method arrayBaseOffset(Class) from the type Unsafe is not accessible due to restriction on required library /System/Library/Java/JavaVirtualMachines/1.6.0.jdk/Contents/Classes/classes.jar Bytes.java /hbase/src/main/java/org/apache/hadoop/hbase/util line 1061 Java Problem Access restriction: The method arrayIndexScale(Class) from the type Unsafe is not accessible due to restriction on required library /System/Library/Java/JavaVirtualMachines/1.6.0.jdk/Contents/Classes/classes.jar Bytes.java /hbase/src/main/java/org/apache/hadoop/hbase/util line 1064 Java Problem Access restriction: The method getLong(Object, long) from the type Unsafe is not accessible due to restriction on required library /System/Library/Java/JavaVirtualMachines/1.6.0.jdk/Contents/Classes/classes.jar Bytes.java /hbase/src/main/java/org/apache/hadoop/hbase/util line 1111 Java Problem  #### 15.2.1.8. Eclipse - More Information For additional information on setting up Eclipse for HBase development on Windows, see Michael Morello's blog on the topic. ## 15.3. 创建HBase This section will be of interest only to those building HBase from source. ### 15.3.1. Building in snappy compression support Pass -Dsnappy to trigger the snappy maven profile for building snappy native libs into hbase. ### 15.3.2. Building the HBase tarball Do the following to build the HBase tarball. Passing the -Drelease will generate javadoc and run the RAT plugin to verify licenses on source. % MAVEN_OPTS="-Xmx2g" mvn clean site install assembly:single -Dmaven.test.skip -Prelease ### 15.3.3. Adding an HBase release to Apache's Maven Repository Follow the instructions at Publishing Maven Artifacts. The 'trick' to making it all work is answering the questions put to you by the mvn release plugin properly, making sure it is using the actual branch AND before doing the mvn release:perform step, VERY IMPORTANT, check and if necessary hand edit the release.properties file that was put under ${HBASE_HOME} by the previous step,release:perform. You need to edit it to make it point at right locations in SVN.

Use maven 3.0.x.

At the mvn release:perform step, before starting, if you are for example releasing hbase 0.92.0, you need to make sure the pom.xml version is 0.92.0-SNAPSHOT. This needs to be checked in. Since we do the maven release after actual release, I've been doing this checkin into a particular tag rather than into the actual release tag. So, say we released hbase 0.92.0 and now we want to do the release to the maven repository, in svn, the 0.92.0 release will be tagged 0.92.0. Making the maven release, copy the 0.92.0 tag to 0.92.0mvn. Check out this tag and change the version therein and commit.

Here is how I'd answer the questions at release:prepare time:

What is the release version for "HBase"? (org.apache.hbase:hbase) 0.92.0: :
What is SCM release tag or label for "HBase"? (org.apache.hbase:hbase) hbase-0.92.0: : 0.92.0mvnrelease
What is the new development version for "HBase"? (org.apache.hbase:hbase) 0.92.1-SNAPSHOT: :
[INFO] Transforming 'HBase'...

A strange issue I ran into was the one where the upload into the apache repository was being sprayed across multiple apache machines making it so I could not release. 参考 INFRA-4482 Why is my upload to mvn spread across multiple repositories?.

Here is my ~/.m2/settings.xml.

<settings xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/SETTINGS/1.0.0"
xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/SETTINGS/1.0.0
http://maven.apache.org/xsd/settings-1.0.0.xsd">
<servers>
<!- To publish a snapshot of some part of Maven -->
<server>
<id>apache.snapshots.https</id>
</server>
<!-- To publish a website using Maven -->
<!-- To stage a release of some part of Maven -->
<server>
<id>apache.releases.https</id>
</server>
</servers>
<profiles>
<profile>
<id>apache-release</id>
<properties>
<gpg.keyname>YOUR_KEYNAME</gpg.keyname>
<!--Keyname is something like this ... 00A5F21E... do gpg --list-keys to find it-->
</gpg.passphrase>
</properties>
</profile>
</profiles>
</settings>


When you run release:perform, pass -Papache-release else it will not 'sign' the artifacts it uploads.

If you see run into the below, its because you need to edit version in the pom.xml and add -SNAPSHOT to the version (and commit).

[INFO] Scanning for projects...
[INFO] Searching repository for plugin with prefix: 'release'.
[INFO] ------------------------------------------------------------------------
[INFO] Building HBase
[INFO] ------------------------------------------------------------------------
[INFO] [release:prepare {execution: default-cli}]
[INFO] ------------------------------------------------------------------------
[ERROR] BUILD FAILURE
[INFO] ------------------------------------------------------------------------
[INFO] You don't have a SNAPSHOT project in the reactor projects list.
[INFO] ------------------------------------------------------------------------
[INFO] ------------------------------------------------------------------------
[INFO] Total time: 3 seconds
[INFO] Finished at: Sat Mar 26 18:11:07 PDT 2011
[INFO] Final Memory: 35M/423M
[INFO] -----------------------------------------------------------------------

### 15.3.4. Build Gotchas

If you see Unable to find resource 'VM_global_library.vm', ignore it. Its not an error. It is officially ugly though.

## 15.4. 发布 hbase.apache.org 新版

Set up your apache credentials and the target site location locally in a place and form that maven can pick it up, in ~/.m2/settings.xml. See ??? for an example. Next, run the following:

