Kubernetes中的亲和性

现实中应用的运行对于kubernetes在亲和性上提出了一些要求,可以归类到以下几个方面:
1.Pod固定调度到某些节点之上
2.Pod不会调度到某些节点之上
3.Pod的多副本调度到相同的节点之上
4.Pod的多副本调度到不同的节点之上

实践

下面我们将通过例子的方式来说明在kubernetes需要去设置亲和性实现上面要求.

Pod调动到某些节点上

Pod的定义中通过nodeSelector指定label标签,pod将会只调度到具有该标签的node之上

apiVersion: v1
kind: Pod
metadata:
  name: nginx
  labels:
    env: test
spec:
  containers:
  - name: nginx
    image: nginx
    imagePullPolicy: IfNotPresent
  nodeSelector:
    disktype: ssd

这个例子中pod只会调度到具有disktype=ssd的node上面.

Affinity/anti-affinity node

Affinity/anti-affinity node 相对于nodeSelector机制更加的灵活和丰富

  • 表达的语法:支持In,NotIn,Exists,DoesNotExist,Gt,Lt.
  • 支持soft(preference)和hard(requirement),hard表示pod sheduler到某个node上,则必须满足亲和性设置.soft表示scheduler的时候,无法满足节点的时候,会选择非nodeSelector匹配的节点.
  • nodeAffinity的基础上添加多个nodeSelectorTerms字段,调度的时候Node只需要nodeSelectorTerms中的某一个符合条件就符合nodeAffinity的规则.在nodeSelectorTerms中添加matchExpressions,需要可以调度的Node是满足matchExpressions中表示的所有规则.
apiVersion: v1
kind: Pod
metadata:
  name: with-node-affinity
spec:
  affinity:
    nodeAffinity:
      requiredDuringSchedulingIgnoredDuringExecution:
        nodeSelectorTerms:
        - matchExpressions:
          - key: kubernetes.io/e2e-az-name
            operator: In
            values:
            - e2e-az1
            - e2e-az2
      preferredDuringSchedulingIgnoredDuringExecution:
      - weight: 1
        preference:
          matchExpressions:
          - key: another-node-label-key
            operator: In
            values:
            - another-node-label-value
  containers:
 - name: with-node-affinity
    image: k8s.gcr.io/pause:2.0

Pod间的亲和性和反亲和性

基于已经运行在Node 上pod的labels来决定需要新创建的Pods是否可以调度到node节点上,配置的时候可以指定那个namespace中的pod需要满足pod的亲和性.可以通过topologyKey来指定topology domain, 可以指定为node/cloud provider zone/cloud provider region的范围. 

  • 表达的语法:支持In, NotIn, Exists, DoesNotExist
  • Pod的亲和性和反亲和性可以分成
    requiredDuringSchedulingIgnoredDuringExecution #硬要求
    preferredDuringSchedulingIgnoredDuringExecution #软要求
    类似上面node的亲和策略类似,requiredDuringSchedulingIgnoredDuringExecution亲和性可以用于约束不同服务的pod在同一个topology domain的Nod上.preferredDuringSchedulingIgnoredDuringExecution反亲和性可以将服务的pod分散到不同的topology domain的Node上.
  • topologyKey可以设置成如下几种类型
    kubernetes.io/hostname  #Node
    failure-domain.beta.kubernetes.io/zone #Zone
    failure-domain.beta.kubernetes.io/region #Region
    可以设置node上的label的值来表示node的name,zone,region等信息,pod的规则中指定topologykey的值表示指定topology范围内的node上运行的pod满足指定规则
apiVersion: v1
kind: Pod
metadata:
  name: with-pod-affinity
spec:
  affinity:
    podAffinity:
      requiredDuringSchedulingIgnoredDuringExecution:
      - labelSelector:
          matchExpressions:
          - key: security
            operator: In
            values:
            - S1
        topologyKey: failure-domain.beta.kubernetes.io/zone
    podAntiAffinity:
      preferredDuringSchedulingIgnoredDuringExecution:
      - weight: 100
        podAffinityTerm:
          labelSelector:
            matchExpressions:
            - key: security
              operator: In
              values:
              - S2
          topologyKey: kubernetes.io/hostname
  containers:
  - name: with-pod-affinity
    image: k8s.gcr.io/pause:2.0

利用社区官方的例子来进一步的说明,例子中指定了pod的亲和性和反亲和性,
preferredDuringSchedulingIgnoredDuringExecution指定的规则是pod将会调度到的node尽量会满足如下条件:

  • node上具有failure-domain.beta.kubernetes.io/zone,并且具有相同failure-domain.beta.kubernetes.io/zone的值的node上运行有一个pod,它符合label为securtity=S1. preferredDuringSchedulingIgnoredDuringExecution规则表示将不会调度到node上运行有security=S2的pod.如果这里我们将topologyKey=failure-domain.beta.kubernetes.io/zone,那么pod将不会调度到node满足的条件是:node上具有failure-domain.beta.kubernetes.io/zone相同的value,并且这些相同zone下的node上运行有security=S2的pod.

