微信热补丁解决方案Tinker初探(一)

版权声明:本文为博主原创文章,未经博主允许不得转载。 https://blog.csdn.net/juyao12/article/details/54023764

微信开源Tinker有一段时间了,这两天上手体验了下,感觉还可以,下面就来说一下我的Tinker初体验。
Tinker是微信官方的Android热补丁解决方案,它支持动态下发代码、So库以及资源,让应用能够在不需要重新安装的情况下实现更新。当然,你也可以使用Tinker来更新你的插件。
它主要包括以下几个部分:
1.gradle编译插件: tinker-patch-gradle-plugin
2.核心sdk库: tinker-android-lib
3.非gradle编译用户的命令行版本: tinker-patch-cli.jar
这是Tinker的官方简介Tinker GitHub(感觉有点啰嗦)
首先需要注意的几点:
1.Tinker不支持修改AndroidManifest.xml,Tinker不支持新增四大组件;
2.由于Google Play的开发者条款限制,不建议在GP渠道动态更新代码;
3.由于apk-parser issue, TinkerId不能设置为非常短的数字,例如“1.0”;
4.在Android N上,补丁对应用启动时间有轻微的影响;
5.不支持部分三星android-19机型,加载补丁时会主动抛出”TinkerRuntimeException:checkDexInstall failed”;
6.关于渠道包的问题,若使用flavor编译渠道包,会导致不同的渠道包由于BuildConfig变化导致classes.dex差异。这里建议的方式有:
将渠道信息写在AndroidManifest.xml中;
将渠道信息写在apk文件的zip comment中,这种是建议方式;
若不同渠道存在功能上的差异,建议将差异部分放于单独的dex或采用相同代码不同配置方式实现。
首先新建一个工程TinkerTest,在app/build.gradle添加如下配置:
添加依赖:

dependencies {
    compile 'com.android.support:appcompat-v7:25.1.0'
    testCompile 'junit:junit:4.12'
    //optional, help to generate the final application
    provided('com.tencent.tinker:tinker-android-anno:1.7.6')
    //tinker's main Android lib
    compile('com.tencent.tinker:tinker-android-lib:1.7.6')
    compile "com.android.support:multidex:1.0.1"
}

添加如下配置:

def javaVersion = JavaVersion.VERSION_1_7
android {
    compileSdkVersion 25
    buildToolsVersion "25.0.0"
    defaultConfig {
        applicationId "com.juyao.tinkertest"
        minSdkVersion 16
        targetSdkVersion 25
        versionCode 1
        versionName "1.0"
        testInstrumentationRunner "android.support.test.runner.AndroidJUnitRunner"
        /**
         * you can use multiDex and install it in your ApplicationLifeCycle implement
         */
        multiDexEnabled true
        /**
         * buildConfig can change during patch!
         * we can use the newly value when patch
         */
        buildConfigField "String", "MESSAGE", "\"I am the base apk\""
//        buildConfigField "String", "MESSAGE", "\"I am the patch apk\""
        /**
         * client version would update with patch
         * so we can get the newly git version easily!
         */
        buildConfigField "String", "TINKER_ID", "\"${getTinkerIdValue()}\""
        buildConfigField "String", "PLATFORM",  "\"all\""
    }
    buildTypes {
        release {
            minifyEnabled false
            proguardFiles getDefaultProguardFile('proguard-android.txt'), 'proguard-rules.pro'
        }
    }
    //recommend
    dexOptions {
        jumboMode = true
    }
    //签名
    signingConfigs {
        release {
            storeFile file("key.keystore")
            storePassword "123456"
            keyAlias "zj"
            keyPassword "123456"
        }
        debug{
            storeFile file("key.keystore")
            storePassword "123456"
            keyAlias "zj"
            keyPassword "123456"
        }
    }


}
def bakPath = file("${buildDir}/bakApk/")

/**
 * you can use assembleRelease to build you base apk
 * use tinkerPatchRelease -POLD_APK=  -PAPPLY_MAPPING=  -PAPPLY_RESOURCE= to build patch
 * add apk from the build/bakApk
 */
ext {
    //for some reason, you may want to ignore tinkerBuild, such as instant run debug build?
    tinkerEnabled = true

    //for normal build
    //old apk file to build patch apk
    tinkerOldApkPath = "${bakPath}/app-debug-0104-16-57-35.apk"
    //proguard mapping file to build patch apk
    tinkerApplyMappingPath = "${bakPath}/app-debug-mapping.txt"
    //resource R.txt to build patch apk, must input if there is resource changed
    tinkerApplyResourcePath = "${bakPath}/app-debug-R.txt"