$mvn -DskipTests -Papache-release site site:deploy You will be asked for your password. It can take a little time. Remember that it can take a few hours for your site changes to show up. ## 15.6. 测试 Developers, at a minimum, should familiarize themselves with the unit test detail; unit tests in HBase have a character not usually seen in other projects. ### 15.6.1. HBase 模块 As of 0.96, HBase is split into multiple modules which creates "interesting" rules for how and where tests are written. If you are writting code for hbase-server, see Section 15.6.2, “Unit Tests” for how to write your tests; these tests can spin up a minicluster and will need to be categorized. For any other module, for example hbase-common, the tests must be strict unit tests and just test the class under test - no use of the HBaseTestingUtility or minicluster is allowed (or even possible given the dependency tree). #### 15.6.1.1. 在其他模块中运行测试 If the module you are developing in has no other dependencies on other HBase modules, then you can cd into that module and just run: mvn test which will just run the tests IN THAT MODULE. If there are other dependencies on other modules, then you will have run the command from the ROOT HBASE DIRECTORY. This will run the tests in the other modules, unless you specify to skip the tests in that module. For instance, to skip the tests in the hbase-server module, you would run: mvn clean test -Dskip-server-tests from the top level directory to run all the tests in modules other than hbase-server. Note that you can specify to skip tests in multiple modules as well as just for a single module. For example, to skip the tests in hbase-server and hbase-common, you would run: mvn clean test -Dskip-server-tests -Dskip-common-tests Also, keep in mind that if you are running tests in the hbase-server module you will need to apply the maven profiles discussed in Section 15.6.2.4, “Running tests” to get the tests to run properly. ### 15.6.2. 单元测试 HBase unit tests are subdivided into three categories: small, medium and large, with corresponding JUnit categoriesSmallTestsMediumTestsLargeTests. JUnit categories are denoted using java annotations and look like this in your unit test code. ... @Category(SmallTests.class) public class TestHRegionInfo { @Test public void testCreateHRegionInfoName() throws Exception { // ... } ... @org.junit.Rule public org.apache.hadoop.hbase.ResourceCheckerJUnitRule cu = new org.apache.hadoop.hbase.ResourceCheckerJUnitRule(); } The above example shows how to mark a test as belonging to the small category. The @org.junit.Rule lines on the end are also necessary. Add them to each new unit test file. They are needed by the categorization process. HBase uses a patched maven surefire plugin and maven profiles to implement its unit test characterizations. #### 15.6.2.1. Small Tests Small tests are executed in a shared JVM. We put in this category all the tests that can be executed quickly in a shared JVM. The maximum execution time for a small test is 15 seconds, and small tests should not use a (mini)cluster. #### 15.6.2.2. Medium Tests Medium tests represent tests that must be executed before proposing a patch. They are designed to run in less than 30 minutes altogether, and are quite stable in their results. They are designed to last less than 50 seconds individually. They can use a cluster, and each of them is executed in a separate JVM. #### 15.6.2.3. Large Tests Large tests are everything else. They are typically integration-like tests, regression tests for specific bugs, timeout tests, performance tests. They are executed before a commit on the pre-integration machines. They can be run on the developer machine as well. #### 15.6.2.4. Running tests Below we describe how to run the HBase junit categories. ##### 15.6.2.4.1. Default: small and medium category tests Running mvn test will execute all small tests in a single JVM (no fork) and then medium tests in a separate JVM for each test instance. Medium tests are NOT executed if there is an error in a small test. Large tests are NOT executed. There is one report for small tests, and one report for medium tests if they are executed. To run small and medium tests with the security profile enabled, do mvn test -P security ##### 15.6.2.4.2. Running all tests Running mvn test -P runAllTests will execute small tests in a single JVM then medium and large tests in a separate JVM for each test. Medium and large tests are NOT executed if there is an error in a small test. Large tests are NOT executed if there is an error in a small or medium test. There is one report for small tests, and one report for medium and large tests if they are executed ##### 15.6.2.4.3. Running a single test or all tests in a package To run an individual test, e.g. MyTest, do mvn test -P localTests -Dtest=MyTest You can also pass multiple, individual tests as a comma-delimited list: mvn test -P localTests -Dtest=MyTest1,MyTest2,MyTest3 You can also pass a package, which will run all tests under the package: mvn test -P localTests -Dtest=org.apache.hadoop.hbase.client.* To run a single test with the security profile enabled: mvn test -P security,localTests -Dtest=TestGet The -P localTests will remove the JUnit category effect (without this specific profile, the categories are taken into account). It will actually use the official release of surefire and the old connector (The HBase build uses a patched version of the maven surefire plugin). Each junit tests is executed in a separate JVM (A fork per test class). There is no parallelization when localTestsprofile is set. You will see a new message at the end of the report: "[INFO] Tests are skipped". It's harmless. ##### 15.6.2.4.4. Other test invocation permutations Running mvn test -P runSmallTests will execute small tests only, in a single JVM. Running mvn test -P runMediumTests will execute medium tests in a single JVM. Running mvn test -P runLargeTests execute medium tests in a single JVM. ##### 15.6.2.4.5. hbasetests.sh It's also possible to use the script hbasetests.sh. This script runs the medium and large tests in parallel with two maven instances, and provides a single report. This script does not use the hbase version of surefire so no parallelization is being done other than the two maven instances the script sets up. It must be executed from the directory which contains the pom.xml. For example running ./dev-support/hbasetests.sh will execute small and medium tests. Running ./dev-support/hbasetests.sh runAllTests will execute all tests. Running ./dev-support/hbasetests.sh replayFailed will rerun the failed tests a second time, in a separate jvm and without parallelisation. #### 15.6.2.5. Writing Tests ##### 15.6.2.5.1. General rules • As much as possible, tests should be written as category small tests. • All tests must be written to support parallel execution on the same machine, hence they should not use shared resources as fixed ports or fixed file names. • Tests should not overlog. More than 100 lines/second makes the logs complex to read and use i/o that are hence not available for the other tests. • Tests can be written with HBaseTestingUtility. This class offers helper functions to create a temp directory and do the cleanup, or to start a cluster. Categories and execution time • All tests must be categorized, if not they could be skipped. • All tests should be written to be as fast as possible. • Small category tests should last less than 15 seconds, and must not have any side effect. • Medium category tests should last less than 50 seconds. • Large category tests should last less than 3 minutes. This should ensure a good parallelization for people using it, and ease the analysis when the test fails. ##### 15.6.2.5.2. Sleeps in tests Whenever possible, tests should not use Thread.sleep, but rather waiting for the real event they need. This is faster and clearer for the reader. Tests should not do a Thread.sleep without testing an ending condition. This allows understanding what the test is waiting for. Moreover, the test will work whatever the machine performance is. Sleep should be minimal to be as fast as possible. Waiting for a variable should be done in a 40ms sleep loop. Waiting for a socket operation should be done in a 200 ms sleep loop. ##### 15.6.2.5.3. Tests using a cluster Tests using a HRegion do not have to start a cluster: A region can use the local file system. Start/stopping a cluster cost around 10 seconds. They should not be started per test method but per test class. Started cluster must be shutdown using HBaseTestingUtility#shutdownMiniCluster, which cleans the directories. As most as possible, tests should use the default settings for the cluster. When they don't, they should document it. This will allow to share the cluster later. ## 15.7. Maven Build Commands All commands executed from the local HBase project directory. Note: use Maven 3 (Maven 2 may work but we suggest you use Maven 3). ### 15.7.1. Compile mvn compile  ### 15.7.2. Running all or individual Unit Tests 参考 the Section 15.6.2.4, “Running tests” section above in Section 15.6.2, “Unit Tests” ### 15.7.3. Building against various hadoop versions. As of 0.96, HBase supports building against hadoop versions: 1.0.3, 2.0.0-alpha and 3.0.0-SNAPSHOT. By default, we will build with Hadoop-1.0.3. To change the version to run with Hadoop-2.0.0-alpha, you would run: mvn -Dhadoop.profile=2.0 ... That is, designate build with hadoop.profile 2.0. Pass 2.0 for hadoop.profile to build against hadoop 2.0. Tests may not all pass as of this writing so you may need to pass -DskipTests unless you are inclined to fix the failing tests. Similarly, for 3.0, you would just replace the profile value. Note that Hadoop-3.0.0-SNAPSHOT does not currently have a deployed maven artificat - you will need to build and install your own in your local maven repository if you want to run against this profile. In earilier verions of HBase, you can build against older versions of hadoop, notably, Hadoop 0.22.x and 0.23.x. If you are running, for example HBase-0.94 and wanted to build against Hadoop 0.23.x, you would run with: mvn -Dhadoop.profile=22 ... ## 15.8. Getting Involved HBase gets better only when people contribute! As HBase is an Apache Software Foundation project, see Appendix H, HBase and the Apache Software Foundation for more information about how the ASF functions. ### 15.8.1. Mailing Lists Sign up for the dev-list and the user-list. 参考 the mailing lists page. Posing questions - and helping to answer other people's questions - is encouraged! There are varying levels of experience on both lists so patience and politeness are encouraged (and please stay on topic.) ### 15.8.2. Jira Check for existing issues in Jira. If it's either a new feature request, enhancement, or a bug, file a ticket. #### 15.8.2.1. Jira Priorities The following is a guideline on setting Jira issue priorities: • Blocker: Should only be used if the issue WILL cause data loss or cluster instability reliably. • Critical: The issue described can cause data loss or cluster instability in some cases. • Major: Important but not tragic issues, like updates to the client API that will add a lot of much-needed functionality or significant bugs that need to be fixed but that don't cause data loss. • Minor: Useful enhancements and annoying but not damaging bugs. • Trivial: Useful enhancements but generally cosmetic. #### 15.8.2.2. Code Blocks in Jira Comments A commonly used macro in Jira is {code}. If you do this in a Jira comment... {code} code snippet {code}  ... Jira will format the code snippet like code, instead of a regular comment. It improves readability. ## 15.9. Developing ### 15.9.1. Codelines Most development is done on TRUNK. However, there are branches for minor releases (e.g., 0.90.1, 0.90.2, and 0.90.3 are on the 0.90 branch). If you have any questions on this just send an email to the dev dist-list. ### 15.9.2. Unit Tests In HBase we use JUnit 4. If you need to run miniclusters of HDFS, ZooKeeper, HBase, or MapReduce testing, be sure to checkout the HBaseTestingUtility. Alex Baranau of Sematext describes how it can be used in HBase Case-Study: Using HBaseTestingUtility for Local Testing and Development (2010). #### 15.9.2.1. Mockito Sometimes you don't need a full running server unit testing. For example, some methods can make do with a a org.apache.hadoop.hbase.Server instance or a org.apache.hadoop.hbase.master.MasterServicesInterface reference rather than a full-blown org.apache.hadoop.hbase.master.HMaster. In these cases, you maybe able to get away with a mocked Server instance. For example:  TODO...  ### 15.9.3. Code Standards Also, please pay attention to the interface stability/audience classifications that you will see all over our code base. They look like this at the head of the class: @InterfaceAudience.Public @InterfaceStability.Stable If the InterfaceAudience is Private, we can change the class (and we do not need to include a InterfaceStability mark). If a class is marked Public but its InterfaceStability is marked Unstable, we can change it. If it's marked Public/Evolving, we're allowed to change it but should try not to. If it's Public and Stable we can't change it without a deprecation path or with a really GREAT reason. When you add new classes, mark them with the annotations above if publically accessible. If you are not cleared on how to mark your additions, ask up on the dev list. This convention comes from our parent project Hadoop. ### 15.9.4. Running In-Situ If you are developing HBase, frequently it is useful to test your changes against a more-real cluster than what you find in unit tests. In this case, HBase can be run directly from the source in local-mode. All you need to do is run: ${HBASE_HOME}/bin/start-hbase.sh

