do{}while(0)的意义

csdn's FAQ:

一直以为Linux里面,那些do{}while(0)只是为了程序的源代码看起来比较好看而已  
今天听说他是有特殊作用的,在线请教,是什么作用?  
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是为了解决使用宏的时候烦人的分号问题。  
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楼说的不是很全面,我给个例子吧  
 
#define  wait_event(wq,condition)  /  
 
do{  if(condition)  break;  __wait_event(wq,condition);  }while(0)  
 
这是一个奇怪的循环,它根本就只会运行一次,为什么不去掉外面的do{..}while结构呢?我曾一度在心里把它叫做“怪圈”。原来这也是非常巧妙的技巧。在工程中可能经常会引起麻烦,而上面的定义能够保证这些麻烦不会出现。下面是解释:  
 
假设有这样一个宏定义  
 
#define  macro(condition)  if(condition)  dosomething();  
 
现在在程序中这样使用这个宏:  
 
if(temp)  
             macro(i);  
else  
             doanotherthing();  
 
一切看起来很正常,但是仔细想想。这个宏会展开成:  
 
if(temp)  
             if(condition)  dosomething();  
else    
             doanotherthing();  
 
这时的else不是与第一个if语句匹配,而是错误的与第二个if语句进行了匹配,编译通过了,但是运行的结果一定是错误的。  
 
为了避免这个错误,我们使用do{….}while(0)  把它包裹起来,成为一个独立的语法单元,从而不会与上下文发生混淆。同时因为绝大多数的编译器都能够识别do{…}while(0)这种无用的循环并进行优化,所以使用这种方法也不会导致程序的性能降低。  
 
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可是直接用{}括起来的话,最后的分号会引起麻烦的  
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但这样就一定要在最后加分号,不能当作表达式用了。  
唉,还是尽量避免用宏替换的方法,太容易出现问题了。

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FAQ FROM CSDN:

FAQ/DoWhile0

Why do a lot of #defines in the kernel use do { ... } while(0)?

There are a couple of reasons:

  • (from Dave Miller) Empty statements give a warning from the compiler so this is why you see #define FOO do { } while(0).

  • (from Dave Miller) It gives you a basic block in which to declare local variables.

  • (from Ben Collins) It allows you to use more complex macros in conditional code. Imagine a macro of several lines of code like:

    #define FOO(x) /
            printf("arg is %s/n", x); /
            do_something_useful(x);
    

    Now imagine using it like:

    if (blah == 2)
            FOO(blah);
    

    This interprets to:

    if (blah == 2)
            printf("arg is %s/n", blah);
            do_something_useful(blah);;
    

    As you can see, the if then only encompasses the printf(), and the do_something_useful() call is unconditional (not within the scope of the if), like you wanted it. So, by using a block like do { ... } while(0), you would get this:

    if (blah == 2)
            do {
                    printf("arg is %s/n", blah);
                    do_something_useful(blah);
            } while (0);
    

    Which is exactly what you want.

  • (from Per Persson) As both Miller and Collins point out, you want a block statement so you can have several lines of code and declare local variables. But then the natural thing would be to just use for example:

    #define exch(x,y) { int tmp; tmp=x; x=y; y=tmp; }
    

    However that wouldn't work in some cases. The following code is meant to be an if-statement with two branches:

    if (x > y)
            exch(x,y);          // Branch 1
    else  
            do_something();     // Branch 2
    

    But it would be interpreted as an if-statement with only one branch:

    if (x > y) {                // Single-branch if-statement!!!
            int tmp;            // The one and only branch consists
            tmp = x;            // of the block.
            x = y;
            y = tmp;
    }
    ;                           // empty statement
    else                        // ERROR!!! "parse error before else"
            do_something();
    

    The problem is the semi-colon (;) coming directly after the block. The solution for this is to sandwich the block between do and while (0). Then we have a single statement with the capabilities of a block, but not considered as being a block statement by the compiler. Our if-statement now becomes:

    if (x > y)
            do {
                    int tmp;
                    tmp = x;
                    x = y;
                    y = tmp;
            } while(0);
    else
            do_something();
    
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