curl使用实例

本文将介绍curl的使用,根据常用的场景,提供调用curl实现请求的演示代码及服务端代码,方便大家学习使用。

1.查看网页源码

curl命令后加网址,就可以看到网页源码。

curl www.csdn.net
<html>
<head><title>302 Found</title></head>
<body bgcolor="white">
<center><h1>302 Found</h1></center>
<hr><center>nginx</center>
</body>
</html>


2.自动跳转

上例中,因为网址进行了跳转,而curl默认是不跟随跳转的,因此只获取第一次页面的源码。如果我们想跟随跳转,可以使用-L参数。

curl -L www.csdn.net

加入-L参数后,curl就会跟随跳转到新页面,返回新页面的源码。

3.查看网页源码并下载

保存网页源码到文件,使用-o参数加保存路径。

curl -o csdn.viewcode www.csdn.net

执行后,网页的源码会保存在csdn.viewcode文件中。

4.显示网页头信息

curl -i www.csdn.net
HTTP/1.1 302 Moved Temporarily
Server: openresty
Date: Sun, 17 Dec 2017 09:18:46 GMT
Content-Type: text/html
Content-Length: 154
Connection: keep-alive
Keep-Alive: timeout=20
Location: https://www.csdn.net

<html>
<head><title>302 Found</title></head>
<body bgcolor="white">
<center><h1>302 Found</h1></center>
<hr><center>nginx</center>
</body>
</html>

如果只需要显示http response的头信息,使用-I

curl -I www.csdn.net
HTTP/1.1 302 Moved Temporarily
Server: openresty
Date: Sun, 17 Dec 2017 09:20:25 GMT
Content-Type: text/html
Content-Length: 154
Connection: keep-alive
Keep-Alive: timeout=20
Location: https://www.csdn.net


5.显示通讯过程

curl -v www.csdn.net
* Rebuilt URL to: www.csdn.net/
*   Trying 101.201.172.229...
* Connected to www.csdn.net (101.201.172.229) port 80 (#0)
> GET / HTTP/1.1
> Host: www.csdn.net
> User-Agent: curl/7.49.1
> Accept: */*
> 
< HTTP/1.1 302 Moved Temporarily
< Server: openresty
< Date: Sun, 17 Dec 2017 09:23:06 GMT
< Content-Type: text/html
< Content-Length: 154
< Connection: keep-alive
< Keep-Alive: timeout=20
< Location: https://www.csdn.net
< 
<html>
<head><title>302 Found</title></head>
<body bgcolor="white">
<center><h1>302 Found</h1></center>
<hr><center>nginx</center>
</body>
</html>
* Connection #0 to host www.csdn.net left intact


6.显示详细通讯过程

如果想要查看更详细的通讯过程,可以使用下面两个参数。

curl --trace trace.log www.csdn.com

curl --trace-ascii trace.log www.csdn.com

执行后,打开trace.log查看。

7.提交表单

get方式

数据直接拼接到地址后面

curl "localhost/server.php?a=1&b=2&c=3"

服务端代码:

<?php
$param = array('a','b','c');
foreach($param as $v){
    echo $v.'='.(isset($_GET[$v])? $_GET[$v] : '').PHP_EOL;
}
?>

 
post方式

数据要与地址分开,使用–data参数

curl -X POST --data "a=1&b=2&c=3" "localhost/server.php"

也可以简化为

curl -d "a=1&b=2&c=3" "localhost/server.php"

 
表单编码

如果数据没有进行编码,使用–data-urlencode参数执行编码,不过需要分开一个一个参数来编码。

curl -X POST --data-urlencode "a=哈哈" --data-urlencode "b=嘿嘿" --data-urlencode "c=呵呵" "localhost/server.php"

服务端代码:

<?php
$param = array('a','b','c');
foreach($param as $v){
    echo $v.'='.(isset($_POST[$v])? $_POST[$v] : '').PHP_EOL;
}
?>


8.上传文件

例如文件上传表单如下:

<form name="form1" method="post" action="test.php" enctype="multipart/form-data">
<p>file:<input type="file" name="file"></p>
<p><input type="submit" value="submit"></p>
</form>

使用–form 或 -F参数

只上传图片

curl --form file=@/tmp/photo.jpg localhost/server.php

上传图片及提交其他参数

curl -F upload=@/tmp/photo.jpg -F upload_field=upload -F file_path=abc.jpg localhost/server.php

服务端代码:

<?php
$upload_field = isset($_POST['upload_field'])? $_POST['upload_field'] : 'file';
$name = explode('.', $_FILES[$upload_field]['name']);
$file_ext = array_pop($name);
$file_path = isset($_POST['file_path'])? $_POST['file_path'] : time().'.'.$file_ext;

