MD5及其VC++实现

MD5(单向散列算法)Message Digest Algorithm MD5(中文名为消息摘要算法第五版)为计算机安全领域广泛使用的一种散列函数,用以提供消息的完整性保护。他用于确保信息传输完整一致。是计算机广泛使用的杂凑算法之一(又译摘要算法、哈希算法),主流编程语言普遍已有MD5实现。将数据(如汉字)运算为另一固定长度值,是杂凑算法的基础原理,MD5的前身有MD2、MD3和MD4。MD5的作用是让大容量信息在用数字签名软件签署私人密钥前被"压缩"成一种保密的格式(就是把一个任意长度的字节串变换成一定长的十六进制数字串)。除了MD5以外,其中比较有名的还有sha-1、RIPEMD以及Haval等
1. MD5功能:
    输入任意长度的信息,经过处理,输出为128位的信息(数字指纹);
    不同的输入得到的不同的结果(唯一性);
    根据128位的输出结果不可能反推出输入的信息(不可逆); 
2. MD5属不属于加密算法:
    认为不属于的人是因为他们觉得不能从密文(散列值)反过来得到原文,即没有解密算法,所以这部分人认为MD5只能属于算法,不能称为加密算法;
    认为属于的人是因为他们觉得经过MD5处理后看不到原文,即已经将原文加密,所以认为MD5属于加密算法;我个人支持后者。
3.MD5用途:
    1、防止被篡改:比如发送一个电子文档,发送前,我先得到MD5的输出结果a。然后在对方收到电子文档后,对方也得到一个MD5的输出结果b。如果a与b一样就代表中途未被篡改。2)比如我提供文件下载,为了防止不法分子在安装程序中添加木马,我可以在网站上公布由安装文件得到的MD5输出结果。3)SVN在检测文件是否在CheckOut后被修改过,也是用到了MD5.
    2、防止直接看到明文:现在很多网站在数据库存储用户的密码的时候都是存储用户密码的MD5值。这样就算不法分子得到数据库的用户密码的MD5值,也无法知道用户的密码(其实这样是不安全的,后面我会提到)。(比如在UNIX系统中用户的密码就是以MD5(或其它类似的算法)经加密后存储在文件系统中。当用户登录的时候,系统把用户输入的密码计算成MD5值,然后再去和保存在文件系统中的MD5值进行比较,进而确定输入的密码是否正确。通过这样的步骤,系统在并不知道用户密码的明码的情况下就可以确定用户登录系统的合法性。这不但可以避免用户的密码被具有系统管理员权限的用户知道,而且还在一定程度上增加了密码被破解的难度。)
    3、防止抵赖(数字签名): 这需要一个第三方认证机构。例如A写了一个文件,认证机构对此文件用MD5算法产生摘要信息并做好记录。若以后A说这文件不是他写的,权威机构只需对此文件重新产生摘要信息,然后跟记录在册的摘要信息进行比对,相同的话,就证明是A写的了。这就是所谓的“数字签名”。
4.MD5算法过程:
    对MD5算法简要的叙述可以为:MD5以512位分组来处理输入的信息,且每一分组又被划分为16个32位子分组,经过了一系列的处理后,算法的输出由四个32位分组组成,将这四个32位分组级联后将生成一个128位散列值。
     第一步、填充:如果输入信息的长度(bit)对512求余的结果不等于448,就需要填充使得对512求余的结果等于448。填充的方法是填充一个1和n个0。填充完后,信息的长度就为N*512+448(bit);
     第二步、记录信息长度:用64位来存储填充前信息长度。这64位加在第一步结果的后面,这样信息长度就变为N*512+448+64=(N+1)*512位。
     第三步、装入标准的幻数(四个整数):标准的幻数(物理顺序)是(A=(01234567)16,B=(89ABCDEF)16,C=(FEDCBA98)16,D=(76543210)16)。如果在程序中定义应该是(A=0X67452301L,B=0XEFCDAB89L,C=0X98BADCFEL,D=0X10325476L)。有点晕哈,其实想一想就明白了。
     第四步、四轮循环运算:循环的次数是分组的个数(N+1) 
     1)将每一512字节细分成16个小组,每个小组64位(8个字节)
     2)先认识四个线性函数(&是与,|是或,~是非,^是异或)
  F(X,Y,Z)=(X&Y)|((~X)&Z)
  G(X,Y,Z)
=(X&Z)|(Y&(~Z))
  H(X,Y,Z)
=X^Y^Z
  I(X,Y,Z)
=Y^(X|(~Z))
    3)设Mj表示消息的第j个子分组(从0到15),<<<s表示循环左移s位,则四种操作为:
  FF(a,b,c,d,Mj,s,ti)表示a=b+((a+F(b,c,d)+Mj+ti)<<<s)
  GG(a,b,c,d,Mj,s,ti)表示a
=b+((a+G(b,c,d)+Mj+ti)<<<s)
  HH(a,b,c,d,Mj,s,ti)表示a
=b+((a+H(b,c,d)+Mj+ti)<<<s)
  II(a,b,c,d,Mj,s,ti)表示a
=b+((a+I(b,c,d)+Mj+ti)<<<s)
    4)四轮运算
第一轮
a
=FF(a,b,c,d,M0,7,0xd76aa478)
b
=FF(d,a,b,c,M1,12,0xe8c7b756)
c
=FF(c,d,a,b,M2,17,0x242070db)
d
=FF(b,c,d,a,M3,22,0xc1bdceee)
a
=FF(a,b,c,d,M4,7,0xf57c0faf)
b
=FF(d,a,b,c,M5,12,0x4787c62a)
c
=FF(c,d,a,b,M6,17,0xa8304613)
d
=FF(b,c,d,a,M7,22,0xfd469501)
a
=FF(a,b,c,d,M8,7,0x698098d8)
b
=FF(d,a,b,c,M9,12,0x8b44f7af)
c
=FF(c,d,a,b,M10,17,0xffff5bb1)
d
=FF(b,c,d,a,M11,22,0x895cd7be)
a
=FF(a,b,c,d,M12,7,0x6b901122)
b
=FF(d,a,b,c,M13,12,0xfd987193)
c
=FF(c,d,a,b,M14,17,0xa679438e)
d
=FF(b,c,d,a,M15,22,0x49b40821)

