tar命令使用及tar实现全备份和增量备份

首先弄清楚何为全备、增量备份、差异备份。简而言之,可以这样理解:

  • 全备:对所有的文件做一次备份。
  • 增量备份:本次和上一次的的差异。
  • 差异备份:在全备的基础上做备份。

一 tar命令

#创建测试文件夹和文件
[root@serv01 web]# cd /data
[root@serv01 data]# ls
[root@serv01 data]# mkdir /work
[root@serv01 data]# mkdir /work/upload
[root@serv01 data]# cd /work/upload/
[root@serv01 upload]# touchaa0{1,2,3,4,5}.txt
[root@serv01 upload]# ls
aa01.txt aa02.txt  aa03.txt  aa04.txt aa05.txt
 
#创建压缩包
[root@serv01 data]# tar -cvf upload01.tar/work/upload/
tar: Removing leading `/' from member names
/work/upload/
/work/upload/aa03.txt
/work/upload/aa01.txt
/work/upload/aa04.txt
/work/upload/aa05.txt
/work/upload/aa02.txt
#查看压缩包里面包含的文件
[root@serv01 data]# tar -tf upload01.tar
work/upload/
work/upload/aa03.txt
work/upload/aa01.txt
work/upload/aa04.txt
work/upload/aa05.txt
work/upload/aa02.txt
#删除掉数据,模拟数据丢失
[root@serv01 data]# rm -rf /work
#解压
[root@serv01 data]# tar -xvf upload01.tar-C /
work/upload/
work/upload/aa03.txt
work/upload/aa01.txt
work/upload/aa04.txt
work/upload/aa05.txt
work/upload/aa02.txt
[root@serv01 data]# ls /work
upload
[root@serv01 data]# ls
upload01.tar
#压缩时包含文件路径
[root@serv01 data]# tar -cPvf upload02.tar/work/upload/
/work/upload/
/work/upload/aa03.txt
/work/upload/aa01.txt
/work/upload/aa04.txt
/work/upload/aa05.txt
/work/upload/aa02.txt
#解压时就不需要指定文件路径了
[root@serv01 data]# tar -xPvf upload02.tar
/work/upload/
/work/upload/aa03.txt
/work/upload/aa01.txt
/work/upload/aa04.txt
/work/upload/aa05.txt
/work/upload/aa02.txt
[root@serv01 data]# ls /work/
upload
      
#不一定需要f参数,可以使用重定向解决
[root@serv01 data]# tar -cv upload03.tar/work/upload/
tar: upload03.tar: Cannot stat: No suchfile or directory
tar: Removing leading `/' from member names
/work/upload/
/work/upload/aa03.txt
/work/upload/aa01.txt
/work/upload/aa04.txt
/work/upload/aa05.txt
/work/upload/aa02.txt
work/upload/00007550000000000000000000000000121766767060120445ustar  rootrootwork/upload/aa03.txt00006440000000000000000000000000121766767060133170ustar rootrootwork/upload/aa01.txt00006440000000000000000000000000121766767060133150ustar  rootrootwork/upload/aa04.txt00006440000000000000000000000000121766767060133200ustar  rootrootwork/upload/aa05.txt00006440000000000000000000000000121766767060133210ustar rootrootwork/upload/aa02.txt00006440000000000000000000000000121766767060133160ustar  rootroottar: Exiting with failurestatus due to previous errors
#指定路径,重定向到upload03.tar
[root@serv01 data]# tar -cv /work/upload/> upload03.tar
tar: Removing leading `/' from member names
/work/upload/
/work/upload/aa03.txt
/work/upload/aa01.txt
/work/upload/aa04.txt
/work/upload/aa05.txt
/work/upload/aa02.txt
#删除目录
[root@serv01 data]# rm -rf /work/
#解压,指定输入源
[root@serv01 data]# tar -xv -C / <upload03.tar
work/upload/
work/upload/aa03.txt
work/upload/aa01.txt
work/upload/aa04.txt
work/upload/aa05.txt
work/upload/aa02.txt
#查看
[root@serv01 data]# ls /work/
upload
[root@serv01 data]# tar -tf upload03.tar
work/upload/
work/upload/aa03.txt
work/upload/aa01.txt
work/upload/aa04.txt
work/upload/aa05.txt
work/upload/aa02.txt
#测试路径加的不一样的效果
 