This will spin up a full local-cluster, just as if you had packaged up HBase and installed it on your machine.

Keep in mind that you will need to have installed HBase into your local maven repository for the in-situ cluster to work properly. That is, you will need to run:

mvn clean install -DskipTests

to ensure that maven can find the correct classpath and dependencies. Generally, the above command is just a good thing to try running first, if maven is acting oddly.

## 15.10. Submitting Patches

### 15.10.1. Create Patch

Patch files can be easily generated from Eclipse, for example by selecting "Team -> Create Patch". Patches can also be created by git diff and svn diff.

Please submit one patch-file per Jira. For example, if multiple files are changed make sure the selected resource when generating the patch is a directory. Patch files can reflect changes in multiple files.

Make sure you review Section 15.2.1.1, “Code Formatting” for code style.

### 15.10.2. Patch File Naming

The patch file should have the HBase Jira ticket in the name. For example, if a patch was submitted for Foo.java, then a patch file called Foo_HBASE_XXXX.patch would be acceptable where XXXX is the HBase Jira number.

If you generating from a branch, then including the target branch in the filename is advised, e.g., HBASE-XXXX-0.90.patch.

### 15.10.3. Unit Tests

Yes, please. Please try to include unit tests with every code patch (and especially new classes and large changes). Make sure unit tests pass locally before submitting the patch.

Also, see Section 15.9.2.1, “Mockito”.

If you are creating a new unit test class, notice how other unit test classes have classification/sizing annotations at the top and a static method on the end. Be sure to include these in any new unit test files you generate. 参考 Section 15.5, “Tests” for more on how the annotations work.

### 15.10.4. Attach Patch to Jira

The patch should be attached to the associated Jira ticket "More Actions -> Attach Files". Make sure you click the ASF license inclusion, otherwise the patch can't be considered for inclusion.

Once attached to the ticket, click "Submit Patch" and the status of the ticket will change. Committers will review submitted patches for inclusion into the codebase. Please understand that not every patch may get committed, and that feedback will likely be provided on the patch. Fear not, though, because the HBase community is helpful!

### 15.10.5. Common Patch Feedback

The following items are representative of common patch feedback. Your patch process will go faster if these are taken into account before submission.

参考 the Java coding standards for more information on coding conventions in Java.

Rather than do this...

if ( foo.equals( bar ) ) {     // don't do this


if (foo.equals(bar)) {


Also, rather than do this...

foo = barArray[ i ];     // don't do this


foo = barArray[i];


#### 15.10.5.2. Auto Generated Code

Auto-generated code in Eclipse often looks like this...

 public void readFields(DataInput arg0) throws IOException {    // don't do this
foo = arg0.readUTF();                                       // don't do this


 public void readFields(DataInput di) throws IOException {


参考 the difference? 'arg0' is what Eclipse uses for arguments by default.

#### 15.10.5.3. Long Lines

Keep lines less than 100 characters.

Bar bar = foo.veryLongMethodWithManyArguments(argument1, argument2, argument3, argument4, argument5, argument6, argument7, argument8, argument9);  // don't do this


... do something like this instead ...

Bar bar = foo.veryLongMethodWithManyArguments(
argument1, argument2, argument3,argument4, argument5, argument6, argument7, argument8, argument9);


#### 15.10.5.4. Trailing Spaces

This happens more than people would imagine.

Bar bar = foo.getBar();     <--- imagine there's an extra space(s) after the semicolon instead of a line break.


Make sure there's a line-break after the end of your code, and also avoid lines that have nothing but whitespace.

#### 15.10.5.5. Implementing Writable

Every class returned by RegionServers must implement Writable. If you are creating a new class that needs to implement this interface, don't forget the default constructor.

This is also a very common feedback item. Don't forget Javadoc!

#### 15.10.5.7. Javadoc - Useless Defaults

Don't just leave the @param arguments the way your IDE generated them. Don't do this...

  /**
*
* @param bar             <---- don't do this!!!!
* @return                <---- or this!!!!
*/
public Foo getFoo(Bar bar);


... either add something descriptive to the @param and @return lines, or just remove them. But the preference is to add something descriptive and useful.

#### 15.10.5.8. One Thing At A Time, Folks

If you submit a patch for one thing, don't do auto-reformatting or unrelated reformatting of code on a completely different area of code.

Likewise, don't add unrelated cleanup or refactorings outside the scope of your Jira.

#### 15.10.5.9. Ambigious Unit Tests

Make sure that you're clear about what you are testing in your unit tests and why.

### 15.10.6. ReviewBoard

Larger patches should go through ReviewBoard.

For more information on how to use ReviewBoard, see the ReviewBoard documentation.

### 15.10.7. Committing Patches

Committers do this. 参考 How To Commit in the HBase wiki.

Commiters will also resolve the Jira, typically after the patch passes a build.

# 16. ZooKeeper

一个分布式运行的HBase依赖一个zookeeper集群。所有的节点和客户端都必须能够访问zookeeper。默认的情况下HBase会管理一个zookeep集群。这个集群会随着HBase的启动而启动。当然，你也可以自己管理一个zookeeper集群，但需要配置HBase。你需要修改conf/hbase-env.sh里面的HBASE_MANAGES_ZK 来切换。这个值默认是true的，作用是让HBase启动的时候同时也启动zookeeper.

