Delphi中DLL封装对象的几种方法整理及体会

Delphi用DLL来封装对象的技术主要有三种:
用接口实现
用纯虚和抽象类方法实现
用类引用实现
前两种,都是在DLL中生成类实例;第3种通过在调用方生成实例。三种方法的共同局限如下:
调用方只能调用封装类中的virtual方法;
调用方和提供方都必须提供类的描述,接口实现中需要提供接口描述(COM方法例外);
不能创建DLL包含对象的派生类(接口派生除外)。
首先,用接口实现当然包括COM实现,不过由于COM是一种实现接口技术的独立门类,所以在下面说的接口实现中不包括这方面的东西。其次用纯虚和抽象类方法实现,在《Delphi 6 Developer‘s Guide》中提及的inc文件作为公用的头文件,和刘艺在《Delphi面向对象编程思想》中提及的方法本质上是一样的。无非都是为了在调用方加入abstract关键字,而无需方法实现,从而使得编译通过。inc文件的方法是利用宏指令来达到统一处理,不用inc方法是在两处都需要进行描述。
下面用一个例子来展示所以上面提到的集中方法。
调用方主要文件列表为:
UnitMain.pas  调用DLL的界面
UnitPublic.pas  第二种方法在调用端的类描述文件
UnitIDest.pas  接口方法和类引用方法的类描述文件
IncDemo.inc  利用inc文件实现的类描述文件
DLL工程主要文件列表为:
ProDLLDemo.dpr  DLL工程文件
UnitDLLDemo.pas  所有类实现部分的文件
UnitIDest.pas  接口方法和类引用方法的类描述文件
IncDemo.inc  利用inc文件实现的类描述文件
在方法的归纳上如有遗漏,有请指教。

UnitMain.pas 源代码:
unit UnitMain;
interface
uses
Windows, Messages, SysUtils, Variants, Classes, Graphics, Controls, Forms, Dialogs, StdCtrls, UnitPublic, UnitIDest;
{$I IncDemo.inc}
// 用于Inc方法的宏指令,如果不是用该方法可去掉上面那行
type
  TfmMain = class(TForm)
    Memo1: TMemo;
    btnUseAbstract: TButton;
    btnUseReference: TButton;
    btnUseInterface: TButton;
    btnUseInc: TButton;
    procedure btnUseAbstractClick(Sender: TObject);
    procedure FormCreate(Sender: TObject);
    procedure btnUseInterfaceClick(Sender: TObject);
    procedure btnUseReferenceClick(Sender: TObject);
    procedure btnUseIncClick(Sender: TObject);
    private
  { Private declarations }
    public
  { Public declarations }
  end;
var
  fmMain: TfmMain;
  function GetNewspaper: TNewspaper; external 'ProDLLDemo.dll';
  function GetCircle: ICircle; external 'ProDLLDemo.dll';
  function GetBall: TBallClass; external 'ProDLLDemo.dll';
  function GetCar: TCar; external 'ProDLLDemo.dll';
implementation
{$R *.dfm}
procedure TfmMain.FormCreate(Sender: TObject);
begin
  memo1.Lines.Clear;
end;
// abstract, virtual 方法示例
procedure TfmMain.btnUseAbstractClick(Sender: TObject);
var
  NewspaperObj: TNewspaper;
  Info: pchar;
  i: integer;
begin
  NewspaperObj := GetNewspaper;
  if NewspaperObj = nil then
    memo1.Lines.Add('Create newspaper object failed!')
  else
  begin
    try
      GetMem(Info, 255);
      i := NewspaperObj.Read(Info);
      memo1.Lines.Add('Create newspaper object successed!');
      memo1.Lines.Add('read : ' + Info + ' return code : ' + inttostr(i));
    finally
      FreeMem(Info);
      NewspaperObj.Free;
    end;
  end;
end;
// interface方法示例
procedure TfmMain.btnUseInterfaceClick(Sender: TObject);
var
  CircleObj: ICircle;
  Info: pchar;
  i: integer;
begin
  CircleObj := GetCircle;
  if CircleObj = nil then
    memo1.Lines.Add('Create circle object failed!')
  else
  begin
    try
      GetMem(Info, 255);
      i := CircleObj.Scroll(Info);
      memo1.Lines.Add('Create circle object successed!');
      memo1.Lines.Add('scroll : ' + Info + ' return code : ' + inttostr(i));
    finally
      FreeMem(Info);
      CircleObj := nil;
    end;
  end;
end;
// class reference方法示例
procedure TfmMain.btnUseReferenceClick(Sender: TObject);
var
  BallObj : TIBall;
  Info: pchar;
  i: integer;
begin
  BallObj := GetBall.Create;
  if BallObj = nil then
    memo1.Lines.Add('Create ball object failed!')
  else
  begin
    try
      GetMem(Info, 255);
      i := BallObj.Play(Info);
      memo1.Lines.Add('Create ball object successed!');
      memo1.Lines.Add('play : ' + Info + ' return code : ' + inttostr(i));
    finally
      FreeMem(Info);
      BallObj.Free;
    end;
  end;
end;
// .inc文件方法示例
procedure TfmMain.btnUseIncClick(Sender: TObject);
var
  CarObj : TCar;
  Info: pchar;
  i: integer;
begin
  CarObj := GetCar.Create;
  if CarObj = nil then
    memo1.Lines.Add('Create car object failed!')
  else
  begin
    try
      GetMem(Info, 255);
      i := CarObj.Run(Info);
      memo1.Lines.Add('Create car object successed!');
      memo1.Lines.Add('car : ' + Info + ' return code : ' + inttostr(i));
    finally
      FreeMem(Info);
      CarObj.Free;
    end;
  end;
end;
end.