第二轮
a
=GG(a,b,c,d,M1,5,0xf61e2562)
b
=GG(d,a,b,c,M6,9,0xc040b340)
c
=GG(c,d,a,b,M11,14,0x265e5a51)
d
=GG(b,c,d,a,M0,20,0xe9b6c7aa)
a
=GG(a,b,c,d,M5,5,0xd62f105d)
b
=GG(d,a,b,c,M10,9,0x02441453)
c
=GG(c,d,a,b,M15,14,0xd8a1e681)
d
=GG(b,c,d,a,M4,20,0xe7d3fbc8)
a
=GG(a,b,c,d,M9,5,0x21e1cde6)
b
=GG(d,a,b,c,M14,9,0xc33707d6)
c
=GG(c,d,a,b,M3,14,0xf4d50d87)
d
=GG(b,c,d,a,M8,20,0x455a14ed)
a
=GG(a,b,c,d,M13,5,0xa9e3e905)
b
=GG(d,a,b,c,M2,9,0xfcefa3f8)
c
=GG(c,d,a,b,M7,14,0x676f02d9)
d
=GG(b,c,d,a,M12,20,0x8d2a4c8a)

第三轮
a
=HH(a,b,c,d,M5,4,0xfffa3942)
b
=HH(d,a,b,c,M8,11,0x8771f681)
c
=HH(c,d,a,b,M11,16,0x6d9d6122)
d
=HH(b,c,d,a,M14,23,0xfde5380c)
a
=HH(a,b,c,d,M1,4,0xa4beea44)
b
=HH(d,a,b,c,M4,11,0x4bdecfa9)
c
=HH(c,d,a,b,M7,16,0xf6bb4b60)
d
=HH(b,c,d,a,M10,23,0xbebfbc70)
a
=HH(a,b,c,d,M13,4,0x289b7ec6)
b
=HH(d,a,b,c,M0,11,0xeaa127fa)
c
=HH(c,d,a,b,M3,16,0xd4ef3085)
d
=HH(b,c,d,a,M6,23,0x04881d05)
a
=HH(a,b,c,d,M9,4,0xd9d4d039)
b
=HH(d,a,b,c,M12,11,0xe6db99e5)
c
=HH(c,d,a,b,M15,16,0x1fa27cf8)
d
=HH(b,c,d,a,M2,23,0xc4ac5665)

