Interpreting HANGANALYZE trace files to diagnose hanging and performance problems for 9i and 10g. (文

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PURPOSE


This article explains how to use the HANGANALYZE utility to diagnose hanging issues in Oracle Databases.
本文解释了如何使用 HANGANALYZE  以诊断Oracle数据中的hang问题。

BACKGROUND


When a database has severe performance problems, the cause of the problem may be a HANG. Using trace files produced by HANGANALYZE, you will be able to quickly determine if two or more processes are deadlocked and how many other processes may be affected. By using HANGANALYZE, you may also determine if a performance analysis will be required to diagnose the real problem when a HANG is taking place.
当一个数据库发生严重性性能问题,问题的原因可能是HANG。使用Hanganalyze生成的trace文件,你将可以快速确定是否为两个进程发生死锁,涉及到多少个其他进程。通过使用 HANGANALYZE,你也可以确定在HANG发生时是否需要进行性能诊断。

CONTENT

WHY USING HANGANALYZE


A “true” hang in the Oracle database can be defined as an internal deadlock or a cyclical dependency between two or more processes. When dealing with DML locks (i.e., TM), Oracle is able to detect this dependency and rollback one of the processes to break the cyclical condition. On the other hand, when this situation happens with internal kernel-level resources (e.g latches or pins), Oracle is usually unable to automatically detect and resolve the deadlock.

在Oralce数据库中一个真正的hang可以定义为内部的死锁或者 多个进程间的循环依赖。当处理DML锁时,Oracle能都判断依赖关系并回滚其中一个进程来打破循环争用。另一方面,如果发生在内核层级争用,(如latch或pin),Oralce通常不能自动发现并处理死锁。


A severe performance problem may easily be mistaken for a hang. This usually happens when contention is so bad that it seems like the database is completely hung. Previous to HANGANALYZE (Available since Oracle realease 8.0.6), the only tool available to diagnose this type of problem was the well-known “SYSTEMSTATE dump”. A SYSTEMSTATE dump has the following disadvantages when dealing with hanging issues:

一个严重的性能很容易被误认为是HANG。这通常发生在争用非常严重,以至于看起来数据库完全hang住。在 HANGANALYZE出现之前(8.0.6),诊断此类问题的工具是众所周知的   “SYSTEMSTATE  。

一个   “SYSTEMSTATE  dump 在诊断一下问题时,存在不足。

  • SYSTEMSTATE dump reads the SGA in a “dirty” manner, so it may be inconsistent when the time to dump all the process is long.
     SYSTEMSTATE dump 以脏读读取SGA,如果DUMP 所用进程需要很长时间,则可能会出现不一致的情况。
  • SYSTEMSTATE dump usually dumps a lot of information (most of which is not needed to determine the source of the hang), which makes difficult to determine the dependencies between processes quickly.
    SYSTEMSTATE dump   收集大量信息(大部分在诊断hang时用不到)  ,这将增加快速确定进城依赖关系的难度
  • SYSTEMSTATE dumps do not identify “interesting” processes on which to perform additional dumps (ERRORSTACK or PROCESS STATE).
    SYSTEMSTATE dump 不能识别可疑进程,也就无法对这些进程进行额外的dump(ERRORSTACK 或PROCESS STATE)
       
HANGANALYZE use internal kernel calls to determine if a session is waiting for a resource, and reports the relationships between blockers and waiters. In addition, it determines which processes are “interesting” to be dumped, and may perform automatic PROCESSSTATE dumps and ERRORSTACKS on those processes, based on the level used while executing the HANGANALYZE.