    //only use for build all flavor, if not, just ignore this field
    tinkerBuildFlavorDirectory = "${bakPath}/app-1018-17-32-47"
}
def getOldApkPath() {
    return hasProperty("OLD_APK") ? OLD_APK : ext.tinkerOldApkPath
}

def getApplyMappingPath() {
    return hasProperty("APPLY_MAPPING") ? APPLY_MAPPING : ext.tinkerApplyMappingPath
}

def getApplyResourceMappingPath() {
    return hasProperty("APPLY_RESOURCE") ? APPLY_RESOURCE : ext.tinkerApplyResourcePath
}

def getTinkerIdValue() {
    return hasProperty("TINKER_ID") ? TINKER_ID : gitSha()
}

def buildWithTinker() {
    return hasProperty("TINKER_ENABLE") ? TINKER_ENABLE : ext.tinkerEnabled
}

def getTinkerBuildFlavorDirectory() {
    return ext.tinkerBuildFlavorDirectory
}

if (buildWithTinker()) {
    apply plugin: 'com.tencent.tinker.patch'

    tinkerPatch {
        /**
         * necessary,default 'null'
         * the old apk path, use to diff with the new apk to build
         * add apk from the build/bakApk
         */
        oldApk = getOldApkPath()
        /**
         * optional,default 'false'
         * there are some cases we may get some warnings
         * if ignoreWarning is true, we would just assert the patch process
         * case 1: minSdkVersion is below 14, but you are using dexMode with raw.
         *         it must be crash when load.
         * case 2: newly added Android Component in AndroidManifest.xml,
         *         it must be crash when load.
         * case 3: loader classes in dex.loader{} are not keep in the main dex,
         *         it must be let tinker not work.
         * case 4: loader classes in dex.loader{} changes,
         *         loader classes is ues to load patch dex. it is useless to change them.
         *         it won't crash, but these changes can't effect. you may ignore it
         * case 5: resources.arsc has changed, but we don't use applyResourceMapping to build
         */
        ignoreWarning = false

        /**
         * optional,default 'true'
         * whether sign the patch file
         * if not, you must do yourself. otherwise it can't check success during the patch loading
         * we will use the sign config with your build type
         */
        useSign = true

        /**
         * optional,default 'true'
         * whether use tinker to build
         */
        tinkerEnable = buildWithTinker()

        /**
         * Warning, applyMapping will affect the normal android build!
         */
        buildConfig {
            /**
             * optional,default 'null'
             * if we use tinkerPatch to build the patch apk, you'd better to apply the old
             * apk mapping file if minifyEnabled is enable!
             * Warning:
             * you must be careful that it will affect the normal assemble build!
             */
            applyMapping = getApplyMappingPath()
            /**
             * optional,default 'null'
             * It is nice to keep the resource id from R.txt file to reduce java changes
             */
            applyResourceMapping = getApplyResourceMappingPath()

            /**
             * necessary,default 'null'
             * because we don't want to check the base apk with md5 in the runtime(it is slow)
             * tinkerId is use to identify the unique base apk when the patch is tried to apply.
             * we can use git rev, svn rev or simply versionCode.
             * we will gen the tinkerId in your manifest automatic
             */
            tinkerId = "1.0"

            /**
             * if keepDexApply is true, class in which dex refer to the old apk.
             * open this can reduce the dex diff file size.
             */
            keepDexApply = false
        }

        dex {
            /**
             * optional,default 'jar'
             * only can be 'raw' or 'jar'. for raw, we would keep its original format
             * for jar, we would repack dexes with zip format.
             * if you want to support below 14, you must use jar
             * or you want to save rom or check quicker, you can use raw mode also
             */
            dexMode = "jar"

            /**
             * necessary,default '[]'
             * what dexes in apk are expected to deal with tinkerPatch
             * it support * or ? pattern.
             */
            pattern = ["classes*.dex",
                       "assets/secondary-dex-?.jar"]
            /**
             * necessary,default '[]'
             * Warning, it is very very important, loader classes can't change with patch.
             * thus, they will be removed from patch dexes.
             * you must put the following class into main dex.
             * Simply, you should add your own application {@code tinker.sample.android.SampleApplication}
             * own tinkerLoader, and the classes you use in them
             *
             */
            loader = [
                    //use sample, let BaseBuildInfo unchangeable with tinker
                    "tinker.sample.android.app.BaseBuildInfo"
            ]
        }

        lib {
            /**
             * optional,default '[]'
             * what library in apk are expected to deal with tinkerPatch
             * it support * or ? pattern.
             * for library in assets, we would just recover them in the patch directory
             * you can get them in TinkerLoadResult with Tinker
             */
            pattern = ["lib/armeabi/*.so"]
        }

        res {
            /**
             * optional,default '[]'
             * what resource in apk are expected to deal with tinkerPatch
             * it support * or ? pattern.
             * you must include all your resources in apk here,
             * otherwise, they won't repack in the new apk resources.
             */
            pattern = ["res/*", "assets/*", "resources.arsc", "AndroidManifest.xml"]

