Android 静默安装和智能安装的实现方法

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本文链接:https://blog.csdn.net/fuchaosz/article/details/51852442

1 简介

最近研究了Android的静默安装和智能安装,于是写博客记录一下。
静默安装就是无声无息的在后台安装apk,没有任何界面提示。
智能安装就是有安装界面,但全部是自动的,不需要用户去点击。
首先强调两点:

  1. 静默安装必须要root权限
  2. 智能安装必须要用户手动开启无障碍服务

2 原理

  1. 静默安装、卸载的原理就是利用pm install命令来安装apk,pm uninstall 来卸载apk.
  2. 智能安装是利用android系统提供的无障碍服务AccessibilityService,来模拟用户点击,从而自动安装.

3 pm命令介绍

(1) pm install
pm install 命令的用法及参数解释如下:

pm install [-l] [-r] [-t] [-i INSTALLER_PACKAGE_NAME] [-s] [-f] PATH

Options:
  -l: install the package with FORWARD_LOCK.
  -r: reinstall an exisiting app, keeping its data.
  -t: allow test .apks to be installed.
  -i: specify the installer package name.
  -s: install package on sdcard.
  -f: install package on internal flash.

(2) pm uninstall
pm uninstall 命令的用法及参数解释如下:

pm uninstall [-k] PACKAGE

Options:
  -k: keep the data and cache directories around.

上面英语很简单,不解释了.

4 静默安装

为了方便演示,我把爱奇艺的安装包重命名为test.apk后放在了sdcard上。你可以自己去爱奇艺官网去下载,也可以自己找一个apk放到sdcard上,但是要知道apk的包名,后面卸载的时候要用到。
先上代码:

//静默安装
    private void installSlient() {
        String cmd = "pm install -r /mnt/sdcard/test.apk";
        Process process = null;
        DataOutputStream os = null;
        BufferedReader successResult = null;
        BufferedReader errorResult = null;
        StringBuilder successMsg = null;
        StringBuilder errorMsg = null;
        try {
            //静默安装需要root权限
            process = Runtime.getRuntime().exec("su");
            os = new DataOutputStream(process.getOutputStream());
            os.write(cmd.getBytes());
            os.writeBytes("\n");
            os.writeBytes("exit\n");
            os.flush();
            //执行命令
            process.waitFor();
            //获取返回结果
            successMsg = new StringBuilder();
            errorMsg = new StringBuilder();
            successResult = new BufferedReader(new InputStreamReader(process.getInputStream()));
            errorResult = new BufferedReader(new InputStreamReader(process.getErrorStream()));
            String s;
            while ((s = successResult.readLine()) != null) {
                successMsg.append(s);
            }
            while ((s = errorResult.readLine()) != null) {
                errorMsg.append(s);
            }
        } catch (Exception e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        } finally {
            try {
                if (os != null) {
                    os.close();
                }
                if (process != null) {
                    process.destroy();
                }
                if (successResult != null) {
                    successResult.close();
                }
                if (errorResult != null) {
                    errorResult.close();
                }
            } catch (Exception e) {
                e.printStackTrace();
            }
        }
        //显示结果
        tvTest.setText("成功消息:" + successMsg.toString() + "\n" + "错误消息: " + errorMsg.toString());
    }

这段代码就是在程序中执行pm命令,和在adb下执行 pm install -r /mnt/sdcard/test.apk 效果是一样的, 关键的代码是 Runtime.getRuntime().exec(“su”) ,这段代码会要求获取root权限,所以你的手机必须root,不想root的话,直接用模拟器也可以。

通过 Runtime.getRuntime().exec(“su”) 获取到 process 对象后就可以写入命令了,每写入一条命令就要换行,写入 ‘\n’ 即可,最后写入exit后离开命令执行的环境.