第四轮
a
=II(a,b,c,d,M0,6,0xf4292244)
b
=II(d,a,b,c,M7,10,0x432aff97)
c
=II(c,d,a,b,M14,15,0xab9423a7)
d
=II(b,c,d,a,M5,21,0xfc93a039)
a
=II(a,b,c,d,M12,6,0x655b59c3)
b
=II(d,a,b,c,M3,10,0x8f0ccc92)
c
=II(c,d,a,b,M10,15,0xffeff47d)
d
=II(b,c,d,a,M1,21,0x85845dd1)
a
=II(a,b,c,d,M8,6,0x6fa87e4f)
b
=II(d,a,b,c,M15,10,0xfe2ce6e0)
c
=II(c,d,a,b,M6,15,0xa3014314)
d
=II(b,c,d,a,M13,21,0x4e0811a1)
a
=II(a,b,c,d,M4,6,0xf7537e82)
b
=II(d,a,b,c,M11,10,0xbd3af235)
c
=II(c,d,a,b,M2,15,0x2ad7d2bb)
d
=II(b,c,d,a,M9,21,0xeb86d391)
    5)每轮循环后,将A,B,C,D分别加上a,b,c,d,然后进入下一循环。
4.MD5算法VC++实现:
md5.h
#ifndef MD5_H
#define MD5_H

#include <string>
#include <fstream>

/* Type define */
typedef unsigned char byte;
typedef unsigned int uint32;

using std::string;
using std::ifstream;

/* MD5 declaration. */
class MD5 {
public:
MD5();
MD5(const void* input, size_t length);
MD5(const string& str);
MD5(ifstream& in);
void update(const void* input, size_t length);
void update(const string& str);
void update(ifstream& in);
const byte* digest();
string toString();
void reset();

private:
void update(const byte* input, size_t length);
void final();
void transform(const byte block[64]);
void encode(const uint32* input, byte* output, size_t length);
void decode(const byte* input, uint32* output, size_t length);
string bytesToHexString(const byte* input, size_t length);

/* class uncopyable */
MD5(const MD5&);
MD5& operator=(const MD5&);

private:
uint32 _state[4]; /* state (ABCD) */
uint32 _count[2]; /* number of bits, modulo 2^64 (low-order word first) */
byte _buffer[64]; /* input buffer */
byte _digest[16]; /* message digest */
bool _finished;   /* calculate finished ? */

static const byte PADDING[64]; /* padding for calculate */
static const char HEX[16];
enum { BUFFER_SIZE = 1024 };
};

#endif /*MD5_H*/
md5.cpp
#include "md5.h"

using namespace std;

/* Constants for MD5Transform routine. */
#define S11 7
#define S12 12
#define S13 17
#define S14 22
#define S21 5
#define S22 9
#define S23 14
#define S24 20
#define S31 4
#define S32 11
#define S33 16
#define S34 23
#define S41 6
#define S42 10
#define S43 15
#define S44 21


/* F, G, H and I are basic MD5 functions.
*/
#define F(x, y, z) (((x) & (y)) | ((~x) & (z)))
#define G(x, y, z) (((x) & (z)) | ((y) & (~z)))
#define H(x, y, z) ((x) ^ (y) ^ (z))
#define I(x, y, z) ((y) ^ ((x) | (~z)))

/* ROTATE_LEFT rotates x left n bits.
*/
#define ROTATE_LEFT(x, n) (((x) << (n)) | ((x) >> (32-(n))))