[root@serv01 data]# cd /work/
[root@serv01 work]# tar -cf upload04.tarupload/
[root@serv01 work]# tar -tf upload04.tar
upload/
upload/aa03.txt
upload/aa01.txt
upload/aa04.txt
upload/aa05.txt
upload/aa02.txt
 
#会解压到根下面的upload目录下
[root@serv01 work]# tar -xv -C / <upload04.tar
upload/
upload/aa03.txt
upload/aa01.txt
upload/aa04.txt
upload/aa05.txt
upload/aa02.txt
 
[root@serv01 work]# ls /upload/
aa01.txt aa02.txt  aa03.txt  aa04.txt aa05.txt
#创建aa06.txt文件
[root@serv01 upload]# touch aa06.txt
[root@serv01 upload]# cd /data
[root@serv01 data]# tar -tf upload02.tar
tar: Removing leading `/' from member names
/work/upload/
/work/upload/aa03.txt
/work/upload/aa01.txt
/work/upload/aa04.txt
/work/upload/aa05.txt
/work/upload/aa02.txt
#增加aa06.txt到upload02.tar中
[root@serv01 data]# tar -Pvf upload02.tar-r /work/upload/aa06.txt
/work/upload/aa06.txt
[root@serv01 data]# tar -tf upload02.tar
tar: Removing leading `/' from member names
/work/upload/
/work/upload/aa03.txt
/work/upload/aa01.txt
/work/upload/aa04.txt
/work/upload/aa05.txt
/work/upload/aa02.txt
/work/upload/aa06.txt
 
#演示文件修改后,更新压缩包
#编辑文件
[root@serv01 data]# vim/work/upload/aa01.txt
#更新
[root@serv01 data]# tar -uPvf upload02.tar/work/upload/
/work/upload/aa01.txt
[root@serv01 data]# tar -tf upload02.tar
tar: Removing leading `/' from member names
/work/upload/
/work/upload/aa03.txt
/work/upload/aa01.txt
/work/upload/aa04.txt
/work/upload/aa05.txt
/work/upload/aa02.txt
/work/upload/aa06.txt
/work/upload/aa01.txt
 
#删除文件,然后恢复
[root@serv01 data]# rm -rf /work/
[root@serv01 data]# ls /work/*
ls: cannot access /work/*: No such file or directory
[root@serv01 data]# tar -xPvf upload02.tar
/work/upload/
/work/upload/aa03.txt
/work/upload/aa01.txt
/work/upload/aa04.txt
/work/upload/aa05.txt
/work/upload/aa02.txt
/work/upload/aa06.txt
/work/upload/aa01.txt
#查看刚才更新的文件,发现没任何问题
[root@serv01 data]# cat/work/upload/aa01.txt
this is aa01.txt
 
#找到etc下面以conf结尾的文件,然后打包
[root@serv01 data]# find /etc/ -name"*.conf" | xargs tar -Pcvf test01.tar
#找到etc下面以conf结尾的文件,但不包含yum.conf,然后打包
[root@serv01 data]# find /etc/ -name"*.conf" ! -name "yum.conf" | xargs tar -Pcvf test02.tar
[root@serv01 data]# find /etc/ -name"*.conf" ! -name yum.conf | xargs tar -Pcvf test02.tar
 