5 静默卸载

静默卸载和静默安装是一样的,只是命令不同,静默卸载需要用到包名,同样,静默卸载也需要root权限
看代码:

//爱奇艺apk的包名
private static final String PACKAGE_NAME = "com.qiyi.video";
//静默卸载
    private void uninstallSlient() {
        String cmd = "pm uninstall " + PACKAGE_NAME;
        Process process = null;
        DataOutputStream os = null;
        BufferedReader successResult = null;
        BufferedReader errorResult = null;
        StringBuilder successMsg = null;
        StringBuilder errorMsg = null;
        try {
            //卸载也需要root权限
            process = Runtime.getRuntime().exec("su");
            os = new DataOutputStream(process.getOutputStream());
            os.write(cmd.getBytes());
            os.writeBytes("\n");
            os.writeBytes("exit\n");
            os.flush();
            //执行命令
            process.waitFor();
            //获取返回结果
            successMsg = new StringBuilder();
            errorMsg = new StringBuilder();
            successResult = new BufferedReader(new InputStreamReader(process.getInputStream()));
            errorResult = new BufferedReader(new InputStreamReader(process.getErrorStream()));
            String s;
            while ((s = successResult.readLine()) != null) {
                successMsg.append(s);
            }
            while ((s = errorResult.readLine()) != null) {
                errorMsg.append(s);
            }
        } catch (Exception e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        } finally {
            try {
                if (os != null) {
                    os.close();
                }
                if (process != null) {
                    process.destroy();
                }
                if (successResult != null) {
                    successResult.close();
                }
                if (errorResult != null) {
                    errorResult.close();
                }
            } catch (Exception e) {
                e.printStackTrace();
            }
        }
        //显示结果
        tvTest.setText("成功消息:" + successMsg.toString() + "\n" + "错误消息: " + errorMsg.toString());
    }

和静默安装一样的代码就不解释了。还有,如果你不知道一个apk的包名,那么请反编译后去看AndroidManifest.xml文件,如果这个文件打开全是乱码,说明是被混淆过的,那么直接安装它,然后到/data/data下面去找它的包,当然,手机得root才能进/data/data目录。

6 智能安装

智能安装就稍微麻烦点了,原理是用到了android提供的AccessibilityService服务,这个服务可以获取屏幕上的节点,一个节点也就是一个view,我们写的xml文件中每个标签就是一个节点,然后可以模拟用户的操作,对这些节点进行点击、滑动等操作。我们就是利用这个原理,来自动点击安装按钮的,当然使用这个服务必须用户手动开启无障碍服务。下面我们来看具体的实现方法。

(1) 创建AccessibilityService配置文件
在res目录下创建xml目录,然后在xml目录下创建一个accessibility_service_config.xml文件,内容如下
res/xml/accessibility_service_config.xml:

<accessibility-service xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android"
                       android:accessibilityEventTypes="typeAllMask"
                       android:accessibilityFeedbackType="feedbackGeneric"
                       android:accessibilityFlags="flagDefault"
                       android:canRetrieveWindowContent="true"
                       android:description="@string/desc"
                       android:packageNames="com.android.packageinstaller"
    />

accessibilityEventTypes:指定我们在监听窗口中可以模拟哪些事件,typeAllMask表示所有的事件都能模拟.
accessibilityFeedbackType:指定无障碍服务的反馈方式.
canRetrieveWindowContent:指定是否允许我们的程序读取窗口中的节点和内容,当然是true.
description: 当用户手动配置服务时,会显示给用户看.
packageNames: 指定我们要监听哪个应用程序下的窗口活动,这里写com.android.packageinstaller表示监听Android系统的安装界面。
其余参数照写即可。
res/strings.xml:

<resources>
    <string name="app_name">SlientInstallTest</string>
    <string name="desc">智能安装app功能演示</string>
</resources>

(2) 创建AccessibilityService服务

public class MyAccessibilityService extends AccessibilityService {

    private static final String TAG = "[TAG]";
    private Map<Integer, Boolean> handleMap = new HashMap<>();

    @Override
    public void onAccessibilityEvent(AccessibilityEvent event) {
        AccessibilityNodeInfo nodeInfo = event.getSource();
        if (nodeInfo != null) {
            int eventType = event.getEventType();
            if (eventType == AccessibilityEvent.TYPE_WINDOW_CONTENT_CHANGED || eventType == AccessibilityEvent.TYPE_WINDOW_STATE_CHANGED) {
                if (handleMap.get(event.getWindowId()) == null) {
                    boolean handled = iterateNodesAndHandle(nodeInfo);
                    if (handled) {
                        handleMap.put(event.getWindowId(), true);
                    }
                }
            }

