SpringBoot如何实现全链路调用日志跟踪

1 SpringBoot如何实现全链路调用日志跟踪

 MDC介绍

简介:

MDC(Mapped Diagnostic Context,映射调试上下文)是 log4j 、logback及log4j2 提供的一种方便在多线程条件下记录日志的功能。MDC 可以看成是一个与当前线程绑定的哈希表,可以往其中添加键值对。MDC 中包含的内容可以被同一线程中执行的代码所访问。当前线程的子线程会继承其父线程中的 MDC 的内容。当需要记录日志时,只需要从 MDC 中获取所需的信息即可。MDC 的内容则由程序在适当的时候保存进去。对于一个 Web 应用来说,通常是在请求被处理的最开始保存这些数据

API说明:

  • clear() => 移除所有MDC

  • get (String key) => 获取当前线程MDC中指定key的值

  • getContext() => 获取当前线程MDC的MDC

  • put(String key, Object o) => 往当前线程的MDC中存入指定的键值对

  • remove(String key) => 删除当前线程MDC中指定的键值对

优点:

  • 代码简洁,日志风格统一,不需要在log打印中手动拼写traceId,即LOGGER.info("traceId:{} ", traceId)

暂时只能想到这一点

MDC使用

子线程在打印日志的过程中traceId将丢失,解决方式为重写线程池,对于直接new创建线程的情况不考略【实际应用中应该避免这种用法】,重写线程池无非是对任务进行一次封装

解决MDC存在的问题

子线程日志打印丢失traceId

添加拦截器
 

public class LogInterceptor implements HandlerInterceptor {
    @Override
    public boolean preHandle(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response, Object handler) throws Exception {
        //如果有上层调用就用上层的ID
        String traceId = request.getHeader(Constants.TRACE_ID);
        if (traceId == null) {
            traceId = TraceIdUtil.getTraceId();
        }

        MDC.put(Constants.TRACE_ID, traceId);
        return true;
    }

    @Override
    public void postHandle(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response, Object handler, ModelAndView modelAndView)
            throws Exception {
    }

    @Override
    public void afterCompletion(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response, Object handler, Exception ex)
            throws Exception {
        //调用结束后删除
        MDC.remove(Constants.TRACE_ID);
    }
}

修改日志格式 
 

<property name="pattern">[TRACEID:%X{traceId}] %d{HH:mm:ss.SSS} %-5level %class{-1}.%M()/%L - %msg%xEx%n</property>

重点是%X{traceId},traceId和MDC中的键名称一致 简单使用就这么容易,但是在有些情况下traceId将获取不到

MDC 存在的问题

  • 子线程中打印日志丢失traceId

  • HTTP调用丢失traceId ......丢失traceId的情况,来一个再解决一个,绝不提前优化

  • 线程池封装类:ThreadPoolExecutorMdcWrapper.java

public class ThreadPoolExecutorMdcWrapper extends ThreadPoolExecutor {
    public ThreadPoolExecutorMdcWrapper(int corePoolSize, int maximumPoolSize, long keepAliveTime, TimeUnit unit,
                                        BlockingQueue<Runnable> workQueue) {
        super(corePoolSize, maximumPoolSize, keepAliveTime, unit, workQueue);
    }

    public ThreadPoolExecutorMdcWrapper(int corePoolSize, int maximumPoolSize, long keepAliveTime, TimeUnit unit,
                                        BlockingQueue<Runnable> workQueue, ThreadFactory threadFactory) {
        super(corePoolSize, maximumPoolSize, keepAliveTime, unit, workQueue, threadFactory);
    }

    public ThreadPoolExecutorMdcWrapper(int corePoolSize, int maximumPoolSize, long keepAliveTime, TimeUnit unit,
                                        BlockingQueue<Runnable> workQueue, RejectedExecutionHandler handler) {
        super(corePoolSize, maximumPoolSize, keepAliveTime, unit, workQueue, handler);
    }

    public ThreadPoolExecutorMdcWrapper(int corePoolSize, int maximumPoolSize, long keepAliveTime, TimeUnit unit,
                                        BlockingQueue<Runnable> workQueue, ThreadFactory threadFactory,
                                        RejectedExecutionHandler handler) {
        super(corePoolSize, maximumPoolSize, keepAliveTime, unit, workQueue, threadFactory, handler);
    }

    @Override
    public void execute(Runnable task) {
        super.execute(ThreadMdcUtil.wrap(task, MDC.getCopyOfContextMap()));
    }

    @Override
    public <T> Future<T> submit(Runnable task, T result) {
        return super.submit(ThreadMdcUtil.wrap(task, MDC.getCopyOfContextMap()), result);
    }

    @Override
    public <T> Future<T> submit(Callable<T> task) {
        return super.submit(ThreadMdcUtil.wrap(task, MDC.getCopyOfContextMap()));
    }

    @Override
    public Future<?> submit(Runnable task) {
        return super.submit(ThreadMdcUtil.wrap(task, MDC.getCopyOfContextMap()));
    }
}

说明:继承ThreadPoolExecutor类,重新执行任务的方法 通过ThreadMdcUtil对任务进行一次包装

  • 线程traceId封装工具类:ThreadMdcUtil.java

public class ThreadMdcUtil {
    public static void setTraceIdIfAbsent() {
        if (MDC.get(Constants.TRACE_ID) == null) {
            MDC.put(Constants.TRACE_ID, TraceIdUtil.getTraceId());
        }
    }

    public static <T> Callable<T> wrap(final Callable<T> callable, final Map<String, String> context) {
        return () -> {
            if (context == null) {
                MDC.clear();
            } else {
                MDC.setContextMap(context);
            }
            setTraceIdIfAbsent();
            try {
                return callable.call();
            } finally {
                MDC.clear();
            }
        };
    }

    public static Runnable wrap(final Runnable runnable, final Map<String, String> context) {
        return () -> {
            if (context == null) {
                MDC.clear();
            } else {
                MDC.setContextMap(context);
            }
            setTraceIdIfAbsent();
            try {
                runnable.run();
            } finally {
                MDC.clear();
            }
        };
    }
}

说明【以封装Runnable为例】:判断当前线程对应MDC的Map是否存在,存在则设置 设置MDC中的traceId值,不存在则新生成,针对不是子线程的情况,如果是子线程,MDC中traceId不为null 执行run方法 代码等同于以下写法,会更直观

public static Runnable wrap(final Runnable runnable, final Map<String, String> context) {
        return new Runnable() {
            @Override
            public void run() {
                if (context == null) {
                    MDC.clear();
                } else {
                    MDC.setContextMap(context);
                }
                setTraceIdIfAbsent();
                try {
                    runnable.run();
                } finally {
                    MDC.clear();
                }
            }
        };
    }

 

 

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