/* FF, GG, HH, and II transformations for rounds 1, 2, 3, and 4.
Rotation is separate from addition to prevent recomputation.
*/
#define FF(a, b, c, d, x, s, ac) { \
(a) += F ((b), (c), (d)) + (x) + ac; \
(a) = ROTATE_LEFT ((a), (s)); \
(a) += (b); \
}
#define GG(a, b, c, d, x, s, ac) { \
(a) += G ((b), (c), (d)) + (x) + ac; \
(a) = ROTATE_LEFT ((a), (s)); \
(a) += (b); \
}
#define HH(a, b, c, d, x, s, ac) { \
(a) += H ((b), (c), (d)) + (x) + ac; \
(a) = ROTATE_LEFT ((a), (s)); \
(a) += (b); \
}
#define II(a, b, c, d, x, s, ac) { \
(a) += I ((b), (c), (d)) + (x) + ac; \
(a) = ROTATE_LEFT ((a), (s)); \
(a) += (b); \
}


const byte MD5::PADDING[64] = { 0x80 };
const char MD5::HEX[16] = {
'0', '1', '2', '3',
'4', '5', '6', '7',
'8', '9', 'a', 'b',
'c', 'd', 'e', 'f'
};


/* Default construct. */
MD5::MD5() {
reset();
}

/* Construct a MD5 object with a input buffer. */
MD5::MD5(const void* input, size_t length) {
reset();
update(input, length);
}

/* Construct a MD5 object with a string. */
MD5::MD5(const string& str) {
reset();
update(str);
}

/* Construct a MD5 object with a file. */
MD5::MD5(ifstream& in) {
reset();
update(in);
}

/* Return the message-digest */
const byte* MD5::digest() {

if (!_finished) {
   _finished = true;
   final();
}
return _digest;
}

/* Reset the calculate state */
void MD5::reset() {

_finished = false;
/* reset number of bits. */
_count[0] = _count[1] = 0;
/* Load magic initialization constants. */
_state[0] = 0x67452301;
_state[1] = 0xefcdab89;
_state[2] = 0x98badcfe;
_state[3] = 0x10325476;
}

/* Updating the context with a input buffer. */
void MD5::update(const void* input, size_t length) {
update((const byte*)input, length);
}

/* Updating the context with a string. */
void MD5::update(const string& str) {
update((const byte*)str.c_str(), str.length());
}

/* Updating the context with a file. */
void MD5::update(ifstream& in) {

if (!in) {
   return;
}

std::streamsize length;
char buffer[BUFFER_SIZE];
while (!in.eof()) {
   in.read(buffer, BUFFER_SIZE);
   length = in.gcount();
   if (length > 0) {
    update(buffer, length);
   }
}
in.close();
}

/* MD5 block update operation. Continues an MD5 message-digest
operation, processing another message block, and updating the
context.
*/
void MD5::update(const byte* input, size_t length) {

uint32 i, index, partLen;

_finished = false;

/* Compute number of bytes mod 64 */
index = (uint32)((_count[0] >> 3) & 0x3f);

/* update number of bits */
if ((_count[0] += ((uint32)length << 3)) < ((uint32)length << 3)) {
   ++_count[1];
}
_count[1] += ((uint32)length >> 29);

partLen = 64 - index;

/* transform as many times as possible. */
if (length >= partLen) {

   memcpy(&_buffer[index], input, partLen);
   transform(_buffer);

   for (i = partLen; i + 63 < length; i += 64) {
    transform(&input[i]);
   }
   index = 0;

} else {
   i = 0;
}

/* Buffer remaining input */
memcpy(&_buffer[index], &input[i], length - i);
}

/* MD5 finalization. Ends an MD5 message-_digest operation, writing the
the message _digest and zeroizing the context.
*/
void MD5::final() {

byte bits[8];
uint32 oldState[4];
uint32 oldCount[2];
uint32 index, padLen;

/* Save current state and count. */
memcpy(oldState, _state, 16);
memcpy(oldCount, _count, 8);

/* Save number of bits */
encode(_count, bits, 8);

/* Pad out to 56 mod 64. */
index = (uint32)((_count[0] >> 3) & 0x3f);
padLen = (index < 56) ? (56 - index) : (120 - index);
update(PADDING, padLen);

/* Append length (before padding) */
update(bits, 8);

/* Store state in digest */
encode(_state, _digest, 16);

/* Restore current state and count. */
memcpy(_state, oldState, 16);
memcpy(_count, oldCount, 8);
}

/* MD5 basic transformation. Transforms _state based on block. */
void MD5::transform(const byte block[64]) {

uint32 a = _state[0], b = _state[1], c = _state[2], d = _state[3], x[16];

decode(block, x, 64);

