java的多线程与并发的学习

记录学习的多线程与并发

 

什么是进程与线程?及二者的关系

普通操作系统中的进程与线程

java 的进程与线程

基础知识

// (1)通过 FutureTask 实现 callable 接口
class MyCallable implements Callable<String> {
    @Override
    public String call() throws Exception{
        String value="test";
        System.out.println("Ready to work");
        Thread.currentThread().sleep(5000);
        System.out.println("task done");
        return  value;
    }
}

public class FutureTaskDemo {
    public static void main(String[] args) throws ExecutionException, InterruptedException {
        FutureTask<String> task = new FutureTask<String>(new MyCallable());
        new Thread(task).start();
        if(!task.isDone()){
            System.out.println("task has not finished, please wait!");
        }
        System.out.println("task return: " + task.get());
    }
}

//运行后的结果:(其中有5秒的停顿)
task has not finished, please wait!
Ready to work
task done
task return: test
//(2)使用线程池来实现 callable 接口
public class ThreadPoolDemo {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        ExecutorService newCachedThreadPool = Executors.newCachedThreadPool();
        Future<String> future = newCachedThreadPool.submit(new MyCallable());
        if(!future.isDone()){
            System.out.println("task has not finished, please wait!");
        }
        try {
            System.out.println(future.get());
        } catch (InterruptedException e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        } catch (ExecutionException e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        } finally {
            newCachedThreadPool.shutdown();
        }
    }
}

//运行结果:(有停顿)
task has not finished, please wait!
Ready to work
task done
test

// 代码 notify 和 notifyall 的区别,注意让出cpu使用权,同时释放锁。
public class NotificationDemo {

    public static void main(String args[]) throws InterruptedException {
        final NotificationDemo test = new NotificationDemo();

        Runnable waitTask = new Runnable(){

            @Override
            public void run(){
                try {
                    test.shouldGo();
                } catch (InterruptedException e) {
                    e.printStackTrace();
                }
                System.out.println(Thread.currentThread().getName() + " finished Execution");
            }
        };

        Runnable notifyTask = new Runnable(){

            @Override
            public void run(){
                test.go();
                System.out.println(Thread.currentThread().getName() + " finished Execution");
            }
        };

        Thread t1 = new Thread(waitTask, "WT1"); //will wait
        Thread t2 = new Thread(waitTask, "WT2"); //will wait
        Thread t3 = new Thread(waitTask, "WT3"); //will wait
        Thread t4 = new Thread(notifyTask,"NT1"); //will notify

        //starting all waiting thread
        t1.start();
        t2.start();
        t3.start();

        //pause to ensure all waiting thread started successfully
        Thread.sleep(200);

        //starting notifying thread
        t4.start();

    }
    /*
     * wait and notify can only be called from synchronized method or bock
     */
    private synchronized void shouldGo() throws InterruptedException {
            System.out.println(Thread.currentThread()
                    + " is going to wait on this object");
            wait(); //release lock and reacquires on wakeup
            System.out.println(Thread.currentThread() + " is woken up");
    }

    /*
     * both shouldGo() and go() are locked on current object referenced by "this" keyword
     */
    private synchronized void go() {
            System.out.println(Thread.currentThread()
                    + " is going to notify all or one thread waiting on this object");

            //notify(); // only one out of three waiting thread WT1, WT2,WT3 will woke up
            notifyAll(); // all waiting thread  WT1, WT2,WT3 will woke up
    }
}

// 运行结果:
Thread[WT1,5,main] is going to wait on this object
Thread[WT2,5,main] is going to wait on this object
Thread[WT3,5,main] is going to wait on this object
Thread[NT1,5,main] is going to notify all or one thread waiting on this object
Thread[WT3,5,main] is woken up
Thread[WT2,5,main] is woken up
WT3 finished Execution
Thread[WT1,5,main] is woken up
WT1 finished Execution
WT2 finished Execution
NT1 finished Execution

 

// 中断线程 interrupt 的使用。
public class InterruptDemo {
    public static void main(String[] args) throws InterruptedException {
        Runnable interruptTask = new Runnable() {
            @Override
            public void run() {
                int i = 0;
                try {
                    //在正常运行任务时,经常检查本线程的中断标志位,如果被设置了中断标志就自行停止线程
                    while (!Thread.currentThread().isInterrupted()) {
                        Thread.sleep(100); // 休眠100ms
                        i++;
                        System.out.println(Thread.currentThread().getName() + " (" + Thread.currentThread().getState() + ") loop " + i);
                    }
                } catch (InterruptedException e) {
                    //在调用阻塞方法时正确处理InterruptedException异常。(例如,catch异常后就结束线程。)
                    System.out.println(Thread.currentThread().getName() + " (" + Thread.currentThread().getState() + ") catch InterruptedException.");
                }
            }
        };
        Thread t1 = new Thread(interruptTask, "t1");
        System.out.println(t1.getName() +" ("+t1.getState()+") is new.");

        t1.start();                      // 启动“线程t1”
        System.out.println(t1.getName() +" ("+t1.getState()+") is started.");

        // 主线程休眠300ms,然后主线程给t1发“中断”指令。
        Thread.sleep(300);
        t1.interrupt();
        System.out.println(t1.getName() +" ("+t1.getState()+") is interrupted.");

        // 主线程休眠300ms,然后查看t1的状态。
        Thread.sleep(300);
        System.out.println(t1.getName() +" ("+t1.getState()+") is interrupted now.");
    }
}

//程序运行结果:
t1 (NEW) is new.
t1 (RUNNABLE) is started.
t1 (RUNNABLE) loop 1
t1 (RUNNABLE) loop 2
t1 (TIMED_WAITING) is interrupted.
t1 (RUNNABLE) catch InterruptedException.
t1 (TERMINATED) is interrupted now.

 

 

这个还有几个知识点,只是简单的列出来,就不一一举例了:

1 线程中strat和run方法的区别 strat()函数,进入native层创建一个线程,并且这个线程会调用java层的run方法
2 thread 和 runnable 的区别

thread 是类,只能单继承,runnable是接口。

线程启动的方式,只有一种,就是 thread.start()。

3 notify 和 notifyall 的区别  
4 yield函数 当前线程调用 Thread.yield()函数时,会给线程调度器一个当前线程愿意让出CPU使用的暗示,但是线程调度器可能会忽略这个暗示。
5 interrupt函数 需要配合使用。

 

synchronized关键字

见:java的Synchronized关键字的学习

 

线程池

见:java线程池的学习

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