PHPUnit入门篇

PHPUnit是什么?

它是一款轻量级的php测试框架

为什么要用PHPUnit?

1. facebook在用

2. 可以通过命令操控测试脚本

3. 可以测试性能

4. 可以测试代码覆盖率

5. 可以自动化的更新测试用例的参数数据

6. 各种格式的日志

6. 最最重要的是,功能如此炫,使用起来还特别简单

PHPUnit的安装

pear channel-discover pear.phpunit.de
pear install phpunit/PHPUnit

快速入门

<?php
require_once 'PHPUnit/Framework.php';
 
class ArrayTest extends PHPUnit_Framework_TestCase
{
    public function testNewArrayIsEmpty()
    {
        // 创建数组fixture。
        $fixture = array();
 
        // 断言数组fixture的尺寸是0。
        $this->assertEquals(0, sizeof($fixture));
    }
}
?>
1. ArrayTest为测试类

2. ArrayTest 继承于PHPUnit_Framework_TestCase

3.测试方法testNewArrayIsEmpty(),测试方法必须为public权限,一般以test开头,或者你也可以选择给其加注释@test来表明该函数为测试函数

/**
* @test
*/
public function testNewArrayIsEmpty()
{
     $fixture = array();
     $this->assertEquals(0, sizeof($fixture));
}

命令行启动测试

phpunit  测试文件名,此处为要测试ArrayTest.php文件

phpunit ArrayTest
PHPUnit 3.2.10 by Sebastian Bergmann.
..
Time: 0 seconds
OK (2 tests)

命令行参数

phpunit --help
PHPUnit 3.2.10 by Sebastian Bergmann.

Usage: phpunit [switches] UnitTest [UnitTest.php]

  --log-graphviz <file>  Log test execution in GraphViz markup.
  --log-json <file>      Log test execution in JSON format.
  --log-tap <file>       Log test execution in TAP format to file.
  --log-xml <file>       Log test execution in XML format to file.
  --log-metrics <file>   Write metrics report in XML format.
  --log-pmd <file>       Write violations report in PMD XML format.

  --coverage-html <dir>  Generate code coverage report in HTML format.
  --coverage-xml <file>  Write code coverage information in XML format.

  --test-db-dsn <dsn>    DSN for the test database.
  --test-db-log-rev <r>  Revision information for database logging.
  --test-db-prefix ...   Prefix that should be stripped from filenames.
  --test-db-log-info ... Additional information for database logging.

  --testdox-html <file>  Write agile documentation in HTML format to file.
  --testdox-text <file>  Write agile documentation in Text format to file.

  --filter <pattern>     Filter which tests to run.
  --group ...            Only runs tests from the specified group(s).
  --exclude-group ...    Exclude tests from the specified group(s).

  --loader <loader>      TestSuiteLoader implementation to use.
  --repeat <times>       Runs the test(s) repeatedly.

  --tap                  Report test execution progress in TAP format.
  --testdox              Report test execution progress in TestDox format.

  --no-syntax-check      Disable syntax check of test source files.
  --stop-on-failure      Stop execution upon first error or failure.
  --verbose              Output more verbose information.
  --wait                 Waits for a keystroke after each test.

  --skeleton             Generate skeleton UnitTest class for Unit in Unit.php.

  --help                 Prints this usage information.
  --version              Prints the version and exits.

  --configuration <file> Read configuration from XML file.
  -d key[=value]         Sets a php.ini value.

高级功能

你是否已经厌烦了在每一个测试方法命名前面加一个test,是否因为只是调用的参数不同,却要写多个测试用例而纠结?我最喜欢的高级功能,现在隆重推荐给你,叫做框架生成器

<?php
class Calculator
{
    public function add($a, $b)
    {
        return $a + $b;
    }
}
?>

命令行启动测试用例

phpunit --skeleton Calculator
PHPUnit 3.2.10 by Sebastian Bergmann.

Wrote test class skeleton for Calculator to CalculatorTest.php.

简单么?简单,但是它其实没有什么意义,因为没有测试数据,怎样加数据,哦哦哦,重头戏来了

<?php
class Calculator
{
    /**
     * @assert (0, 0) == 0
     * @assert (0, 1) == 1
     * @assert (1, 0) == 1
     * @assert (1, 1) == 2
     */
    public function add($a, $b)
    {
        return $a + $b;
    }
}
?>

原始类中的每个方法都进行@assert注解的检测。这些被转变为测试代码,像这样
    /**
     * Generated from @assert (0, 0) == 0.
     */
    public function testAdd() {
        $o = new Calculator;
        $this->assertEquals(0, $o->add(0, 0));
    }
下面是运行生成的测试用例类的输出。

phpunit CalculatorTest
PHPUnit 3.2.10 by Sebastian Bergmann.

....

Time: 0 seconds


OK (4 tests)






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