当HBase管理zookeeper的时候，你可以通过修改zoo.cfg来配置zookeeper，一个更加简单的方法是在 conf/hbase-site.xml里面修改zookeeper的配置。Zookeep的配置是作为property写在 hbase-site.xml里面的。option的名字是 hbase.zookeeper.property. 打个比方， clientPort 配置在xml里面的名字是 hbase.zookeeper.property.clientPort. 所有的默认值都是HBase决定的，包括zookeeper, 参见 Section 2.3.1.1, “HBase 默认配置”. 可以查找 hbase.zookeeper.property 前缀，找到关于zookeeper的配置。 [33]

对于zookeepr的配置，你至少要在 hbase-site.xml中列出zookeepr的ensemble servers，具体的字段是 hbase.zookeeper.quorum. 该这个字段的默认值是 localhost，这个值对于分布式应用显然是不可以的. (远程连接无法使用).

### 我需要运行几个zookeeper?

举个例子，HBase管理着的ZooKeeper集群在节点 rs{1,2,3,4,5}.example.com, 监听2222 端口(默认是2181)，并确保conf/hbase-env.sh文件中 HBASE_MANAGE_ZK的值是 true ，再编辑 conf/hbase-site.xml 设置hbase.zookeeper.property.clientPort 和 hbase.zookeeper.quorum。你还可以设置 hbase.zookeeper.property.dataDir属性来把ZooKeeper保存数据的目录地址改掉。默认值是 /tmp ，这里在重启的时候会被操作系统删掉，可以把它修改到 /user/local/zookeeper.

  <configuration>
...
<property>
<name>hbase.zookeeper.property.clientPort</name>
<value>2222</value>
<description>Property from ZooKeeper's config zoo.cfg.
The port at which the clients will connect.
</description>
</property>
<property>
<name>hbase.zookeeper.quorum</name>
<value>rs1.example.com,rs2.example.com,rs3.example.com,rs4.example.com,rs5.example.com</value>
<description>Comma separated list of servers in the ZooKeeper Quorum.
For example, "host1.mydomain.com,host2.mydomain.com,host3.mydomain.com".
By default this is set to localhost for local and pseudo-distributed modes
of operation. For a fully-distributed setup, this should be set to a full
list of ZooKeeper quorum servers. If HBASE_MANAGES_ZK is set in hbase-env.sh
this is the list of servers which we will start/stop ZooKeeper on.
</description>
</property>
<property>
<value>/usr/local/zookeeper</value>
<description>Property from ZooKeeper's config zoo.cfg.
The directory where the snapshot is stored.
</description>
</property>
...
</configuration>

### ZooKeeper 维护

Be sure to set up the data dir cleaner described under Zookeeper Maintenance else you could have 'interesting' problems a couple of months in; i.e. zookeeper could start dropping sessions if it has to run through a directory of hundreds of thousands of logs which is wont to do around leader reelection time -- a process rare but run on occasion whether because a machine is dropped or happens to hiccup.

## 16.1. 和已有的ZooKeeper一起使用

让HBase使用一个已有的不被HBase托管的Zookeep集群，需要设置 conf/hbase-env.sh文件中的HBASE_MANAGES_ZK 属性为 false

  ...
# Tell HBase whether it should manage it's own instance of Zookeeper or not.
export HBASE_MANAGES_ZK=false

接下来，指明Zookeeper的host和端口。可以在 hbase-site.xml中设置, 也可以在HBase的CLASSPATH下面加一个zoo.cfg配置文件。 HBase 会优先加载 zoo.cfg 里面的配置，把hbase-site.xml里面的覆盖掉.

当HBase托管ZooKeeper的时候，Zookeeper集群的启动是HBase启动脚本的一部分。但现在，你需要自己去运行。你可以这样做

### 16.2.2. HBase内置的 Zookeeper 配置

每个节点要运行一个 zookeeper, 一个主服务, 或一个 regionserver,在HBASE_HOME的conf目录中创建如下所示的 JAAS 配置文件:

                  Server {
useKeyTab=true
keyTab="$PATH_TO_ZOOKEEPER_KEYTAB" storeKey=true useTicketCache=false principal="zookeeper/$HOST";
};
Client {
useKeyTab=true
useTicketCache=false
keyTab="$PATH_TO_HBASE_KEYTAB" principal="hbase/$HOST";
};

$PATH_TO_HBASE_KEYTAB 和 $PATH_TO_ZOOKEEPER_KEYTAB文件是上面创建的。  $HOST 该节点主机名. Server 由 Zookeeper quorum 服务器使用, Client 节由 HBase master 和 regionserver使用。 The path to this file should be substituted for the text $HBASE_SERVER_CONF in the hbase-env.sh listing below.

The path to this file should be substituted for the text $CLIENT_CONF in the hbase-env.sh listing below. Modify your hbase-env.sh to include the following:  export HBASE_OPTS="-Djava.security.auth.login.config=$CLIENT_CONF"
export HBASE_MANAGES_ZK=true
export HBASE_ZOOKEEPER_OPTS="-Djava.security.auth.login.config=$HBASE_SERVER_CONF" export HBASE_MASTER_OPTS="-Djava.security.auth.login.config=$HBASE_SERVER_CONF"
export HBASE_REGIONSERVER_OPTS="-Djava.security.auth.login.config=$HBASE_SERVER_CONF"  where $HBASE_SERVER_CONF and  $CLIENT_CONF are the full paths to the JAAS configuration files created above. Modify your hbase-site.xml on each node that will run zookeeper, master or regionserver to contain:  <configuration> <property> <name>hbase.zookeeper.quorum</name> <value>$ZK_NODES</value>
</property>
<property>
<name>hbase.cluster.distributed</name>
<value>true</value>
</property>
<property>
<name>hbase.zookeeper.property.authProvider.1</name>
<value>org.apache.zookeeper.server.auth.SASLAuthenticationProvider</value>
</property>
<property>
<name>hbase.zookeeper.property.kerberos.removeHostFromPrincipal</name>
<value>true</value>
</property>
<property>
<name>hbase.zookeeper.property.kerberos.removeRealmFromPrincipal</name>
<value>true</value>
</property>
</configuration>


where $ZK_NODES is the comma-separated list of hostnames of the Zookeeper Quorum hosts. Start your hbase cluster by running one or more of the following set of commands on the appropriate hosts:  bin/hbase zookeeper start bin/hbase master start bin/hbase regionserver start  ### 16.2.3. 外部 Zookeeper 配置 增加 JAAS 配置文件:  Client { com.sun.security.auth.module.Krb5LoginModule required useKeyTab=true useTicketCache=false keyTab="$PATH_TO_HBASE_KEYTAB"
principal="hbase/$HOST"; };  $PATH_TO_HBASE_KEYTAB 是上面创建的keytab，以便 HBase 服务可以在本主机运行 , $HOST 是该节点的 hostname . 将该配置放到 HBase home配置目录.在下面的 $HBASE_SERVER_CONF 进行引用.