/* Round 1 */
FF (a, b, c, d, x[ 0], S11, 0xd76aa478); /* 1 */
FF (d, a, b, c, x[ 1], S12, 0xe8c7b756); /* 2 */
FF (c, d, a, b, x[ 2], S13, 0x242070db); /* 3 */
FF (b, c, d, a, x[ 3], S14, 0xc1bdceee); /* 4 */
FF (a, b, c, d, x[ 4], S11, 0xf57c0faf); /* 5 */
FF (d, a, b, c, x[ 5], S12, 0x4787c62a); /* 6 */
FF (c, d, a, b, x[ 6], S13, 0xa8304613); /* 7 */
FF (b, c, d, a, x[ 7], S14, 0xfd469501); /* 8 */
FF (a, b, c, d, x[ 8], S11, 0x698098d8); /* 9 */
FF (d, a, b, c, x[ 9], S12, 0x8b44f7af); /* 10 */
FF (c, d, a, b, x[10], S13, 0xffff5bb1); /* 11 */
FF (b, c, d, a, x[11], S14, 0x895cd7be); /* 12 */
FF (a, b, c, d, x[12], S11, 0x6b901122); /* 13 */
FF (d, a, b, c, x[13], S12, 0xfd987193); /* 14 */
FF (c, d, a, b, x[14], S13, 0xa679438e); /* 15 */
FF (b, c, d, a, x[15], S14, 0x49b40821); /* 16 */

/* Round 2 */
GG (a, b, c, d, x[ 1], S21, 0xf61e2562); /* 17 */
GG (d, a, b, c, x[ 6], S22, 0xc040b340); /* 18 */
GG (c, d, a, b, x[11], S23, 0x265e5a51); /* 19 */
GG (b, c, d, a, x[ 0], S24, 0xe9b6c7aa); /* 20 */
GG (a, b, c, d, x[ 5], S21, 0xd62f105d); /* 21 */
GG (d, a, b, c, x[10], S22, 0x2441453); /* 22 */
GG (c, d, a, b, x[15], S23, 0xd8a1e681); /* 23 */
GG (b, c, d, a, x[ 4], S24, 0xe7d3fbc8); /* 24 */
GG (a, b, c, d, x[ 9], S21, 0x21e1cde6); /* 25 */
GG (d, a, b, c, x[14], S22, 0xc33707d6); /* 26 */
GG (c, d, a, b, x[ 3], S23, 0xf4d50d87); /* 27 */
GG (b, c, d, a, x[ 8], S24, 0x455a14ed); /* 28 */
GG (a, b, c, d, x[13], S21, 0xa9e3e905); /* 29 */
GG (d, a, b, c, x[ 2], S22, 0xfcefa3f8); /* 30 */
GG (c, d, a, b, x[ 7], S23, 0x676f02d9); /* 31 */
GG (b, c, d, a, x[12], S24, 0x8d2a4c8a); /* 32 */

/* Round 3 */
HH (a, b, c, d, x[ 5], S31, 0xfffa3942); /* 33 */
HH (d, a, b, c, x[ 8], S32, 0x8771f681); /* 34 */
HH (c, d, a, b, x[11], S33, 0x6d9d6122); /* 35 */
HH (b, c, d, a, x[14], S34, 0xfde5380c); /* 36 */
HH (a, b, c, d, x[ 1], S31, 0xa4beea44); /* 37 */
HH (d, a, b, c, x[ 4], S32, 0x4bdecfa9); /* 38 */
HH (c, d, a, b, x[ 7], S33, 0xf6bb4b60); /* 39 */
HH (b, c, d, a, x[10], S34, 0xbebfbc70); /* 40 */
HH (a, b, c, d, x[13], S31, 0x289b7ec6); /* 41 */
HH (d, a, b, c, x[ 0], S32, 0xeaa127fa); /* 42 */
HH (c, d, a, b, x[ 3], S33, 0xd4ef3085); /* 43 */
HH (b, c, d, a, x[ 6], S34, 0x4881d05); /* 44 */
HH (a, b, c, d, x[ 9], S31, 0xd9d4d039); /* 45 */
HH (d, a, b, c, x[12], S32, 0xe6db99e5); /* 46 */
HH (c, d, a, b, x[15], S33, 0x1fa27cf8); /* 47 */
HH (b, c, d, a, x[ 2], S34, 0xc4ac5665); /* 48 */