            /**
             * optional,default '[]'
             * the resource file exclude patterns, ignore add, delete or modify resource change
             * it support * or ? pattern.
             * Warning, we can only use for files no relative with resources.arsc
             */
            ignoreChange = ["assets/sample_meta.txt"]

            /**
             * default 100kb
             * for modify resource, if it is larger than 'largeModSize'
             * we would like to use bsdiff algorithm to reduce patch file size
             */
            largeModSize = 100
        }

        packageConfig {
            /**
             * optional,default 'TINKER_ID, TINKER_ID_VALUE' 'NEW_TINKER_ID, NEW_TINKER_ID_VALUE'
             * package meta file gen. path is assets/package_meta.txt in patch file
             * you can use securityCheck.getPackageProperties() in your ownPackageCheck method
             * or TinkerLoadResult.getPackageConfigByName
             * we will get the TINKER_ID from the old apk manifest for you automatic,
             * other config files (such as patchMessage below)is not necessary
             */
            configField("patchMessage", "tinker is sample to use")
            /**
             * just a sample case, you can use such as sdkVersion, brand, channel...
             * you can parse it in the SamplePatchListener.
             * Then you can use patch conditional!
             */
            configField("platform", "all")
            /**
             * patch version via packageConfig
             */
            configField("patchVersion", "1.0")
        }
        //or you can add config filed outside, or get meta value from old apk
        //project.tinkerPatch.packageConfig.configField("test1", project.tinkerPatch.packageConfig.getMetaDataFromOldApk("Test"))
        //project.tinkerPatch.packageConfig.configField("test2", "sample")

        /**
         * if you don't use zipArtifact or path, we just use 7za to try
         */
        sevenZip {
            /**
             * optional,default '7za'
             * the 7zip artifact path, it will use the right 7za with your platform
             */
            zipArtifact = "com.tencent.mm:SevenZip:1.1.10"
            /**
             * optional,default '7za'
             * you can specify the 7za path yourself, it will overwrite the zipArtifact value
             */
//        path = "/usr/local/bin/7za"
        }
    }

    List<String> flavors = new ArrayList<>();
    project.android.productFlavors.each {flavor ->
        flavors.add(flavor.name)
    }
    boolean hasFlavors = flavors.size() > 0
    /**
     * bak apk and mapping
     */
    android.applicationVariants.all { variant ->
        /**
         * task type, you want to bak
         */
        def taskName = variant.name
        def date = new Date().format("MMdd-HH-mm-ss")

        tasks.all {
            if ("assemble${taskName.capitalize()}".equalsIgnoreCase(it.name)) {

                it.doLast {
                    copy {
                        def fileNamePrefix = "${project.name}-${variant.baseName}"
                        def newFileNamePrefix = hasFlavors ? "${fileNamePrefix}" : "${fileNamePrefix}-${date}"

                        def destPath = hasFlavors ? file("${bakPath}/${project.name}-${date}/${variant.flavorName}") : bakPath
                        from variant.outputs.outputFile
                        into destPath
                        rename { String fileName ->
                            fileName.replace("${fileNamePrefix}.apk", "${newFileNamePrefix}.apk")
                        }

                        from "${buildDir}/outputs/mapping/${variant.dirName}/mapping.txt"
                        into destPath
                        rename { String fileName ->
                            fileName.replace("mapping.txt", "${newFileNamePrefix}-mapping.txt")
                        }

                        from "${buildDir}/intermediates/symbols/${variant.dirName}/R.txt"
                        into destPath
                        rename { String fileName ->
                            fileName.replace("R.txt", "${newFileNamePrefix}-R.txt")
                        }
                    }
                }
            }
        }
    }
    project.afterEvaluate {
        //sample use for build all flavor for one time
        if (hasFlavors) {
            task(tinkerPatchAllFlavorRelease) {
                group = 'tinker'
                def originOldPath = getTinkerBuildFlavorDirectory()
                for (String flavor : flavors) {
                    def tinkerTask = tasks.getByName("tinkerPatch${flavor.capitalize()}Release")
                    dependsOn tinkerTask
                    def preAssembleTask = tasks.getByName("process${flavor.capitalize()}ReleaseManifest")
                    preAssembleTask.doFirst {
                        String flavorName = preAssembleTask.name.substring(7, 8).toLowerCase() + preAssembleTask.name.substring(8, preAssembleTask.name.length() - 15)
                        project.tinkerPatch.oldApk = "${originOldPath}/${flavorName}/${project.name}-${flavorName}-release.apk"
                        project.tinkerPatch.buildConfig.applyMapping = "${originOldPath}/${flavorName}/${project.name}-${flavorName}-release-mapping.txt"
                        project.tinkerPatch.buildConfig.applyResourceMapping = "${originOldPath}/${flavorName}/${project.name}-${flavorName}-release-R.txt"