修改 hbase-env.sh 增加如下项:

                  export HBASE_OPTS="-Djava.security.auth.login.config=$CLIENT_CONF" export HBASE_MANAGES_ZK=false export HBASE_MASTER_OPTS="-Djava.security.auth.login.config=$HBASE_SERVER_CONF"
export HBASE_REGIONSERVER_OPTS="-Djava.security.auth.login.config=$HBASE_SERVER_CONF"  修改每个节点的 hbase-site.xml 包含下面内容:  <configuration> <property> <name>hbase.zookeeper.quorum</name> <value>$ZK_NODES</value>
</property>
<property>
<name>hbase.cluster.distributed</name>
<value>true</value>
</property>
</configuration>



$ZK_NODES是逗号分隔的Zookeeper Quorum主机名列表。 每个Zookeeper Quorum节点增加 zoo.cfg 包含下列内容:  authProvider.1=org.apache.zookeeper.server.auth.SASLAuthenticationProvider kerberos.removeHostFromPrincipal=true kerberos.removeRealmFromPrincipal=true  在每个主机创建 JAAS 配置并包含:  Server { com.sun.security.auth.module.Krb5LoginModule required useKeyTab=true keyTab="$PATH_TO_ZOOKEEPER_KEYTAB"
storeKey=true
useTicketCache=false
principal="zookeeper/$HOST"; };  $HOST 每个Quorum 的主机名. 我们会在下面的$ZK_SERVER_CONF引用本文件的全路径名称. 在每个 Zookeeper Quorum主机启动 Zookeeper:  SERVER_JVMFLAGS="-Djava.security.auth.login.config=$ZK_SERVER_CONF" bin/zkServer start


启动HBase 集群。在适当的节点运行下面的一到多个命令：

                  bin/hbase master start
bin/hbase regionserver start


### 16.2.4. Zookeeper 服务端认证日志输出

如果上面配置成功, 你应该可以看到如下所示的Zookeeper 服务器日志:

11/12/05 22:43:39 INFO zookeeper.Login: successfully logged in.
11/12/05 22:43:39 INFO server.NIOServerCnxnFactory: binding to port 0.0.0.0/0.0.0.0:2181
11/12/05 22:43:39 INFO zookeeper.Login: TGT valid starting at:        Mon Dec 05 22:43:39 UTC 2011
11/12/05 22:43:39 INFO zookeeper.Login: TGT expires:                  Tue Dec 06 22:43:39 UTC 2011
11/12/05 22:43:39 INFO zookeeper.Login: TGT refresh sleeping until: Tue Dec 06 18:36:42 UTC 2011
..
11/12/05 22:43:59 INFO auth.SaslServerCallbackHandler:
11/12/05 22:43:59 INFO auth.SaslServerCallbackHandler: Setting authorizedID: hbase
11/12/05 22:43:59 INFO server.ZooKeeperServer: adding SASL authorization for authorizationID: hbase


### 16.2.5. Zookeeper 客户端认证日志输出

Zookeeper 客户端侧 (HBase master 或 regionserver), 应该可以看到如下所示的东西:

11/12/05 22:43:59 INFO zookeeper.ZooKeeper: Initiating client connection, connectString=ip-10-166-175-249.us-west-1.compute.internal:2181 sessionTimeout=180000 watcher=master:60000
11/12/05 22:43:59 INFO zookeeper.ClientCnxn: Opening socket connection to server /10.166.175.249:2181
11/12/05 22:43:59 INFO zookeeper.RecoverableZooKeeper: The identifier of this process is 14851@ip-10-166-175-249
11/12/05 22:43:59 INFO zookeeper.Login: successfully logged in.
11/12/05 22:43:59 INFO client.ZooKeeperSaslClient: Client will use GSSAPI as SASL mechanism.
11/12/05 22:43:59 INFO zookeeper.ClientCnxn: Socket connection established to ip-10-166-175-249.us-west-1.compute.internal/10.166.175.249:2181, initiating session
11/12/05 22:43:59 INFO zookeeper.Login: TGT valid starting at:        Mon Dec 05 22:43:59 UTC 2011
11/12/05 22:43:59 INFO zookeeper.Login: TGT expires:                  Tue Dec 06 22:43:59 UTC 2011
11/12/05 22:43:59 INFO zookeeper.Login: TGT refresh sleeping until: Tue Dec 06 18:30:37 UTC 2011
11/12/05 22:43:59 INFO zookeeper.ClientCnxn: Session establishment complete on server ip-10-166-175-249.us-west-1.compute.internal/10.166.175.249:2181, sessionid = 0x134106594320000, negotiated timeout = 180000


### 16.2.6. 从头开始配置

在当前标准的 Amazon Linux AMI上测试通过. 先按上面的描述配置 KDC 和 主要节点. 然后获取代码并执行检测.
                git clone git://git.apache.org/hbase.git
cd hbase
mvn -Psecurity,localTests clean test -Dtest=TestZooKeeperACL

再按上面描述配置 HBase. 手工编辑target/cached_classpath.txt (如下)..
                bin/hbase zookeeper &
bin/hbase master &
bin/hbase regionserver &


### 16.2.7. 未来改进

#### 16.2.7.1. 完善 target/cached_classpath.txt

必须在 target/cached_classpath.txt 重写标准 hadoop-core jar 文件为包含 HADOOP-7070 修改的版本。可以使用下列脚本完成:

                  echo find ~/.m2 -name "*hadoop-core*7070*SNAPSHOT.jar" ':' cat target/cached_classpath.txt | sed 's/ //g' > target/tmp.txt
mv target/tmp.txt target/cached_classpath.txt


#### 16.2.7.3. 排除 kerberos.removeHostFromPrincipal 和 kerberos.removeRealmFromPrincipal

[33] 要查看全部 ZooKeeper 配置项列表，参考 ZooKeeper的 zoo.cfg. HBase 没有附带 zoo.cfg ，所以你需要查看合适的ZooKeeper下载的conf目录。

## 17.1. 决策

### 17.1.1. 特征分支

特征分支很容易制作。你可以不是代码提交者。只需提供需要添加到JIRA上的分支名称到开发者邮件列表，代码提交者会为你添加。然后你可以在你的特征分支下提交发行文件到Apache HBase (TM) JIRA。你的代码保留在别处——一定要公开以便观察到——你可以在开发邮件列表更新进度。当特征已经准备好提交时，3+1 位代码提交者将合并你的特征。[34]

### 17.1.2. 补丁 +1 政策

The below policy is something we put in place 09/2012. It is a suggested policy rather than a hard requirement. We want to try it first to see if it works before we cast it in stone.

Apache HBase is made of components. Components have one or more Section 17.2.1, “Component Owner”s. See the 'Description' field on the components JIRA page for who the current owners are by component.

Patches that fit within the scope of a single Apache HBase component require, at least, a +1 by one of the component's owners before commit. If owners are absent -- busy or otherwise -- two +1s by non-owners will suffice.

Patches that span components need at least two +1s before they can be committed, preferably +1s by owners of components touched by the x-component patch (TODO: This needs tightening up but I think fine for first pass).

Any -1 on a patch by anyone vetos a patch; it cannot be committed until the justification for the -1 is addressed.

## 17.2. 社区角色

### 17.2.1. 组件所有者

组件所有者列在Apache HBase JIRA components页的描述域内。所有者列在描述域而不是“组件领导者”域，因为后者只允许列一个人，而我们鼓励组件由多人所有。

Owners are volunteers who are (usually, but not necessarily) expert in their component domain and may have an agenda on how they think their Apache HBase component should evolve.

Duties include:

1. Owners will try and review patches that land within their component's scope.

2. If applicable, if an owner has an agenda, they will publish their goals or the design toward which they are driving their component

If you would like to be volunteer as a component owner, just write the dev list and we'll sign you up. Owners do not need to be committers.

