DOM解析XML浅析

最近在调试科大讯飞语音的时候,里面用到了xml解析,简单探究,记录一下成长历程。

Java中操作DOM中常用的类

  • Node
    数据类型基类
  • Element
    最常用的类
  • Attr
    Element的属性
  • Text
    Element or Attr的内容
  • Document
    代表整个XML文档,代表DOM tree

使用DOM的步骤

1.导入相关类

import org.w3c.dom.*;
import javax.xml.parsers.*;
import java.io.*;
Create a DocumentBuilder

2.创建DocumentBuilder对象

DocumentBuilderFactory factory =
DocumentBuilderFactory.newInstance();
DocumentBuilder builder = factory.newDocumentBuilder();

3.从文件或流中创建Document对象

StringBuilder xmlStringBuilder = new StringBuilder();
xmlStringBuilder.append("<?xml version=\"1.0\"?> <class> </class>");
ByteArrayInputStream input =  new ByteArrayInputStream(
   xmlStringBuilder.toString().getBytes("UTF-8"));
Document doc = builder.parse(input);

4 提取根元素

Element root = document.getDocumentElement();

5 处理属性&&子节点

//returns specific attribute
element.getAttribute("attributeName"); 
//returns a Map (table) of names/values
element.getAttributes();

//Examine sub-elements
//returns a list of subelements of specified name
element.getElementsByTagName("subelementName"); 
//returns a list of all child nodes
element.getChildNodes(); 

XML文件解析实例一

放到项目根目录下的,需要解析的input.txt文件,其内容如下:

<?XML version="1.0"?>
<class>
   <student rollno="393">
      <firstname>dinkar</firstname>
      <marks>85</marks>
   </student>
   <student rollno="493">
      <firstname>Vaneet</firstname>
      <marks>95</marks>
   </student>
   <student rollno="593">
      <firstname>jasvir</firstname>
      <marks>90</marks>
   </student>
</class>

解析代码如下:


package com.example.xmlparse;

import org.w3c.dom.Document;
import org.w3c.dom.Element;
import org.w3c.dom.Node;
import org.w3c.dom.NodeList;

import javax.xml.parsers.DocumentBuilder;
import javax.xml.parsers.DocumentBuilderFactory;
import java.io.File;

public class FirstDOMParseDemo {
    public static void main(String[] args) {

        try {
            File inputFile = new File("input.txt");
            //1.create DocumentBuilder object
            DocumentBuilderFactory dbFactory
                    = DocumentBuilderFactory.newInstance();
            DocumentBuilder dBuilder = dbFactory.newDocumentBuilder();
            //2.create Document object
            Document doc = dBuilder.parse(inputFile);
            doc.getDocumentElement().normalize();
            //get root node
            System.out.println("Root element :"
                    + doc.getDocumentElement().getNodeName());
            //3.get student list;
            NodeList nList = doc.getElementsByTagName("student");
            System.out.println("----------------------------");
            for (int temp = 0; temp < nList.getLength(); temp++) {
                Node nNode = nList.item(temp);
                System.out.println("\nCurrent Element :"
                        + nNode.getNodeName());
                if (nNode.getNodeType() == Node.ELEMENT_NODE) {
                    Element eElement = (Element) nNode;
                    //get attribute
                    System.out.println("Student roll no : "
                            + eElement.getAttribute("rollno"));
                    //get element content
                    System.out.println("First Name : "
                            + eElement
                            .getElementsByTagName("firstname")
                            .item(0)
                            .getTextContent());
                    System.out.println("Marks : "
                            + eElement
                            .getElementsByTagName("marks")
                            .item(0)
                            .getTextContent());
                }
            }
        } catch (Exception e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        }
    }
}

结果如下:

Root element :class
----------------------------

Current Element :student
Student roll no : 393
First Name : dinkar
Marks : 85

Current Element :student
Student roll no : 493
First Name : Vaneet
Marks : 95

Current Element :student
Student roll no : 593
First Name : jasvir
Marks : 90

XML解析实例二

这里将要解析的input2.txt文件放在项目的根目录下,其内容如下:

<?xml version="1.0"?>
<cars>
   <supercars company="Ferrari">
      <carname type="formula one">Ferarri 101</carname>
      <carname type="sports car">Ferarri 201</carname>
   </supercars>
   <supercars company="Lamborgini">
      <carname>Lamborgini 001</carname>
   </supercars>
</cars>
package com.example.xmlparse;

import org.w3c.dom.Document;
import org.w3c.dom.Element;
import org.w3c.dom.Node;
import org.w3c.dom.NodeList;

import javax.xml.parsers.DocumentBuilder;
import javax.xml.parsers.DocumentBuilderFactory;
import java.io.File;

public class SecondDOMParserDemo {

    public static void main(String argv[]) {

        try {
            File inputFile = new File("input2.txt");
            DocumentBuilderFactory dbFactory =
                    DocumentBuilderFactory.newInstance();
            DocumentBuilder dBuilder = dbFactory.newDocumentBuilder();
            Document doc = dBuilder.parse(inputFile);
            doc.getDocumentElement().normalize();
            System.out.println("Root element: " + doc.getDocumentElement().getNodeName());
            NodeList nList = doc.getElementsByTagName("supercars");
            System.out.println("----------------------------");
            for (int temp = 0; temp < nList.getLength(); temp++) {
                Node nNode = nList.item(temp);
                System.out.print("\nCurrent Element :");
                System.out.println(nNode.getNodeName());
                if (nNode.getNodeType() == Node.ELEMENT_NODE) {
                    Element eElement = (Element) nNode;
                    System.out.println("company : " + eElement.getAttribute("company"));
                    NodeList carNameList =
                            eElement.getElementsByTagName("carname");
                    for (int count = 0;
                         count < carNameList.getLength(); count++) {
                        Node node1 = carNameList.item(count);
                        if (node1.getNodeType() ==
                                node1.ELEMENT_NODE) {
                            Element car = (Element) node1;
                            System.out.println("car name : " + car.getTextContent());
                            System.out.println("car type : " + car.getAttribute("type"));
                        }
                    }
                }
            }
        } catch (Exception e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        }
    }
}

解析结果如下:

Root element: cars
----------------------------

Current Element :supercars
company : Ferrari
car name : Ferarri 101
car type : formula one
car name : Ferarri 201
car type : sports car

Current Element :supercars
company : Lamborgini
car name : Lamborgini 001
car type : 

创建XML并写入文件实例

源代码如下:

package com.example.xmlparse;


import org.w3c.dom.Attr;
import org.w3c.dom.Document;
import org.w3c.dom.Element;

import javax.xml.parsers.DocumentBuilder;
import javax.xml.parsers.DocumentBuilderFactory;
import javax.xml.transform.Transformer;
import javax.xml.transform.TransformerFactory;
import javax.xml.transform.dom.DOMSource;
import javax.xml.transform.stream.StreamResult;
import java.io.File;

public class FirstCreateXMLDemo {

    public static void main(String argv[]) {

        try {
            DocumentBuilderFactory dbFactory =
                    DocumentBuilderFactory.newInstance();
            DocumentBuilder dBuilder =
                    dbFactory.newDocumentBuilder();
            Document doc = dBuilder.newDocument();
            // root element
            Element rootElement = doc.createElement("cars");
            doc.appendChild(rootElement);
            //  supercars element
            Element supercar = doc.createElement("supercars");
            rootElement.appendChild(supercar);
            // setting attribute to element
            Attr attr = doc.createAttribute("company");
            attr.setValue("Ferrari");
            supercar.setAttributeNode(attr);

            // carname element
            Element carname = doc.createElement("carname");
            Attr attrType = doc.createAttribute("type");
            attrType.setValue("formula one");
            carname.setAttributeNode(attrType);
            carname.appendChild(
                    doc.createTextNode("Ferrari 101"));


            supercar.appendChild(carname);

            final Element carname2 = doc.createElement("carname");
            carname2.appendChild(
                    doc.createTextNode("Ferrari 202"));
            supercar.appendChild(carname2);