UnitPublic.pas源代码:
unit UnitPublic;
interface
type
// ----- virtual, abstract的类定义 -----
  TPaper = class(TObject);
  TNewspaper = class(TPaper)
  public
    function Read(info : pchar) : integer; virtual; abstract;
  end;
implementation
end.
 
UnitIDest.pas源代码:
unit UnitIDest;
interface
type
  ICircle = interface
  ['{A971701F-96EC-4201-9266-57F982805B6E}']
  function Scroll(Info : pchar) : integer;
  end;
  TIBall = class(TObject)
  public
    constructor Create; virtual; abstract;
    destructor Destroy; virtual; abstract;
    function Play(info : pchar) : integer; virtual; abstract;
  end;
  TBallClass = class of TIBall;
implementation
end.
 
IncDemo.inc源文件:
type
  TCar = class(TObject)
  public
    function Run(info: pchar): integer; virtual; {$IFNDEF INCTEST} abstract; {$ENDIF}
  end;
 
ProDLLDemo.dpr源文件:
library ProDLLDemo;
uses
  SysUtils, Classes,
  UnitDLLDemo in 'UnitDLLDemo.pas',
  UnitIDest in 'UnitIDest.pas';
{$R *.res}
function GetNewspaper : TNewspaper;
begin
  result := TNewspaper.Create;
end;
function GetCircle : ICircle;
begin
  result := TCircle.Create;
end;
function GetBall : TBallClass;
begin
  result := TBall;
end;
function GetCar : TCar;
begin
  result := TCar.Create;
end;
exports
  GetNewspaper,
  GetCircle,
  GetBall,
  GetCar;
end.
UnitDLLDemo.pas源代码:
unit UnitDLLDemo;
{$DEFINE INCTEST}
interface
uses Sysutils, UnitIDest;
{$I IncDemo.inc}
{ ----- 利用纯虚和抽象类实现 ----- }
type
  TPaper = class(TObject)
  end;
  TNewspaper = class(TPaper)
  public
    constructor Create;
    destructor Destroy;
    function Read(info: pchar): integer; virtual;
  end;
{ ----- 利用接口实现 ----- }
type
  TShape = class(TInterfacedObject)
  end;
  TCircle = class(TShape, ICircle)
  public
    constructor Create;
    destructor Destroy;
    function Scroll(info: pchar): integer;
  end;
{ ----- 利用类引用实现 ----- }
type
  TBall = class(TIBall)
  public
    constructor Create;override;
    destructor Destroy;override;
    function Play(info : pchar) : integer; override;
  end;
implementation
{ TNewspaper }
constructor TNewspaper.Create;
begin
  inherited Create;
end;
destructor TNewspaper.Destroy;
begin
  inherited;
end;
function TNewspaper.Read(info: pchar): integer;
var
  str: string;
begin
  if info <> nil then
  begin
    str := self.ClassName;
    strCopy(info, PChar(str));
  end;
  result := 1;
end;
{ TCircle }
constructor TCircle.Create;
begin
  inherited Create;
end;
destructor TCircle.Destroy;
begin
  inherited;
end;
function TCircle.Scroll(info: pchar): integer;
var
  str: string;
begin
  if info <> nil then
begin
    str := self.ClassName;
    strCopy(info, PChar(str));
  end;
  result := 2;
end;
{ TBall }
constructor TBall.Create;
begin
  // inherited Create;
end;
destructor TBall.Destroy;
begin
  // inherited;
end;
function TBall.Play(info: pchar): integer;
var
  str: string;
begin
  if info <> nil then
  begin
    str := self.ClassName;
    strCopy(info, PChar(str));
  end;
  result := 3;
end;
{ ----- 利用Inc文件实现 ----- }
function TCar.Run(info: pchar): integer;
var
  str: string;
begin
  if info <> nil then
  begin
    str := self.ClassName;
    strCopy(info, PChar(str));
  end;
  result := 4;
end;
end.
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