## 附录 A. FAQ

A.1.  General
When should I use HBase? Are there other HBase FAQs? Does HBase support SQL? How can I find examples of NoSQL/HBase? What is the history of HBase?
A.2.  Architecture
How does HBase handle Region-RegionServer assignment and locality?
A.3.  Configuration
How can I get started with my first cluster? Where can I learn about the rest of the configuration options?
A.4.  Schema Design / Data Access
How should I design my schema in HBase? How can I store (fill in the blank) in HBase? How can I handle secondary indexes in HBase? Can I change a table's rowkeys? What APIs does HBase support?
A.5.  MapReduce
How can I use MapReduce with HBase?
A.6.  Performance and Troubleshooting
How can I improve HBase cluster performance? How can I troubleshoot my HBase cluster?
A.7.  Amazon EC2
I am running HBase on Amazon EC2 and...
A.8.  Operations
How do I manage my HBase cluster? How do I back up my HBase cluster?
A.9.  HBase in Action
Where can I find interesting videos and presentations on HBase?

### A.1. 通用

什么情况下应该用HBase?

参考 the Section 9.1, “概述” in the Architecture chapter.

还有别的 HBase FAQ吗?

参考 the FAQ that is up on the wiki, HBase Wiki FAQ.

HBase 支持SQL吗?

事实上不支持。 SQL-ish support for HBase via Hive is in development, however Hive is based on MapReduce which is not generally suitable for low-latency requests. 参考 the Chapter 5, Data Modelsection for examples on the HBase client.

到哪里找到NoSQL/HBase的例子呢?

参考附录中 BigTable 论文链接 Appendix F, Other Information About HBase ，及其他论文.

HBase历史如何?

### A.2. 结构

HBase 如何处理 Region-RegionServer 分配和本地化?

### A.3. 配置

How can I get started with my first cluster?

Where can I learn about the rest of the configuration options?

### A.4. 模式设计 / 数据访问

How should I design my schema in HBase? How can I store (fill in the blank) in HBase? How can I handle secondary indexes in HBase? Can I change a table's rowkeys? What APIs does HBase support?

How should I design my schema in HBase?

How can I store (fill in the blank) in HBase?

How can I handle secondary indexes in HBase?

Can I change a table's rowkeys?

This is a very common quesiton. You can't. 参考 Section 6.3.5, “Immutability of Rowkeys”.

What APIs does HBase support?

### A.5. MapReduce

How can I use MapReduce with HBase?

How can I use MapReduce with HBase?

### A.6. 性能和问题定位

How can I improve HBase cluster performance? How can I troubleshoot my HBase cluster?

How can I improve HBase cluster performance?

How can I troubleshoot my HBase cluster?

### A.7. Amazon EC2

I am running HBase on Amazon EC2 and...

I am running HBase on Amazon EC2 and...

EC2 issues are a special case. 参考 Troubleshooting Section 12.12, “Amazon EC2” and Performance Section 11.11, “Amazon EC2” sections.

### A.8. 操作

How do I manage my HBase cluster? How do I back up my HBase cluster?

How do I manage my HBase cluster?

How do I back up my HBase cluster?

### A.9. HBase 实践

Where can I find interesting videos and presentations on HBase?

到哪里找到感兴趣的 HBase 相关视频和幻灯?

## 附录B. 深入hbck

HBaseFsck (hbck) 是一个检查区域一致性和表完整性问题的工具，可以修复损坏的HBase. 它工作在两个基本模式-- 只读不一致性定位模式和多相读写修复模式。

## B.1. 运行 hbck 定位不一致性

要检查HBase集群是否损坏，在HBase集群中运行 hbck ：
$./bin/hbase hbck  命令输出结束的地方，会打印OK 或告诉你多少损坏(INCONSISTENCIES)出现。你也许想运行hbck几次，因为一些损坏可能是暂时的。(如集群正启动或区域正分裂)。 从运维来说，你可能希望有规律运行hbck 并在反复报告不一致性时设置报警(如通过 nagios) 。 A run of hbck will report a list of inconsistencies along with a brief description of the regions and tables affected. The using the -details option will report more details including a representative listing of all the splits present in all the tables. $ ./bin/hbase hbck -details


## B.2. 不一致

If after several runs, inconsistencies continue to be reported, you may have encountered a corruption. These should be rare, but in the event they occur newer versions of HBase include the hbck tool enabled with automatic repair options.

There are two invariants that when violated create inconsistencies in HBase:

• HBase’s region consistency invariant is satisfied if every region is assigned and deployed on exactly one region server, and all places where this state kept is in accordance.
• HBase’s table integrity invariant is satisfied if for each table, every possible row key resolves to exactly one region.

Repairs generally work in three phases -- a read-only information gathering phase that identifies inconsistencies, a table integrity repair phase that restores the table integrity invariant, and then finally a region consistency repair phase that restores the region consistency invariant. Starting from version 0.90.0, hbck could detect region consistency problems report on a subset of possible table integrity problems. It also included the ability to automatically fix the most common inconsistency, region assignment and deployment consistency problems. This repair could be done by using the -fix command line option. These problems close regions if they are open on the wrong server or on multiple region servers and also assigns regions to region servers if they are not open.

Starting from HBase versions 0.90.7, 0.92.2 and 0.94.0, several new command line options are introduced to aid repairing a corrupted HBase. This hbck sometimes goes by the nickname “uberhbck”. Each particular version of uber hbck is compatible with the HBase’s of the same major version (0.90.7 uberhbck can repair a 0.90.4). However, versions <=0.90.6 and versions <=0.92.1 may require restarting the master or failing over to a backup master.

## B.3. 本地修复

When repairing a corrupted HBase, it is best to repair the lowest risk inconsistencies first. These are generally region consistency repairs -- localized single region repairs, that only modify in-memory data, ephemeral zookeeper data, or patch holes in the META table. Region consistency requires that the HBase instance has the state of the region’s data in HDFS (.regioninfo files), the region’s row in the .META. table., and region’s deployment/assignments on region servers and the master in accordance. Options for repairing region consistency include:

• -fixAssignments (equivalent to the 0.90 -fix option) repairs unassigned, incorrectly assigned or multiply assigned regions.
• -fixMeta which removes meta rows when corresponding regions are not present in HDFS and adds new meta rows if they regions are present in HDFS while not in META.

To fix deployment and assignment problems you can run this command:

$./bin/hbase hbck -fixAssignments  To fix deployment and assignment problems as well as repairing incorrect meta rows you can run this command:. $ ./bin/hbase hbck -fixAssignments -fixMeta

There are a few classes of table integrity problems that are low risk repairs. The first two are degenerate (startkey == endkey) regions and backwards regions (startkey > endkey). These are automatically handled by sidelining the data to a temporary directory (/hbck/xxxx). The third low-risk class is hdfs region holes. This can be repaired by using the:
• -fixHdfsHoles option for fabricating new empty regions on the file system. If holes are detected you can use -fixHdfsHoles and should include -fixMeta and -fixAssignments to make the new region consistent.
$./bin/hbase hbck -fixAssignments -fixMeta -fixHdfsHoles  Since this is a common operation, we’ve added a the -repairHoles flag that is equivalent to the previous command: $ ./bin/hbase hbck -repairHoles

If inconsistencies still remain after these steps, you most likely have table integrity problems related to orphaned or overlapping regions.