#指定文件,然后备份
#将配置文件写到file1
[root@serv01 data]# find /etc -name"*.conf" > file1
#查看文件,可以看到所有的配置文件列表都已经存在了(注意是文件路径)
[root@serv01 data]# vim file1
#创建conf01.tar,然后T指定文件
[root@serv01 data]# tar -cPvf conf01.tar -Tfile1
[root@serv01 data]# tar -tf conf01.tar
[root@serv01 data]# ls -h conf01.tar -l
-rw-r--r—. 1 root root 250K Aug  2 18:18 conf01.tar

二 tar命令实现——全备和增量备份

[root@serv01 data]# ls /work/upload/
aa01.txt aa02.txt  aa03.txt  aa04.txt aa05.txt  aa06.txt
[root@serv01 data]# rm -rf upload01.tar
#这是全备,无法实现增量备份功能
[root@serv01 data]# tar -cPvf upload01.tar/work/upload/
#g指定标志文件
[root@serv01 data]# tar -g flag -cPvfupload01.tar /work/upload/
tar: /work/upload: Directory is new
/work/upload/
/work/upload/aa01.txt
/work/upload/aa02.txt
/work/upload/aa03.txt
/work/upload/aa04.txt
/work/upload/aa05.txt
/work/upload/aa06.txt
[root@serv01 data]# vim flag
#新建文件
[root@serv01 data]# touch /work/upload/aa07.txt
#更改文件
[root@serv01 data]# vim/work/upload/aa02.txt
[root@serv01 data]# tar -g flag -cPvfupload02.tar /work/upload/
/work/upload/
/work/upload/aa02.txt
/work/upload/aa07.txt
[root@serv01 data]# tar -tPf upload02.tar
/work/upload/
/work/upload/aa02.txt
/work/upload/aa07.txt
 
[root@serv01 data]# touch/work/upload/aa08.txt
[root@serv01 data]# rm -rf/work/upload/aa01.txt
[root@serv01 data]# ls /work/upload/
aa02.txt aa03.txt  aa04.txt  aa05.txt aa06.txt  aa07.txt  aa08.txt
[root@serv01 data]# tar -g flag -cPvfupload03.tar /work/upload/
/work/upload/
/work/upload/aa08.txt
 
#恢复全备,逐次恢复
#数据丢失
[root@serv01 data]# rm -rf /work/*
[root@serv01 data]# ls /work/
#先恢复全备
[root@serv01 data]# tar -g flag -xPvfupload01.tar
/work/upload/
/work/upload/aa01.txt
/work/upload/aa02.txt
/work/upload/aa03.txt
/work/upload/aa04.txt
/work/upload/aa05.txt
/work/upload/aa06.txt
#可以看到数据回来了
[root@serv01 data]# ls /work/upload/
aa01.txt aa02.txt  aa03.txt  aa04.txt aa05.txt  aa06.txt
#查看aa02.txt文件,发现内容没有
[root@serv01 data]# cat/work/upload/aa02.txt
#恢复文件,从增量备份upload02.tar文件中来
[root@serv01 data]# tar -g flag -xPvfupload02.tar
/work/upload/
/work/upload/aa02.txt
/work/upload/aa07.txt
#查看aa02.txt文件,内容回来了
[root@serv01 data]# cat/work/upload/aa02.txt
hello world
#恢复文件,从增量备份upload03.tar文件中来
[root@serv01 data]# tar -g flag -xPvfupload03.tar
/work/upload/
tar: Deleting `/work/upload/aa01.txt'
/work/upload/aa08.txt
[root@serv01 data]# ls /work/upload/
aa02.txt aa03.txt  aa04.txt  aa05.txt aa06.txt  aa07.txt  aa08.txt



  我的邮箱wgbno27@163.com
  新浪微博@Wentasy27         
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  Oracle交流讨论组https://groups.google.com/d/forum/justoracle
  By Larry Wen


katoonSina CSDN
@Wentasy 博文仅供参考,欢迎大家来访。如有错误之处,希望批评指正。原创博文如需转载请注明出处,谢谢 :) [CSDN博客]
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