        }
    }

    @Override
    public void onInterrupt() {

    }

    //遍历节点,模拟点击安装按钮
    private boolean iterateNodesAndHandle(AccessibilityNodeInfo nodeInfo) {
        if (nodeInfo != null) {
            int childCount = nodeInfo.getChildCount();
            if ("android.widget.Button".equals(nodeInfo.getClassName())) {
                String nodeCotent = nodeInfo.getText().toString();
                Log.d(TAG, "content is: " + nodeCotent);
                if ("安装".equals(nodeCotent) || "完成".equals(nodeCotent) || "确定".equals(nodeCotent)) {
                    nodeInfo.performAction(AccessibilityNodeInfo.ACTION_CLICK);
                    return true;
                }
            }
            //遇到ScrollView的时候模拟滑动一下
            else if ("android.widget.ScrollView".equals(nodeInfo.getClassName())) {
                nodeInfo.performAction(AccessibilityNodeInfo.ACTION_SCROLL_FORWARD);
            }
            for (int i = 0; i < childCount; i++) {
                AccessibilityNodeInfo childNodeInfo = nodeInfo.getChild(i);
                if (iterateNodesAndHandle(childNodeInfo)) {
                    return true;
                }
            }
        }
        return false;
    }
}

当进入apk安装界面就会回调onAccessibilityEvent()这个方法,我们只关心TYPE_WINDOW_CONTENT_CHANGED和TYPE_WINDOW_STATE_CHANGED两个事件,为了防止重复处理事件,用一个map来过滤事件,后面递归遍历节点,找到’安装’ ‘完成’ ‘确定’ 的按钮,就点击,由于安装界面需要滚动一下才能出现安装按钮,所以遇到ScrollView的时候就滚动一下.

(3) 在AndroidManifest中配置服务

<uses-permission android:name="android.permission.READ_EXTERNAL_STORAGE"/>

    <application
        android:allowBackup="true"
        android:icon="@mipmap/ic_launcher"
        android:label="@string/app_name"
        android:supportsRtl="true"
        android:theme="@style/AppTheme">
        <activity android:name=".MainActivity">
            <intent-filter>
                <action android:name="android.intent.action.MAIN"/>

                <category android:name="android.intent.category.LAUNCHER"/>
            </intent-filter>
        </activity>

        <service
            android:name=".MyAccessibilityService"
            android:label="智能安装App"
            android:permission="android.permission.BIND_ACCESSIBILITY_SERVICE"
            >
            <intent-filter>
                <action android:name="android.accessibilityservice.AccessibilityService"/>
            </intent-filter>
            <meta-data
                android:name="android.accessibilityservice"
                android:resource="@xml/accessibility_service_config"
                />
        </service>
    </application>

重点是后面的service标签:
android:label:这个就是用户看到的无障碍服务的名称
android:permission: 需要用到BIND_ACCESSIBILITY_SERVICE这个权限.
action: android.accessibilityservice.AccessibilityService 有了这个action,用户才能在设置里面看到我们的服务,否则用户无法开启我们写的服务,也就不能进到我们写的MyAccessibilityService里面了.所以,注意不要写错了,如果你发现无障碍服务里面没有我们写的服务,请检查这里.

(4) 调用智能安装代码
前面准备工作完毕后,现在要用了,调用智能安装的代码如下:

 //智能安装
    private void smartInstall() {
        Uri uri = Uri.fromFile(new File("/mnt/sdcard/test.apk"));
        Intent localIntent = new Intent(Intent.ACTION_VIEW);
        localIntent.setDataAndType(uri, "application/vnd.android.package-archive");
        startActivity(localIntent);
    }

(5) 手动配置智能安装服务
代码运行之后,还要用户选择开启智能安装服务,让用户自己去找是不明智的,因此,我们要主动跳到配置界面,代码如下:

//跳转到开启智能安装服务的界面
Intent intent = new Intent(Settings.ACTION_ACCESSIBILITY_SETTINGS);
startActivity(intent);

配置如下图:

这里写图片描述

看到了吗,上面显示的就是Service里面的label的值,如果你没有上面的选项,请检查AndroidManifest里面Service的配置.
点击’智能安装App’,开启服务,如下图:

这里写图片描述

其中的提示文字就是我们在res/xml/accessibility_service_config.xml文件中配置的description属性

7 只能我们写的app可以自动安装

这样写完代码可以运行,点击按钮自动安装sdcard上的test.apk.但是你会发现,所有apk都会自动安装,这就不符合我们的要求了,我们要求只能通过我们写的app来自动安装,其他apk还是要用户手动去点。怎么解决这个问题呢?
思路是:在MainActivity中创建一个public static boolean flag,在MyAccessibilityService的onAccessibilityEvent()中加一个flag判断,然后调用智能安装前flag设为true,创建apk安装事件的广播接收器,当apk安装完成后,设置falg为false,这样其他apk就不能自动安装了,就解决了这个问题
下面上完整代码.

8 完整代码

app/MainActivity.java:

public class MainActivity extends AppCompatActivity implements View.OnClickListener {

    private static final String TAG = "[TAG][MainActivity]";
    private static final String PACKAGE_NAME = "com.qiyi.video";
    private String apkPath = "/mnt/sdcard/test.apk";
    public static boolean flag = false;//控制只能自己的app才能执行智能安装
    private TextView tvTest;
    private MyInstallReceiver receiver;

    @Override
    protected void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
        super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);
        setContentView(R.layout.activity_main);
        tvTest = (TextView) findViewById(R.id.tv_test);
        findViewById(R.id.btn_install).setOnClickListener(this);
        findViewById(R.id.btn_uninstall).setOnClickListener(this);
        findViewById(R.id.btn_set).setOnClickListener(this);
        findViewById(R.id.btn_smart_install).setOnClickListener(this);
        //注册apk安装监听
        receiver = new MyInstallReceiver();
        IntentFilter filter = new IntentFilter();
        filter.addAction("android.intent.action.PACKAGE_ADDED");
        filter.addAction("android.intent.action.PACKAGE_REMOVED");
        filter.addDataScheme("package");
        this.registerReceiver(receiver, filter);
    }


    @Override
    public void onClick(View v) {
        switch (v.getId()) {
            //静默安装
            case R.id.btn_install:
                installSlient();
                break;
            //静默卸载
            case R.id.btn_uninstall:
                uninstallSlient();
                break;
            //设置无障碍服务
            case R.id.btn_set:
                //跳转到开启无障碍服务的界面
                Intent intent = new Intent(Settings.ACTION_ACCESSIBILITY_SETTINGS);
                startActivity(intent);
                break;
            //智能安装
            case R.id.btn_smart_install:
                //控制只能自己的app才能智能安装
                flag = true;
                smartInstall();
                break;
        }
    }

    //静默安装
    private void installSlient() {
        String cmd = "pm install -r /mnt/sdcard/test.apk";
        Process process = null;
        DataOutputStream os = null;
        BufferedReader successResult = null;
        BufferedReader errorResult = null;
        StringBuilder successMsg = null;
        StringBuilder errorMsg = null;
        try {
            //静默安装需要root权限
            process = Runtime.getRuntime().exec("su");
            os = new DataOutputStream(process.getOutputStream());
            os.write(cmd.getBytes());
            os.writeBytes("\n");
            os.writeBytes("exit\n");
            os.flush();
            //执行命令
            process.waitFor();
            //获取返回结果
            successMsg = new StringBuilder();
            errorMsg = new StringBuilder();
            successResult = new BufferedReader(new InputStreamReader(process.getInputStream()));
            errorResult = new BufferedReader(new InputStreamReader(process.getErrorStream()));
            String s;
            while ((s = successResult.readLine()) != null) {
                successMsg.append(s);
            }
            while ((s = errorResult.readLine()) != null) {
                errorMsg.append(s);
            }
        } catch (Exception e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        } finally {
            try {
                if (os != null) {
                    os.close();
                }
                if (process != null) {
                    process.destroy();
                }
                if (successResult != null) {
                    successResult.close();
                }
                if (errorResult != null) {
                    errorResult.close();
                }
            } catch (Exception e) {
                e.printStackTrace();
            }
        }
        //显示结果
        tvTest.setText("成功消息:" + successMsg.toString() + "\n" + "错误消息: " + errorMsg.toString());
    }