HANGANALYZE 使用内核调用来判断一个session是否等待一个资源,并报告阻塞者和等待者。额外, 他将会判断哪些进程可疑,并可能自动对可疑进程进行PROCESSSTATE dump 与ERRORSTACKS,这依赖于执行HANGANALYZE的level。


Note:  HANGANALYZE is not intented to replace a SYSTEMSTATE dump, but may serve as a road map to interpret a SYSTEMSTATE while diagnosing complex issues.
             HANGANALYZE  并不能替代 SYSTEMSTATE   DUMP,但是在诊断复杂问题时,可以作为 SYSTEMSTATE  的路线图。

USING HANGANALYZE


The “HANGANALYZE” command is available since Oracle Release 8.1.6. In Oracle9i it was enhanced to provide “cluster wide” information in Real Application Cluster (RAC) environments on a single shot. The meaning of this is that it will generate information for all the sessions in the cluster regardless of the instance that issued the command.

HANGANALYZE在   Oracle 8.1.6.后可用。在Oracle 9i,在单一环境增加了集群信息,这意味着使用此命令可以跨越实例,收集集群所有sessoin的信息。


HANGANALYZE may be executed using the following syntax:

HANGANALYZE 可以使用以下语法执行

ALTER SESSION SET EVENTS 'immediate trace name HANGANALYZE level <level>';

Or when logged in with the “SYSDBA” role,

或是使用SYSDBA角色
ORADEBUG hanganalyze <level>


To perform cluster wide HANGANALYZE use the following syntax:
使用如下语法收集集群 HANGANALYZE  

ORADEBUG setmypid
ORADEBUG setinst all
ORADEBUG -g def hanganalyze <level>


The <level> sets the amount of additional information that will be extracted from the processes found by HANGANALYZE (ERROSTACK dump) based on the “STATE” of the node. See further detail in the “STATE DESCRIPTION” section of this document.
 <level>设置决定了依据节点 “STATE”进行额外信息收集的程度。更多信息查看 “STATE DESCRIPTION”章节。

The levels are defined as follows:

10     Dump all processes (IGN state)
5      Level 4 + Dump all processes involved in wait chains (NLEAF state)
         Level 3 + Dump  所有在wait chain 上的进程( NLEAF state)
4      Level 3 + Dump leaf nodes (blockers) in wait chains (LEAF,LEAF_NW,IGN_DMP state)       
        Level  3 + Dump所有wait chain 叶子节点(阻塞者) (状态为  LEAF,LEAF_NW,IGN_DMP)
3      Level 3 + Dump only processes thought to be in a hang (IN_HANG state)
       level2+被认为IN)HANG状态下的state
1-2    Only HANGANALYZE output, no process dump at all 
       只显示 HANGANALYZE  并不dump process

INTERPRETING HANGANALYZE DUMPS

HANGANALYZE has several sections, which may or not be reported in the trace file. They are only generated when HANGANALYZE finds information related to the section.
HANGANALYZE 有几个章节,未必全部出现在trace文件中。HANGANALYZE 将显示发现的问题。

Sections where session information is reported always have a header that details the information that is extracted. Previous to Oracle9i the information extracted is always consistent, while in Oracle9i, especially when getting “cluster wide” HANGANALYZE trace files, it may gather information related to the operating system only on the node where the HANGANALYZE was issued.
session信息总是被提取并显示在文件的头部的。在9I之前信息总是一致的。从Oracle9i以后,特别是获取集群级别的  HANGANALYZE  文件,他只收集运行 HANGANALYZE  这一个节点的。

Examples of session “headers”:

Oracle 8.x chain header:  <sid/sess_srno/proc_ptr/ospid/wait_event>
Oracle9i chain header:  <cnode/sid/sess_srno/proc_ptr/ospid/wait_event> :

Where:
 sid        = Session ID
 sess_srno  = Serial#
 proc_ptr   = Process Pointer
 ospid      = OS Process Id
 wait_event = Waitevent
 cnode      = Node Id (Only available since Oracle9i)

State of Nodes headers are explained in the section called: STATE OF THE NODES DESCRIPTION

The following example shows how to interpret each of the sections of a HANGANALYZE trace file:

*** 2002-05-13 17:02:30.937
==============
HANG ANALYSIS:
==============

CYCLES: This section reports the process dependencies between sessions that are in a deadlock condition. Cycles are considered   “true” hangs.
循环:此章节报告处于死锁争用的进城信息。
Cycles  被认为是真正的HANG

Cycle 1 : <sid/sess_srno/proc_ptr/ospid/wait_event> :
    <980/3887/0xe4214964/24065/latch free>
 -- <2518/352/0xe4216560/24574/latch free>
 -- <55/10/0xe41236a8/13751/latch free>

BLOCKER OF MANY SESSIONS: This section is found when a process is blocking a lot of other sessions. Usually when a process is blocking more that 10 sessions this section will appear in the trace file.
多sesson阻塞者:本章发现某些session阻塞大量其他的session。通常当一个进程阻塞其他进程超过10个的时候,将出现在这个文件中。

Found 21 objects waiting for <sid/sess_srno/proc_ptr/ospid/wait_event>
    <55/10/0xe41236a8/13751/latch free>
Found 12 objects waiting for <sid/sess_srno/proc_ptr/ospid/wait_event>
    <2098/2280/0xe42870d0/3022/db file scattered read>
Found 12 objects waiting for <sid/sess_srno/proc_ptr/ospid/wait_event>
    <1941/1783/0xe41ac9e0/462/No Wait>
Found 12 objects waiting for <sid/sess_srno/proc_ptr/ospid/wait_event>
    <980/3887/0xe4214964/24065/latch free>

OPEN CHAINS: This section reports sessions involved on a wait chain. A wait chains means that one session is blocking one or more other sessions.
             这个章节报告参与了等待链的session。一个等待链意味着一个session正在组设一个或者多个其他session。

Open chains found:
Chain 1 : <sid/sess_srno/proc_ptr/ospid/wait_event> :
    <2/1/0xe411b0f4/12280/db file parallel write>
Chain 2 : <sid/sess_srno/proc_ptr/ospid/wait_event> :
    <3/1/0xe411b410/12282/No Wait>
Chain 6 : <sid/sess_srno/proc_ptr/ospid/wait_event> :
    <18/1631/0xe4243cf8/25457/db file scattered read>
 -- <229/1568/0xe422b84c/8460/buffer busy waits>
Chain 17 : <sid/sess_srno/proc_ptr/ospid/wait_event> :
    <56/11/0xe4123ce0/13755/latch free>
 -- <2384/599/0xe41890dc/22488/latch free>
 -- <32/2703/0xe41fa284/25693/latch free>

OTHER CHAINS: It refers to chains of blockers and waiters related to other sessions identified under “open chains”, but not blocked directly by the process reported on the "open chain". 
                            本章涉及到在  “open chains”下的阻塞者或其他等待者,但是并没有直接阻塞。

Other chains found:
Chain 676 : <sid/sess_srno/proc_ptr/ospid/wait_event> :
    <20/93/0xe411d644/13597/latch free>
Chain 677 : <sid/sess_srno/proc_ptr/ospid/wait_event> :
    <27/1201/0xe41d3188/15809/latch free>
Chain 678 : <sid/sess_srno/proc_ptr/ospid/wait_event> :
    <36/1532/0xe428be8c/4232/latch free>
 -- <706/1216/0xe4121aac/23317/latch free>
Chain 679 : <sid/sess_srno/proc_ptr/ospid/wait_event> :
    <43/12/0xe4122d54/13745/latch free>
Chain 680 : <sid/sess_srno/proc_ptr/ospid/wait_event> :
    <80/2/0xe41290d4/13811/library cache pin>
 -- <1919/1134/0xe421fdbc/3343/enqueue>