$upload_flag = move_uploaded_file($_FILES[$upload_field]['tmp_name'], dirname(__FILE__).'/'.$file_path);
echo ($upload_flag==1? 'true' : 'false').PHP_EOL;
?>


9.模拟来源

curl --referer 'www.csdn.net' localhost/server.php

服务端代码:

<?php
echo 'REFERER:'.(isset($_SERVER['HTTP_REFERER'])? $_SERVER['HTTP_REFERER'] : '').PHP_EOL;
?>


10.模拟客户端设备

模拟iPhone访问

curl --user-agent "Mozilla/5.0 (iPhone; CPU iPhone OS 6_0 like Mac OS X) AppleWebKit/536.26 (KHTML, like Gecko) Version/6.0 Mobile/10A403 Safari/8536.25" localhost/server.php

模拟chrome访问

curl --user-agent "Mozilla/5.0 (Macintosh; Intel Mac OS X 10_12_0) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/62.0.3202.94 Safari/537.36" localhost/server.php

服务端代码:

<?php
function isMobile() {
    $agent = $_SERVER['HTTP_USER_AGENT'];
    return stripos($agent, 'iPod;') !== false || stripos($agent, 'iPhone') !== false || stripos($agent, 'Android') !== false || stripos($agent, 'iPad') !== false;
}

echo (isMobile()? 'true' : 'false').PHP_EOL;
?>

模拟iPhone访问返回true,模拟chrome访问返回false。

11.发送与接收cookie

获取返回的cookie

curl -c cookiefile url

请求时传递的cookie

curl -b cookiefile url

服务端代码:

<?php
if(isset($_COOKIE['username'])){
    echo $_COOKIE['username'].' is login'.PHP_EOL;
}else{
    $username = isset($_POST['username'])? $_POST['username'] : '';
    $password = isset($_POST['password'])? $_POST['password'] : '';

    if($username=='fdipzone' && $password=='654321'){
        setcookie('username', $username, time()+3600);
        echo 'login success'.PHP_EOL;
    }else{
        echo 'login fail'.PHP_EOL;
    }
}
?>

 
没有带cookie时访问

curl localhost/server.php

执行后输出:login fail

 
登入获取cookie

curl -c /tmp/cookie -d "username=fdipzone&password=654321" localhost/server.php

执行后输出:login success
获取的cookie保存在/tmp/cookie文件中。

 
使用获取的cookie访问

curl -b /tmp/cookie localhost/server.php

执行后输出:fdipzone is login
表示能获取到请求的传递的cookie。

12.header

请求时带上自定义header。

curl --header "access-token:RGV2cXgxWHFVbEdVN1o2NFVkSG40Zmo1aXE" --header "lang:zh_CN" localhost/server.php

服务端代码:

<?php
/**
 * 获取自定义的header数据
 */
function get_all_headers(){

    // 忽略获取的header数据
    $ignore = array('host','accept','content-length','content-type');

    $headers = array();

    foreach($_SERVER as $key=>$value){
        if(substr($key, 0, 5)==='HTTP_'){
            $key = substr($key, 5);
            $key = str_replace('_', ' ', $key);
            $key = str_replace(' ', '-', $key);
            $key = strtolower($key);

            if(!in_array($key, $ignore)){
                $headers[$key] = $value;
            }
        }
    }

    return $headers;

}

print_r(get_all_headers());
?>

执行后输出:

Array
(
    [lang] => zh_CN
    [access-token] => RGV2cXgxWHFVbEdVN1o2NFVkSG40Zmo1aXE
    [user-agent] => curl/7.49.1
)


13.HTTP认证

有些地址需要HTTP认证,可以使用–user参数传递验证信息。

curl --user "user:pass" url

服务端代码:

<?php
if(!isset($_SERVER['PHP_AUTH_USER']))   
{   
    header('WWW-Authenticate: Basic realm="localhost"');   
    header("HTTP/1.0 401 Unauthorized");   
    exit('Unauthorized'.PHP_EOL);   
}else{   
    if (($_SERVER['PHP_AUTH_USER']!= "fdipzone" || $_SERVER['PHP_AUTH_PW']!="654321")) {  
        header('WWW-Authenticate: Basic realm="localhost"');  
        header("HTTP/1.0 401 Unauthorized");  
        exit('Unauthorized'.PHP_EOL);  
    }  
}  

$content = isset($_POST['content'])? $_POST['content'] : '';  
header('content-type:application/json');  
echo $content.PHP_EOL;
?>

 
不带验证信息请求

curl -d "content=abc123" localhost/server.php

执行后输出:Unauthorized

 
带验证信息请求

curl -d "content=abc123" --user "fdipzone:654321" localhost/server.php

执行后输出:abc123

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