Notice:对于topologyKey字段具有如下约束
1.对于亲和性以及RequiredDuringScheduling的反亲和性,topologyKey需要指定
2.对于RequiredDuringScheduling的反亲和性,LimitPodHardAntiAffinityTopology的准入控制限制topologyKey为kubernetes.io/hostname,可以通过修改或者disable解除该约束
3.对于PreferredDuringScheduling的反亲和性,空的topologyKey表示kubernetes.io/hostname, failure-domain.beta.kubernetes.io/zone and failure-domain.beta.kubernetes.io/region的组合.
4. topologyKey在遵循其他约束的基础上可以设置成其他的key.

规则中可以指定匹配pod所在namespace,如果定义了但是为空,它表示所有namespace范围内的pod.

常用的场景

一些更加常用的场景见例子所示
例子一

apiVersion: apps/v1beta1 # for versions before 1.6.0 use extensions/v1beta1
kind: Deployment
metadata:
  name: redis-cache
spec:
  replicas: 3
  template:
    metadata:
      labels:
        app: store
    spec:
      affinity:
        podAntiAffinity:
          requiredDuringSchedulingIgnoredDuringExecution:
          - labelSelector:
              matchExpressions:
              - key: app
                operator: In
                values:
                - store
            topologyKey: "kubernetes.io/hostname"
      containers:
      - name: redis-server
        image: redis:3.2-alpine

创建了一个Deployment,副本数为3,指定了反亲和规则如上所示,pod的label为app:store,那么pod调度的时候将不会调度到node上已经运行了label为app:store的pod了,这样就会使得Deployment的三副本分别部署在不同的host的node上.

例子二

apiVersion: apps/v1beta1 # for versions before 1.6.0 use extensions/v1beta1
kind: Deployment
metadata:
  name: web-server
spec:
  replicas: 3
  template:
    metadata:
      labels:
        app: web-store
    spec:
      affinity:
        podAntiAffinity:
          requiredDuringSchedulingIgnoredDuringExecution:
          - labelSelector:
              matchExpressions:
              - key: app
                operator: In
                values:
                - web-store
            topologyKey: "kubernetes.io/hostname"
        podAffinity:
          requiredDuringSchedulingIgnoredDuringExecution:
          - labelSelector:
              matchExpressions:
              - key: app
                operator: In
                values:
                - store
            topologyKey: "kubernetes.io/hostname"
      containers:
      - name: web-app
        image: nginx:1.12-alpine

在一个例子中基础之上,要求pod的亲和性满足requiredDuringSchedulingIgnoredDuringExecution中topologyKey=”kubernetes.io/hostname”,并且node上需要运行有app=store的label.
运行完例子一,例子二,那么pod的分布如下所示

$kubectl get pods -o wide
NAME                           READY STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE     IP           NODE
redis-cache-1450370735-6dzlj   1/1   Running   0          8m      10.192.4.2   kube-node-3
redis-cache-1450370735-j2j96   1/1   Running   0          8m      10.192.2.2   kube-node-1
redis-cache-1450370735-z73mh   1/1   Running   0          8m      10.192.3.1   kube-node-2
web-server-1287567482-5d4dz    1/1   Running   0          7m      10.192.2.3   kube-node-1
web-server-1287567482-6f7v5    1/1   Running   0          7m      10.192.4.3   kube-node-3
web-server-1287567482-s330j    1/1   Running   0          7m      10.192.3.2   kube-node-2

例子三

apiVersion: apps/v1beta1 # for versions before 1.6.0 use extensions/v1beta1
kind: Deployment
metadata:
  name: web-server
spec:
  replicas: 3
  template:
    metadata:
      labels:
        app: web-store
    spec:
      affinity:
        podAffinity:
          requiredDuringSchedulingIgnoredDuringExecution:
          - labelSelector:
              matchExpressions:
              - key: app
                operator: In
                values:
                - web-store
            topologyKey: "kubernetes.io/hostname"
      containers:
      - name: web-app
        image: hub.easystack.io/library/nginx:1.9.0

在一些应用中,pod副本之间需要共享cache,需要将pod运行在一个节点之上

web-server-77bfb4575f-bhxvg            1/1       Running   0          11s       10.233.66.79     hzc-slave2   app=web-store,pod-template-hash=3369601319
web-server-77bfb4575f-mkfd9            1/1       Running   0          11s       10.233.66.80     hzc-slave2   app=web-store,pod-template-hash=3369601319
web-server-77bfb4575f-wgjq6            1/1       Running   0          11s       10.233.66.78     hzc-slave2   app=web-store,pod-template-hash=3369601319

Link:
https://github.com/davidkbainbridge/demo-affinity
https://kubernetes.io/docs/concepts/configuration/assign-pod-node/#inter-pod-affinity-and-anti-affinity-beta-feature
https://medium.com/kokster/scheduling-in-kubernetes-part-2-pod-affinity-c2b217312ae1

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