## B.4. 区域叠加修复

Table integrity problems can require repairs that deal with overlaps. This is a riskier operation because it requires modifications to the file system, requires some decision making, and may require some manual steps. For these repairs it is best to analyze the output of a  hbck -details run so that you isolate repairs attempts only upon problems the checks identify. Because this is riskier, there are safeguard that should be used to limit the scope of the repairs. WARNING: This is a relatively new and have only been tested on online but idle HBase instances (no reads/writes). Use at your own risk in an active production environment! The options for repairing table integrity violations include:
• -fixHdfsOrphans option for “adopting” a region directory that is missing a region metadata file (the .regioninfo file).
• -fixHdfsOverlaps ability for fixing overlapping regions
When repairing overlapping regions, a region’s data can be modified on the file system in two ways: 1) by merging regions into a larger region or 2) by sidelining regions by moving data to “sideline” directory where data could be restored later. Merging a large number of regions is technically correct but could result in an extremely large region that requires series of costly compactions and splitting operations. In these cases, it is probably better to sideline the regions that overlap with the most other regions (likely the largest ranges) so that merges can happen on a more reasonable scale. Since these sidelined regions are already laid out in HBase’s native directory and HFile format, they can be restored by using HBase’s bulk load mechanism. The default safeguard thresholds are conservative. These options let you override the default thresholds and to enable the large region sidelining feature.
• -maxMerge <n> maximum number of overlapping regions to merge
• -sidelineBigOverlaps if more than maxMerge regions are overlapping, sideline attempt to sideline the regions overlapping with the most other regions.
• -maxOverlapsToSideline <n> if sidelining large overlapping regions, sideline at most n regions.
Since often times you would just want to get the tables repaired, you can use this option to turn on all repair options:
• -repair includes all the region consistency options and only the hole repairing table integrity options.
Finally, there are safeguards to limit repairs to only specific tables. For example the following command would only attempt to repair table TableFoo and TableBar.


### B.4.2. 特例: HBase 版本文件丢失

HBase’s data on the file system requires a version file in order to start. If this flie is missing, you can use the  -fixVersionFile option to fabricating a new HBase version file. This assumes that the version of hbck you are running is the appropriate version for the HBase cluster.

### B.4.3. 特例: Root 和 META 损毁.

最严重损坏场景是 ROOT 或 META 损坏，HBase 启动失败。这种情况可以使用OfflineMetaRepair 工具创建新的ROOT和META 区域和表。 This tool assumes that HBase is offline. It then marches through the existing HBase home directory, loads as much information from region metadata files (.regioninfo files) as possible from the file system. If the region metadata has proper table integrity, it sidelines the original root and meta table directories, and builds new ones with pointers to the region directories and their data.
$./bin/hbase org.apache.hadoop.hbase.util.OfflineMetaRepair  NOTE: This tool is not as clever as uberhbck but can be used to bootstrap repairs that uberhbck can complete. If the tool succeeds you should be able to start hbase and run online repairs if necessary. ## Appendix C. HBase中的压缩 ## C.1. 测试压缩工具 HBase有一个用来测试压缩新的工具。要想运行它，输入/bin/hbase org.apache.hadoop.hbase.util.CompressionTest. 就会有提示这个工具的具体用法 ## C.2. hbase.regionserver.codecs 如果你的安装错误，就会测试不成功，或者无法启动。可以在你的hbase-site.xml加上配置 hbase.regionserver.codecs 值你需要的codecs。例如，如果 hbase.regionserver.codecs 的值是 lzo,gz 同时lzo不存在或者没有正确安装， RegionServer在启动的时候会提示配置错误。 当一台新机器加入到集群中的时候，管理员一定要注意，这台新机器有可能要安装特定的压缩解码器。 ## C.3. LZO 很不幸，HBase是Apache的协议，而LZO是GPL的协议。HBase不能自带LZO，因此LZO需要在安装HBase之前安装。参见 使用 LZO 压缩介绍了如何在HBase中使用LZO 一个常见的问题是，用户在一开始使用LZO的时候会很好，但是数月过去，管理员在给集群添加集群的时候，他们忘记了LZO的事情。在0.90.0版本之后，我们会运行失败，但也有可能不。 参考 Section C.2, “ hbase.regionserver.codecs ” for a feature to help protect against failed LZO install. ## C.4. GZIP 相对于LZO，GZIP的压缩率更高但是速度更慢。在某些特定情况下，压缩率是优先考量的。Java会使用Java自带的GZIP，除非Hadoop的本地库在CLASSPATH中。在这种情况下，最好使用本地压缩器。(如果本地库不存在，可以在Log看到很多Got brand-new compressor。参见Q: ) ## C.5. SNAPPY If snappy is installed, HBase can make use of it (courtesy of hadoop-snappy [29]). 1. Build and install snappy on all nodes of your cluster. 2. Use CompressionTest to verify snappy support is enabled and the libs can be loaded ON ALL NODES of your cluster: $ hbase org.apache.hadoop.hbase.util.CompressionTest hdfs://host/path/to/hbase snappy

3. Create a column family with snappy compression and verify it in the hbase shell:

\$ hbase> create 't1', { NAME => 'cf1', COMPRESSION => 'SNAPPY' }
hbase> describe 't1'

In the output of the "describe" command, you need to ensure it lists "COMPRESSION => 'SNAPPY'"

[29参考 Alejandro's note up on the list on difference between Snappy in Hadoop and Snappy in HBase

## C.6. Changing Compression Schemes

A frequent question on the dist-list is how to change compression schemes for ColumnFamilies. This is actually quite simple, and can be done via an alter command. Because the compression scheme is encoded at the block-level in StoreFiles, the table does not need to be re-created and the data does not copied somewhere else. Just make sure the old codec is still available until you are sure that all of the old StoreFiles have been compacted.

## Appendix D. YCSB: 雅虎云服务 测试 和HBase

TODO: YCSB不能很多的增加集群负载.

TODO: 如果给HBase安装

Ted Dunning重做了YCSV,这个是用maven管理了，加入了核实工作量的功能。参见 Ted Dunning's YCSB.

## E.1. Motivation

Note: this feature was introduced in HBase 0.92

We found it necessary to revise the HFile format after encountering high memory usage and slow startup times caused by large Bloom filters and block indexes in the region server. Bloom filters can get as large as 100 MB per HFile, which adds up to 2 GB when aggregated over 20 regions. Block indexes can grow as large as 6 GB in aggregate size over the same set of regions. A region is not considered opened until all of its block index data is loaded. Large Bloom filters produce a different performance problem: the first get request that requires a Bloom filter lookup will incur the latency of loading the entire Bloom filter bit array.

To speed up region server startup we break Bloom filters and block indexes into multiple blocks and write those blocks out as they fill up, which also reduces the HFile writer’s memory footprint. In the Bloom filter case, “filling up a block” means accumulating enough keys to efficiently utilize a fixed-size bit array, and in the block index case we accumulate an “index block” of the desired size. Bloom filter blocks and index blocks (we call these “inline blocks”) become interspersed with data blocks, and as a side effect we can no longer rely on the difference between block offsets to determine data block length, as it was done in version 1.

HFile is a low-level file format by design, and it should not deal with application-specific details such as Bloom filters, which are handled at StoreFile level. Therefore, we call Bloom filter blocks in an HFile "inline" blocks. We also supply HFile with an interface to write those inline blocks.

Another format modification aimed at reducing the region server startup time is to use a contiguous “load-on-open” section that has to be loaded in memory at the time an HFile is being opened. Currently, as an HFile opens, there are separate seek operations to read the trailer, data/meta indexes, and file info. To read the Bloom filter, there are two more seek operations for its “data” and “meta” portions. In version 2, we seek once to read the trailer and seek again to read everything else we need to open the file from a contiguous block.