Additional DUMP detail: HANGANALYZE generates errorstack dumps for individual processes based on: the LEVEL used when the command is issued, and the STATE of the session. This part of the HANGANALYZE trace indicates which processes will be dumped if higher levels are used. It also indicates how many nodes will be dumped so you can measure the impact to the system (if too many errorstack dumps occur simultaneously, the disks serving the trace destination may become saturated). The “STATE DESCRIPTION” section of this document further explains the meaning of the states.
额外的DUMP细节, HANGANALYZE根据调用命令时的级别以及session的状态。  生成 errorstack    dumps  。   HANGANALYZE trace  这部分说明如果使用高级别参数将dump哪个进程。同时也说明了要测量系统的级别。(如果同时发生太多的 errorstack,  trace文件所在的磁盘会接近饱和。 

本文章节 “STATE DESCRIPTION” 将加以详述。
Extra information that will be dumped at higher levels:
[level  4] :  23 node dumps -- [LEAF] [LEAF_NW] [IGN_DMP]
[level  5] :  36 node dumps -- [NLEAF]
[level 10] : 130 node dumps -- [IGN]

STATE OF NODES: This section might be considered as the main section of the report. It shows all the sessions connected when the HANGANALYZE trace file was generated. This section essentially describes a dependency graph between nodes(known as an “adjacency list”), where each session is considered a node, and each node may have an “adjacent” node or a “predecessor” node related to it. Depending on the state of the node it may be a blocker, a waiter or a hung node. The “STATE DESCRIPTION” section of this document explains further the meaning of the states.
STATE OF NODES: 这一章节被认为是整个报告的主要部分。他显示HANGANALYZE trace 生成时,所有连接进来的session。本章节实际上描述了一个可是的依赖关系。,(所谓的连接列表 “adjacency list” ),每一个session被认为是一个node,每一个node会相关的有相连的node或者前提node。node的state可能是一个blocker、waiter或一个hang node。

State of nodes
([nodenum]/sid/sess_srno/session/state/start/finish/[adjlist]/predecessor):
[0]/1/1/0xa6f8b0/IGN/1/2//none
[1]/2/1/0xa70230/IGN/3/4//none
[3]/4/1/0xa71530/IGN/5/6//none
[4]/5/1/0xa71eb0/IGN/7/8//none
[5]/6/1/0xa72830/IGN/9/10//none
[6]/7/1/0xa731b0/IGN/11/12//none
[7]/8/1/0xa73b30/IGN/13/14//none
[8]/9/1/0xa744b0/IGN_DMP/15/18/[130]/none
[9]/10/1/0xa74e30/IGN/19/20//none
[10]/11/4202/0xa757b0/IGN/21/22/[130]/none
[11]/12/1196/0xa76130/NLEAF/23/28/[49]/none
[12]/13/1/0xa76ab0/IGN/29/30/[130]/none
[37]/38/37/0xa85830/NLEAF/73/76/[50]/46
[46]/47/15/0xa8adb0/NLEAF/91/92/[37][50]/none
====================
END OF HANG ANALYSIS
====================

STATE OF THE NODES DESCRIPTION

  As described before, HANGANALYZE use the model of “Adjacency Lists” to report the sessions found when the HANGANALYZE command was issued. In Graph Theory, an adjacency list represents a list of nodes that are connected to a given node. For each node, a linked list of nodes connected to it can be set up to represent the neighbor node connected. To be able to interpret a HANGANALYZE trace file it is required to relate the “STATE” of the node with the “adjacent” node to it.
A typical entry in the state of the nodes section will be as follow:

Oracle 8.x : [nodenum]/sid/sess_srno/session/state/start/finish/[adjlist]/predecessor
Oracle9i: [nodenum]/cnode/sid/sess_srno/session/ospid/state/start/finish/[adjlist]/predecessor

Where:
 Nodenum     = This is sequential number used by HANGANALYZE to identify each session 一个数列用以标识每一个session
 sid         = Session 
 sess_srno   = Serial#   
 ospid        = OS Process Id
 state       = State of the node     
 adjlist     = adjacent node   (Usually represents a  blocker node)   相邻节点(通常代表一个阻塞节点)
 predecessor = predecessor node (Usually represents a waiter node)  前提节点  (通常代表一个等待节点)
 cnode        = Node number (Only available since Oracle9i)   节点编号(9i后才有效)