    //静默卸载
    private void uninstallSlient() {
        String cmd = "pm uninstall " + PACKAGE_NAME;
        Process process = null;
        DataOutputStream os = null;
        BufferedReader successResult = null;
        BufferedReader errorResult = null;
        StringBuilder successMsg = null;
        StringBuilder errorMsg = null;
        try {
            //卸载也需要root权限
            process = Runtime.getRuntime().exec("su");
            os = new DataOutputStream(process.getOutputStream());
            os.write(cmd.getBytes());
            os.writeBytes("\n");
            os.writeBytes("exit\n");
            os.flush();
            //执行命令
            process.waitFor();
            //获取返回结果
            successMsg = new StringBuilder();
            errorMsg = new StringBuilder();
            successResult = new BufferedReader(new InputStreamReader(process.getInputStream()));
            errorResult = new BufferedReader(new InputStreamReader(process.getErrorStream()));
            String s;
            while ((s = successResult.readLine()) != null) {
                successMsg.append(s);
            }
            while ((s = errorResult.readLine()) != null) {
                errorMsg.append(s);
            }
        } catch (Exception e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        } finally {
            try {
                if (os != null) {
                    os.close();
                }
                if (process != null) {
                    process.destroy();
                }
                if (successResult != null) {
                    successResult.close();
                }
                if (errorResult != null) {
                    errorResult.close();
                }
            } catch (Exception e) {
                e.printStackTrace();
            }
        }
        //显示结果
        tvTest.setText("成功消息:" + successMsg.toString() + "\n" + "错误消息: " + errorMsg.toString());
    }

    //智能安装
    private void smartInstall() {
        Uri uri = Uri.fromFile(new File(apkPath));
        Intent localIntent = new Intent(Intent.ACTION_VIEW);
        localIntent.setDataAndType(uri, "application/vnd.android.package-archive");
        startActivity(localIntent);
    }

    //监听apk安装
    private class MyInstallReceiver extends BroadcastReceiver {

        @Override
        public void onReceive(Context context, Intent intent) {
            if (intent.getAction().equals("android.intent.action.PACKAGE_ADDED")) {     // install
                String packageName = intent.getDataString();
                Log.i(TAG, "安装了 :" + packageName);
                //安装完毕,设置flag,从而使得其余的apk不能自动安装
                flag = false;
            }
            if (intent.getAction().equals("android.intent.action.PACKAGE_REMOVED")) {   // uninstall
                String packageName = intent.getDataString();
                Log.i(TAG, "卸载了 :" + packageName);
            }
        }
    }

    @Override
    protected void onDestroy() {
        super.onDestroy();
        if (receiver != null) {
            unregisterReceiver(receiver);
        }
    }
}

界面上就三个按钮
res/layout/activity_main.xml:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<RelativeLayout
    xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android"
    xmlns:tools="http://schemas.android.com/tools"
    android:layout_width="match_parent"
    android:layout_height="match_parent"
    android:paddingBottom="@dimen/activity_vertical_margin"
    android:paddingLeft="@dimen/activity_horizontal_margin"
    android:paddingRight="@dimen/activity_horizontal_margin"
    android:paddingTop="@dimen/activity_vertical_margin">

    <TextView
        android:id="@+id/tv_test"
        android:layout_width="match_parent"
        android:layout_height="wrap_content"
        android:text=""
        />

    <Button
        android:id="@+id/btn_install"
        android:layout_width="match_parent"
        android:layout_height="wrap_content"
        android:layout_centerInParent="true"
        android:text="安装"
        />

    <Button
        android:id="@+id/btn_uninstall"
        android:layout_width="match_parent"
        android:layout_height="wrap_content"
        android:layout_below="@id/btn_install"
        android:text="卸载"
        />

    <Button
        android:id="@+id/btn_set"
        android:layout_width="match_parent"
        android:layout_height="wrap_content"
        android:layout_below="@id/btn_uninstall"
        android:text="开启智能安装功能"
        />

    <Button
        android:id="@+id/btn_smart_install"
        android:layout_width="match_parent"
        android:layout_height="wrap_content"
        android:layout_below="@id/btn_set"
        android:text="智能安装"
        />
</RelativeLayout>