## E.2. HFile format version 1 overview

As we will be discussing the changes we are making to the HFile format, it is useful to give a short overview of the previous (HFile version 1) format. An HFile in the existing format is structured as follows:  [30]

### E.2.1.  Block index format in version 1

The block index in version 1 is very straightforward. For each entry, it contains:

1. Offset (long)

2. Uncompressed size (int)

3. Key (a serialized byte array written using Bytes.writeByteArray)

1. Key length as a variable-length integer (VInt)

2. Key bytes

The number of entries in the block index is stored in the fixed file trailer, and has to be passed in to the method that reads the block index. One of the limitations of the block index in version 1 is that it does not provide the compressed size of a block, which turns out to be necessary for decompression. Therefore, the HFile reader has to infer this compressed size from the offset difference between blocks. We fix this limitation in version 2, where we store on-disk block size instead of uncompressed size, and get uncompressed size from the block header.

[30Image courtesy of Lars George, hbase-architecture-101-storage.html.

## E.3.  HBase 带内嵌数据块的文件格式 (version 2)

### E.3.1.  概述

The version of HBase introducing the above features reads both version 1 and 2 HFiles, but only writes version 2 HFiles. A version 2 HFile is structured as follows:

### E.3.2. 统一版本 2 的块格式

In the version 2 every block in the data section contains the following fields:

1. 8 bytes: Block type, a sequence of bytes equivalent to version 1's "magic records". Supported block types are:

1. DATA – data blocks

2. LEAF_INDEX – leaf-level index blocks in a multi-level-block-index

3. BLOOM_CHUNK – Bloom filter chunks

4. META – meta blocks (not used for Bloom filters in version 2 anymore)

5. INTERMEDIATE_INDEX – intermediate-level index blocks in a multi-level blockindex

6. ROOT_INDEX – root>level index blocks in a multi>level block index

7. FILE_INFO – the “file info” block, a small key>value map of metadata

8. BLOOM_META – a Bloom filter metadata block in the load>on>open section

9. TRAILER – a fixed>size file trailer. As opposed to the above, this is not an HFile v2 block but a fixed>size (for each HFile version) data structure

10. INDEX_V1 – this block type is only used for legacy HFile v1 block

2. Compressed size of the block's data, not including the header (int).

Can be used for skipping the current data block when scanning HFile data.

3. Uncompressed size of the block's data, not including the header (int)

This is equal to the compressed size if the compression algorithm is NON

4. File offset of the previous block of the same type (long)

Can be used for seeking to the previous data/index block

5. Compressed data (or uncompressed data if the compression algorithm is NONE).

The above format of blocks is used in the following HFile sections:

1. Scanned block section. The section is named so because it contains all data blocks that need to be read when an HFile is scanned sequentially.  Also contains leaf block index and Bloom chunk blocks.

2. Non-scanned block section. This section still contains unified-format v2 blocks but it does not have to be read when doing a sequential scan. This section contains “meta” blocks and intermediate-level index blocks.

We are supporting “meta” blocks in version 2 the same way they were supported in version 1, even though we do not store Bloom filter data in these blocks anymore.

### E.3.3.  Block index in version 2

There are three types of block indexes in HFile version 2, stored in two different formats (root and non-root):

1. Data index — version 2 multi-level block index, consisting of:

1. Version 2 root index, stored in the data block index section of the file

2. Optionally, version 2 intermediate levels, stored in the non%root format in the data index section of the file. Intermediate levels can only be present if leaf level blocks are present

3. Optionally, version 2 leaf levels, stored in the non%root format inline with data blocks

2. Meta index — version 2 root index format only, stored in the meta index section of the file

3. Bloom index — version 2 root index format only, stored in the “load-on-open” section as part of Bloom filter metadata.

### E.3.4.  Root block index format in version 2

This format applies to:

1. Root level of the version 2 data index

2. Entire meta and Bloom indexes in version 2, which are always single-level.

A version 2 root index block is a sequence of entries of the following format, similar to entries of a version 1 block index, but storing on-disk size instead of uncompressed size.

1. Offset (long)

This offset may point to a data block or to a deeper>level index block.

2. On-disk size (int)

3. Key (a serialized byte array stored using Bytes.writeByteArray)

1. Key (VInt)

2. Key bytes

A single-level version 2 block index consists of just a single root index block. To read a root index block of version 2, one needs to know the number of entries. For the data index and the meta index the number of entries is stored in the trailer, and for the Bloom index it is stored in the compound Bloom filter metadata.

For a multi-level block index we also store the following fields in the root index block in the load-on-open section of the HFile, in addition to the data structure described above:

1. Middle leaf index block offset

2. Middle leaf block on-disk size (meaning the leaf index block containing the reference to the “middle” data block of the file)

3. The index of the mid-key (defined below) in the middle leaf-level block.

These additional fields are used to efficiently retrieve the mid-key of the HFile used in HFile splits, which we define as the first key of the block with a zero-based index of (n – 1) / 2, if the total number of blocks in the HFile is n. This definition is consistent with how the mid-key was determined in HFile version 1, and is reasonable in general, because blocks are likely to be the same size on average, but we don’t have any estimates on individual key/value pair sizes.

When writing a version 2 HFile, the total number of data blocks pointed to by every leaf-level index block is kept track of. When we finish writing and the total number of leaf-level blocks is determined, it is clear which leaf-level block contains the mid-key, and the fields listed above are computed.  When reading the HFile and the mid-key is requested, we retrieve the middle leaf index block (potentially from the block cache) and get the mid-key value from the appropriate position inside that leaf block.

### E.3.5.  Non-root block index format in version 2

This format applies to intermediate-level and leaf index blocks of a version 2 multi-level data block index. Every non-root index block is structured as follows.

1. numEntries: the number of entries (int).

2. entryOffsets: the “secondary index” of offsets of entries in the block, to facilitate a quick binary search on the key (numEntries + 1 int values). The last value is the total length of all entries in this index block. For example, in a non-root index block with entry sizes 60, 80, 50 the “secondary index” will contain the following int array: {0, 60, 140, 190}.

3. Entries. Each entry contains:

1. Offset of the block referenced by this entry in the file (long)

2. On>disk size of the referenced block (int)

3. Key. The length can be calculated from entryOffsets.

### E.3.6.  Bloom filters in version 2

In contrast with version 1, in a version 2 HFile Bloom filter metadata is stored in the load-on-open section of the HFile for quick startup.

1. A compound Bloom filter.

1. Bloom filter version = 3 (int). There used to be a DynamicByteBloomFilter class that had the Bloom filter version number 2

2. The total byte size of all compound Bloom filter chunks (long)

3. Number of hash functions (int

4. Type of hash functions (int)

5. The total key count inserted into the Bloom filter (long)

6. The maximum total number of keys in the Bloom filter (long)

7. The number of chunks (int)

8. Comparator class used for Bloom filter keys, a UTF>8 encoded string stored using Bytes.writeByteArray

9. Bloom block index in the version 2 root block index format

### E.3.7. File Info format in versions 1 and 2

The file info block is a serialized HBaseMapWritable (essentially a map from byte arrays to byte arrays) with the following keys, among others. StoreFile-level logic adds more keys to this.

 hfile.LASTKEY The last key of the file (byte array) hfile.AVG_KEY_LEN The average key length in the file (int) hfile.AVG_VALUE_LEN The average value length in the file (int)

File info format did not change in version 2. However, we moved the file info to the final section of the file, which can be loaded as one block at the time the HFile is being opened. Also, we do not store comparator in the version 2 file info anymore. Instead, we store it in the fixed file trailer. This is because we need to know the comparator at the time of parsing the load-on-open section of the HFile.

### E.3.8.  Fixed file trailer format differences between versions 1 and 2

The following table shows common and different fields between fixed file trailers in versions 1 and 2. Note that the size of the trailer is different depending on the version, so it is “fixed” only within one version. However, the version is always stored as the last four-byte integer in