The following describes the important states to be considered:
下文描述了需要重点关注的状态

IN_HANG:  This might be considered as the most critical STATE. Basically a node in this state is involved in a deadlock, or is hung. Usually there will be another “adjacent node” in the same status. For example:
         这被认为是最危急的状态。基本上一个node处于死锁状态。通常会有另外一个相连节点在相同状态。比如

 [nodenum]/cnode/sid/sess_srno/session/ospid/state/start/finish/[adjlist]/predecessor
 [16]/0/17/154/0x24617be0/26800/IN_HANG/29/32/[185]/19
 [185]/1/16/4966/0x24617270//IN_HANG/30/31/[16]/16

In this example the node [16] is waiting for node [185], and the other way around; this is  a cyclical condition (deadlock).
本例中,node[16]正在等待node[185] ,还有另一个环路,这是一个危急的争用。(死锁)。

LEAF and LEAF_NW:  Leaf nodes are considered on top of the wait chain (usually blockers). They are considered “Blockers” when there is another session waiting. This can be easily identified using the “predecesor” field. If there is a node referenced in the ‘prdecessor’ field, the node is considered as “blocker”, otherwise it is considered as a “slow” session waiting for some resource.
The difference between LEAF and LEAF_NW is that LEAF nodes are waiting for something, while LEAF_NW are not waiting or may be using the CPU. A typical representation of these nodes when they are considered blockers is:
                 Leaf节点被认为是等待链中的顶部(通常为阻塞者)。阻塞者被描述为(有另一个session在等待)。它可以很容易的通过   “predecesor” 区域定义。如果有一个node与   ‘prdecessor’ field相关,则次node被认为是组设这,否则他就被认为是一个正在等待某个资源的慢session。



 [ nodenum]/cnode/sid/sess_srno/session/ospid/state/start/finish/[adjlist]/predecessor
 [16]/0/17/154/0x24617be0/26800/LEAF/29/30//19
 [19]/0/20/13/0x24619830/26791/NLEAF/33/34/[16]/186

In this example, node [16] is blocking node [19]. Notice that node [16] has node [19] in the predecessor field.
本例中,node [16] 是一个阻塞节点。注意    node [16]  在前提域中有    node [19]
Also notice that node [19] has node [16] in the adjacent list.

NLEAF  : These sessions are usually considered as “stuck” sessions. It means that there is another session holding a resource needed by the session in this state. By using the adjlist, you can determine which node is the blocker of this process. When many sessions are found in this state, it is likely the database is experiencing a performance problem rather than a hang problem.
这些session通常被认为是坚守者(等待者)。这意味着其他session持有本session所需要的资源。通过使用 adjlist,你可以发现哪个node 是本进程的阻塞者。如果发现大量的session处于此种状态,则可能数据库性能不佳而不是一个hang。


IGN and IGN_DMP  : Sessions in this state are usually considered as IDLE sessions, unless they reference a node in the “ adjlist” field. In this case, the node is waiting for another node, so it will be considered as a ‘stuck’ session as well.
                                此种状态下的session通常被认为是空闲进程,除非他们与出现在 “ adjlist”  域中的节点相关。在本例中,这个几点正在等待其他node,所以他也将被认为是一个坚守者。
Extending the previous example,

 [nodenum]/cnode/sid/sess_srno/session/ospid/state/start/finish/[adjlist]/predecessor
 [16]/0/17/154/0x24617be0/26800/LEAF/29/30//19
 [19]/0/20/13/0x24619830/26791/NLEAF/33/34/[16]/186
 [189]/1/20/36/0x24619830//IGN/95/96/[19]/none
 [176]/1/7/1/0x24611d80//IGN/75/76//none