/* Round 4 */
II (a, b, c, d, x[ 0], S41, 0xf4292244); /* 49 */
II (d, a, b, c, x[ 7], S42, 0x432aff97); /* 50 */
II (c, d, a, b, x[14], S43, 0xab9423a7); /* 51 */
II (b, c, d, a, x[ 5], S44, 0xfc93a039); /* 52 */
II (a, b, c, d, x[12], S41, 0x655b59c3); /* 53 */
II (d, a, b, c, x[ 3], S42, 0x8f0ccc92); /* 54 */
II (c, d, a, b, x[10], S43, 0xffeff47d); /* 55 */
II (b, c, d, a, x[ 1], S44, 0x85845dd1); /* 56 */
II (a, b, c, d, x[ 8], S41, 0x6fa87e4f); /* 57 */
II (d, a, b, c, x[15], S42, 0xfe2ce6e0); /* 58 */
II (c, d, a, b, x[ 6], S43, 0xa3014314); /* 59 */
II (b, c, d, a, x[13], S44, 0x4e0811a1); /* 60 */
II (a, b, c, d, x[ 4], S41, 0xf7537e82); /* 61 */
II (d, a, b, c, x[11], S42, 0xbd3af235); /* 62 */
II (c, d, a, b, x[ 2], S43, 0x2ad7d2bb); /* 63 */
II (b, c, d, a, x[ 9], S44, 0xeb86d391); /* 64 */

_state[0] += a;
_state[1] += b;
_state[2] += c;
_state[3] += d;
}

/* Encodes input (ulong) into output (byte). Assumes length is
a multiple of 4.
*/
void MD5::encode(const uint32* input, byte* output, size_t length) {

for (size_t i = 0, j = 0; j < length; ++i, j += 4) {
   output[j]= (byte)(input[i] & 0xff);
   output[j + 1] = (byte)((input[i] >> 8) & 0xff);
   output[j + 2] = (byte)((input[i] >> 16) & 0xff);
   output[j + 3] = (byte)((input[i] >> 24) & 0xff);
}
}

/* Decodes input (byte) into output (ulong). Assumes length is
a multiple of 4.
*/
void MD5::decode(const byte* input, uint32* output, size_t length) {

for (size_t i = 0, j = 0; j < length; ++i, j += 4) {
   output[i] = ((uint32)input[j]) | (((uint32)input[j + 1]) << 8) |
   (((uint32)input[j + 2]) << 16) | (((uint32)input[j + 3]) << 24);
}
}

/* Convert byte array to hex string. */
string MD5::bytesToHexString(const byte* input, size_t length) {

string str;
str.reserve(length << 1);
for (size_t i = 0; i < length; ++i) {
   int t = input[i];
   int a = t / 16;
   int b = t % 16;
   str.append(1, HEX[a]);
   str.append(1, HEX[b]);
}
return str;
}

/* Convert digest to string value */
string MD5::toString() {
return bytesToHexString(digest(), 16);
}
test.cpp
 #include "md5.h"
 #include <iostream>
 
 using namespace std;
 
 void PrintMD5(const string& str, MD5& md5) {
      cout << "MD5(\"" << str << "\") = " << md5.toString() << endl;
 }

int main() {

     MD5 md5;
     md5.update("");
     PrintMD5("", md5);

     md5.update("a");
     PrintMD5("a", md5);

     md5.update("bc");
     PrintMD5("abc", md5);

     md5.update("defghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz");
     PrintMD5("abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz", md5);

     md5.reset();
     md5.update("message digest");
     PrintMD5("message digest", md5);

     md5.reset();
     md5.update(ifstream("D:\\test.txt"));
     PrintMD5("D:\\test.txt", md5);

    return 0;
}
测试结果:
MD5("") = d41d8cd98f00b204e9800998ecf8427e
MD5("a") = 0cc175b9c0f1b6a831c399e269772661
MD5("abc") = 900150983cd24fb0d6963f7d28e17f72
MD5("abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz") = c3fcd3d76192e4007dfb496cca67e13b
MD5("message digest") = f96b697d7cb7938d525a2f31aaf161d0
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