服务配置文件
res/xml/accessibility_service_config.xml

<accessibility-service xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android"
                       android:accessibilityEventTypes="typeAllMask"
                       android:accessibilityFeedbackType="feedbackGeneric"
                       android:accessibilityFlags="flagDefault"
                       android:canRetrieveWindowContent="true"
                       android:description="@string/desc"
                       android:packageNames="com.android.packageinstaller"
    />

智能安装服务
app/MyAccessibilityService.java:

public class MyAccessibilityService extends AccessibilityService {

    private static final String TAG = "[TAG]";
    private Map<Integer, Boolean> handleMap = new HashMap<>();

    @Override
    public void onAccessibilityEvent(AccessibilityEvent event) {
        AccessibilityNodeInfo nodeInfo = event.getSource();
        if (nodeInfo != null && MainActivity.flag) {
            int eventType = event.getEventType();
            if (eventType == AccessibilityEvent.TYPE_WINDOW_CONTENT_CHANGED || eventType == AccessibilityEvent.TYPE_WINDOW_STATE_CHANGED) {
                if (handleMap.get(event.getWindowId()) == null) {
                    boolean handled = iterateNodesAndHandle(nodeInfo);
                    if (handled) {
                        handleMap.put(event.getWindowId(), true);
                    }
                }
            }

        }
    }

    @Override
    public void onInterrupt() {

    }

    //遍历节点,模拟点击安装按钮
    private boolean iterateNodesAndHandle(AccessibilityNodeInfo nodeInfo) {
        if (nodeInfo != null) {
            int childCount = nodeInfo.getChildCount();
            if ("android.widget.Button".equals(nodeInfo.getClassName())) {
                String nodeCotent = nodeInfo.getText().toString();
                Log.d(TAG, "content is: " + nodeCotent);
                if ("安装".equals(nodeCotent) || "完成".equals(nodeCotent) || "确定".equals(nodeCotent)) {
                    nodeInfo.performAction(AccessibilityNodeInfo.ACTION_CLICK);
                    return true;
                }
            }
            //遇到ScrollView的时候模拟滑动一下
            else if ("android.widget.ScrollView".equals(nodeInfo.getClassName())) {
                nodeInfo.performAction(AccessibilityNodeInfo.ACTION_SCROLL_FORWARD);
            }
            for (int i = 0; i < childCount; i++) {
                AccessibilityNodeInfo childNodeInfo = nodeInfo.getChild(i);
                if (iterateNodesAndHandle(childNodeInfo)) {
                    return true;
                }
            }
        }
        return false;
    }
}

最后是配置文件AndroidManifest.xml:

<manifest xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android"
          package="com.slientinstalltest">

    <uses-permission android:name="android.permission.READ_EXTERNAL_STORAGE"/>

    <application
        android:allowBackup="true"
        android:icon="@mipmap/ic_launcher"
        android:label="@string/app_name"
        android:supportsRtl="true"
        android:theme="@style/AppTheme">
        <activity android:name=".MainActivity">
            <intent-filter>
                <action android:name="android.intent.action.MAIN"/>

                <category android:name="android.intent.category.LAUNCHER"/>
            </intent-filter>
        </activity>

        <service
            android:name=".MyAccessibilityService"
            android:label="智能安装App"
            android:permission="android.permission.BIND_ACCESSIBILITY_SERVICE"
            >
            <intent-filter>
                <action android:name="android.accessibilityservice.AccessibilityService"/>
            </intent-filter>
            <meta-data
                android:name="android.accessibilityservice"
                android:resource="@xml/accessibility_service_config"
                />
        </service>
    </application>

</manifest>

注意:请把自己要安装的apk放到sdcard上,并且修改代码中的apk路径和包名

9 运行效果

这里写图片描述

10 代码下载

演示代码已经上传,下载地址:

http://download.csdn.net/detail/fuchaosz/9570881

11 总结

Android智能安装的原理就是利用了类似钩子的服务,这个服务还可以用于微信抢红包的开发,怎么样,是不是比ios好玩儿的多呢.

12 转载请注明来自”梧桐那时雨”的博客:http://blog.csdn.net/fuchaosz/article/details/51852442

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