CentOS 6 安装后基本配置

1.网络配置

(1)命令配置
# ifconfig eth0 192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0   //ip地址、子网掩码
# route add default gw 192.168.0.1 dev eth0  //网关
# hostname centos   //计算机名

(2)文件配置
<1>修改IP地址
修改对应网卡的IP地址的配置文件
# vi /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0
DEVICE=eth0 (描述网卡对应的设备别名,例如ifcfg-eth0的文件中它为eth0)
BOOTPROTO=static (设置网卡获得ip地址的方式,可能的选项为static,dhcp或bootp,分别对应静态指定的ip地址,通过dhcp协议获得的ip地址,通过bootp协议获得的ip地址)
BROADCAST=192.168.0.255 (对应的子网广播地址)
HWADDR=00:07:E9:05:E8:B4  (对应的网卡物理地址)
IPADDR=12.168.1.2 (如果设置网卡获得ip地址的方式为静态指定,此字段就指定了网卡对应的ip地址)
IPV6INIT=no  (开启或关闭IPv6;关闭no,开启yes)
IPV6_AUTOCONF=no  (开启或关闭IPv6自动配置;关闭no,开启yes)
NETMASK=255.255.255.0 (网卡对应的网络掩码)
NETWORK=192.168.1.0 (网卡对应的网络地址)
ONBOOT=yes (系统启动时是否设置此网络接口,设置为yes时,系统启动时激活此设备)

<2>修改网关
修改对应网卡的网关的配置文件
# vi /etc/sysconfig/network
NETWORKING=yes (表示系统是否使用网络,一般设置为yes。如果设为no,则不能使用网络,而且很多系统服务程序将无法启动)
HOSTNAME=centos (设置本机的主机名,这里设置的主机名要和/etc/hosts中设置的主机名对应)
GATEWAY=192.168.1.1 (设置本机连接的网关的IP地址。例如,网关为10.0.0.2)

<3>修改DNS
修改对应网卡的DNS的配置文件
# vi /etc/resolv.conf
nameserver 202.101.224.68 (域名服务器)
nameserver 202.101.224.69 (域名服务器)

<4>重新启动网络配置
# service network restart

# /etc/init.d/network restart

2.软件源配置

国内速度较快的常用更新源如下:
http://mirrors.163.com/centos/ 163-网易
http://mirrors.ta139.com/centos/ 中国移动通信(山东移动)
http://centos.ustc.edu.cn/centos/ 中国科学技术大学
http://mirror.neu.edu.cn/centos/ 东北大学

编辑yum配置文件: 
#vi /etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS-Base.repo
[base]
name=CentOS-$releasever - Base
mirrorlist=http://mirrorlist.centos.org/?release=$releasever&arch=$basearch&repo=os
#baseurl=http://mirror.centos.org/centos/$releasever/os/$basearch/
baseurl=http://mirrors.163.com/centos/$releasever/os/$basearch/
http://mirrors.ta139.com/centos/$releasever/os/$basearch/
http://centos.ustc.edu.cn/centos/$releasever/os/$basearch/
http://mirror.neu.edu.cn/centos/$releasever/os/$basearch/
gpgcheck=1
gpgkey=http://mirror.centos.org/centos/RPM-GPG-KEY-CentOS-6

#released updates 
[updates]
name=CentOS-$releasever - Updates
mirrorlist=http://mirrorlist.centos.org/?release=$releasever&arch=$basearch&repo=updates
#baseurl=http://mirror.centos.org/centos/$releasever/updates/$basearch/
baseurl=http://mirrors.163.com/centos/$releasever/updates/$basearch/
http://mirrors.ta139.com/centos/$releasever/updates/$basearch/
http://centos.ustc.edu.cn/centos/$releasever/updates/$basearch/
http://mirror.neu.edu.cn/centos/$releasever/updates/$basearch/
gpgcheck=1
gpgkey=http://mirror.centos.org/centos/RPM-GPG-KEY-CentOS-6

#additional packages that may be useful
[extras]
name=CentOS-$releasever - Extras
mirrorlist=http://mirrorlist.centos.org/?release=$releasever&arch=$basearch&repo=extras
#baseurl=http://mirror.centos.org/centos/$releasever/extras/$basearch/
baseurl=http://mirrors.163.com/centos/$releasever/extras/$basearch/
http://mirrors.ta139.com/centos/$releasever/extras/$basearch/
http://centos.ustc.edu.cn/centos/$releasever/extras/$basearch/
http://mirror.neu.edu.cn/centos/$releasever/extras/$basearch/
gpgcheck=1
gpgkey=http://mirror.centos.org/centos/RPM-GPG-KEY-CentOS-6

#additional packages that extend functionality of existing packages
[centosplus]
name=CentOS-$releasever - Plus
mirrorlist=http://mirrorlist.centos.org/?release=$releasever&arch=$basearch&repo=centosplus
#baseurl=http://mirror.centos.org/centos/$releasever/centosplus/$basearch/
baseurl=http://mirrors.163.com/centos/$releasever/centosplus/$basearch/
http://mirrors.ta139.com/centos/$releasever/centosplus/$basearch/
http://centos.ustc.edu.cn/centos/$releasever/centosplus/$basearch/
http://mirror.neu.edu.cn/centos/$releasever/centosplus/$basearch/
gpgcheck=1
enabled=0
gpgkey=http://mirror.centos.org/centos/RPM-GPG-KEY-CentOS-6

#contrib - packages by Centos Users
[contrib]
name=CentOS-$releasever - Contrib
mirrorlist=http://mirrorlist.centos.org/?release=$releasever&arch=$basearch&repo=contrib
#baseurl=http://mirror.centos.org/centos/$releasever/contrib/$basearch/
baseurl=http://mirrors.163.com/centos/$releasever/contrib/$basearch/
http://mirrors.ta139.com/centos/$releasever/contrib/$basearch/
http://centos.ustc.edu.cn/centos/$releasever/contrib/$basearch/
http://mirror.neu.edu.cn/centos/$releasever/contrib/$basearch/
gpgcheck=1
enabled=0
gpgkey=http://mirror.centos.org/centos/RPM-GPG-KEY-CentOS-6

然后使用如下命令更新到最新系统:

#rpm –import /etc/pki/rpm-gpg-key*

#yum upgrade

3.安装语言包

从安装盘进行安装,找到对应rpm包:
fonts-chinese-3.02-9.6.el5.noarch.rpm
fonts-ISO8859-2-75dpi-1.0-17.1.noarch.rpm

可以通过yum进行安装,安装办法为:
#yum groupinstall <language>-support

在上面的命令中,<language> 是下列之一: assamese, bengali, chinese, gujarati, hindi, japanese, kannada, korean, malayalam, marathi, oriya, punjabi, sinhala, tamil, thai, 或 telegu。

4.解压缩软件 
#yum install unrar unzip p7zip-full

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