            // write the content into xml file
            TransformerFactory transformerFactory =
                    TransformerFactory.newInstance();
            Transformer transformer =
                    transformerFactory.newTransformer();
            DOMSource source = new DOMSource(doc);
            File file = new File("output.txt");
            if (file.exists()) {
                file.delete();
            }

            StreamResult result =
                    new StreamResult(new File("output.txt"));
            transformer.transform(source, result);
            // Output to console for testing
            StreamResult consoleResult =
                    new StreamResult(System.out);
            transformer.transform(source, consoleResult);
        } catch (Exception e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        }
    }
}

创建的位于项目根目录下的output.txt的内容如下(没有进行格式化):

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="no"?><cars>
    <supercars company="Ferrari">
        <carname type="formula one">Ferrari 101</carname>
        <carname>Ferrari 202</carname>
    </supercars>
</cars>

修改XML文件实例

这里使用的位于项目根目录下的output2.txt的文件内容如下:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="no"?>
<cars>
   <supercars company="Ferrari">
      <carname type="formula one">Ferrari 101</carname>
      <carname type="sports">Ferrari 202</carname>
   </supercars>
   <luxurycars company="Benteley">
      <carname>Benteley 1</carname>
      <carname>Benteley 2</carname>
      <carname>Benteley 3</carname>
   </luxurycars>
</cars>

修改代码如下:

package com.example.xmlparse;

import org.w3c.dom.*;

import javax.xml.parsers.DocumentBuilder;
import javax.xml.parsers.DocumentBuilderFactory;
import javax.xml.transform.Transformer;
import javax.xml.transform.TransformerFactory;
import javax.xml.transform.dom.DOMSource;
import javax.xml.transform.stream.StreamResult;
import java.io.File;

public class ModifyXmlFileDemo {

    public static void main(String argv[]) {

        try {
            File inputFile = new File("output2.txt");
            DocumentBuilderFactory docFactory =
                    DocumentBuilderFactory.newInstance();
            DocumentBuilder docBuilder =
                    docFactory.newDocumentBuilder();
            Document doc = docBuilder.parse(inputFile);
            Node cars = doc.getFirstChild();
            cars.getNextSibling();
            cars.getPreviousSibling();
            cars.getFirstChild();
            cars.getLastChild();


            Node supercar = doc.getElementsByTagName("supercars").item(0);
            // update supercar attribute
            NamedNodeMap attr = supercar.getAttributes();
            Node nodeAttr = attr.getNamedItem("company");
            nodeAttr.setTextContent("Lamborigini");

            // loop the supercar child node
            NodeList list = supercar.getChildNodes();
            for (int temp = 0; temp < list.getLength(); temp++) {
                Node node = list.item(temp);
                if (node.getNodeType() == Node.ELEMENT_NODE) {
                    Element eElement = (Element) node;
                    if ("carname".equals(eElement.getNodeName())) {
                        if ("Ferrari 101".equals(eElement.getTextContent())) {
                            eElement.setTextContent("Lamborigini 001");
                        }
                        if ("Ferrari 202".equals(eElement.getTextContent()))
                            eElement.setTextContent("Lamborigini 002");
                    }
                }
            }
            NodeList childNodes = cars.getChildNodes();
            for (int count = 0; count < childNodes.getLength(); count++) {
                Node node = childNodes.item(count);
                if ("luxurycars".equals(node.getNodeName()))
                    cars.removeChild(node);
            }
            // write the content on console
            TransformerFactory transformerFactory =
                    TransformerFactory.newInstance();
            Transformer transformer = transformerFactory.newTransformer();
            DOMSource source = new DOMSource(doc);
            System.out.println("-----------Modified File-----------");
            StreamResult consoleResult = new StreamResult(System.out);
            transformer.transform(source, consoleResult);
        } catch (Exception e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        }
    }
}

结果如下:


-----------Modified File-----------
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="no"?><cars>
   <supercars company="Lamborigini">
      <carname type="formula one">Lamborigini 001</carname>
      <carname type="sports">Lamborigini 002</carname>
   </supercars>

</cars>

翻译地址

http://www.tutorialspoint.com/java_xml/java_dom_parser.htm

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