You may notice that node [189] is waiting for node [19] which in turn is waiting for node [16], while node [176] is an IDLE session . This maybe the case when a session has a DML lock but never finished the transaction. 
你可能注意到node   [189] 正待等待 node [19]  ,此时node[19]正在等待node[16],而node[176]是一个空闲进程。这可能是session开启了dm 锁,但是次事务永不结束。

In Oracle9i, two new states were introduced to differentiate between LEAF nodes that have other nodes waiting behind them (i.e., LEAF nodes that are blockers) vs. LEAF nodes that are not affecting other nodes.
在Oracle9i中,加入了两种状态用来区分那些存在其他节点等待的 LEAF   NODE(LEAF nodes 是blocker (阻塞者))与 LEAF NODE并没有影响其他节点。

SINGLE_NODE and SINGLE_NODE_NW:
This can be described the same as LEAF and LEAF_NW, except that they don't have processes depending on them.
除非没有其他进程依赖他们 否则可以被看作是   LEAF  LEAF_NW。

LEVEL USAGE RECOMMENDATIONS

It is advisable not to use levels higher than 3 due to the potentially large number of trace files that may be produced (and could overwhelm the I/O subsystem). Since HANGANALYZE will be mostly used to diagnose “true hangs”, a level 3 will dump the processes that are involved in a the hang condition – this usually involves fewer than 4 processes.
我们建议不要使用level超过3HANGANALYZE,因为级别越高,产生的trace文件越大(可能是IO子系统过载)由于 HANGANALYZE  常被用在真正的HANG情况逛下,level3可以dump
处于HANG争用状态下的进程,-这些进程通常小于4个。

Level 4 may be used with caution when dealing with performance scenarios where sessions are being stuck for a long period of time, and no other information can be gathered. Be carefull that a HANGANALYZE level 4 will dump all the processes in the following states:
[LEAF] [LEAF_NW] [IGN_DMP]. Before doing so, perform a HANGANALYZE level 3, and check the section: “Extra information that will be dumped at higher levels”. This section will tell you exactly how many sessions will be dumped at each level.   It is diffucult to know how many dumps are an acceptable number to keep from saturating the disks due to the differences in disk implementations (5 to 10 is probably OK for most systems; larger systems may be able to handle 20 to 40 dumps).

LEVEL 4 被用于处理session被长时间卡住,并且没有其他信息可以被收取。注意   HANGANALYZE level 4将DUMP以下状态的所有进程( [LEAF] [LEAF_NW] [IGN_DMP] )。
在做这些之前,运行一下 NGANALYZE level 3,检查( Extra information that will be dumped at higher levels” )。这部分会告诉你每个level有多少session需要被DUMP。由于磁盘的差异,很难确定多少个session的dump会使磁盘负载达到饱和(对于大部分系统5-10个是可以的,更大的系统可以到20-40.)

Level 5 and 10 are typicaly useless and generate a huge amount of trace files that may severely impact the performance of the database.

LEVEL 5 和 10 将产生巨大的trace文件,可能会影响数据库的性能。

HANGANALYZE AND OTHER TRACING FACILITIES

When diagnosing problems using HANGANALYZE it is recommended also to generate a SYSTEMSTATE dump level 2 to be able to see all the session details. HANGANALYZE together with the SYSTEMSTATE dump will help Oracle Support to understand better the status of the database when the problem ocurred and get a detailed view of each of the process connected to the database.

当使用 HANGANALYZE诊断问题时,建议同时做一个level为2的 SYSTEMSTATE dump 以便查看所有的session明细。
HANGANALYZE与 SYSTEMSTATE dump  也会帮助Oracle support 更好的了解问题发生时数据库的状态,也观察到每一个连接到数据库上的session。

RELATED DOCUMENTS

Note:175006.1 : Steps to generate HANGANALYZE trace files

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