                    }

                }
            }

            task(tinkerPatchAllFlavorDebug) {
                group = 'tinker'
                def originOldPath = getTinkerBuildFlavorDirectory()
                for (String flavor : flavors) {
                    def tinkerTask = tasks.getByName("tinkerPatch${flavor.capitalize()}Debug")
                    dependsOn tinkerTask
                    def preAssembleTask = tasks.getByName("process${flavor.capitalize()}DebugManifest")
                    preAssembleTask.doFirst {
                        String flavorName = preAssembleTask.name.substring(7, 8).toLowerCase() + preAssembleTask.name.substring(8, preAssembleTask.name.length() - 13)
                        project.tinkerPatch.oldApk = "${originOldPath}/${flavorName}/${project.name}-${flavorName}-debug.apk"
                        project.tinkerPatch.buildConfig.applyMapping = "${originOldPath}/${flavorName}/${project.name}-${flavorName}-debug-mapping.txt"
                        project.tinkerPatch.buildConfig.applyResourceMapping = "${originOldPath}/${flavorName}/${project.name}-${flavorName}-debug-R.txt"
                    }

                }
            }
        }
    }

关于各个参数信息大家可以参考接入指南
然后新建一个类继承TinkerApplication:

public class OneApplicationForTinker extends TinkerApplication {
    public OneApplicationForTinker() {
        super(
                //tinkerFlags, tinker支持的类型,dex,library,还是全部都支持!
                ShareConstants.TINKER_ENABLE_ALL,
                //ApplicationLike的实现类,只能传递字符串,不能使用class.getName()
                "com.juyao.tinkertest.MyApplication",
                //加载Tinker的主类名,对于特殊需求可能需要使用自己的加载类。需要注意的是:
                //这个类以及它使用的类都是不能被补丁修改的,并且我们需要将它们加到dex.loader[]中。
                //一般来说,我们使用默认即可。
                "com.tencent.tinker.loader.TinkerLoader",
                //由于合成过程中我们已经校验了各个文件的Md5,并将它们存放在/data/data/..目录中。
                // 默认每次加载时我们并不会去校验tinker文件的Md5,但是你也可通过开启loadVerifyFlag强制每次加载时校验,
                // 但是这会带来一定的时间损耗。
                false);
    }
}

修改AndroidManifest.xml文件:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<manifest xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android"
          package="com.juyao.tinkertest">
    <uses-permission android:name="android.permission.READ_EXTERNAL_STORAGE"/>
    <uses-permission android:name="android.permission.WRITE_EXTERNAL_STORAGE"/>
    <application
            android:name=".OneApplicationForTinker"
            android:allowBackup="true"
            android:icon="@mipmap/ic_launcher"
            android:label="@string/app_name"
            android:supportsRtl="true"
            android:theme="@style/AppTheme">
        <activity android:name=".MainActivity">
            <intent-filter>
                <action android:name="android.intent.action.MAIN"/>

                <category android:name="android.intent.category.LAUNCHER"/>
            </intent-filter>
        </activity>
    </application>

</manifest>

(注意要新增文件读取权限)
然后新建一个Application主类MyApplication继承DefaultApplicationLike,并且实现onBaseContextAttached方法:

public class MyApplication extends DefaultApplicationLike {
    public MyApplication(Application application, int tinkerFlags, boolean tinkerLoadVerifyFlag, long applicationStartElapsedTime, long applicationStartMillisTime, Intent tinkerResultIntent, Resources[] resources, ClassLoader[] classLoader, AssetManager[] assetManager) {
        super(application, tinkerFlags, tinkerLoadVerifyFlag, applicationStartElapsedTime, applicationStartMillisTime, tinkerResultIntent, resources, classLoader, assetManager);
    }

    @Override
    public void onBaseContextAttached(Context base) {
        super.onBaseContextAttached(base);
        TinkerInstaller.install(this);//Tinker 初始化
    }
}

配置完如上信息,现在开始写代码。首先写一个如图的样式布局:
界面样式
xml代码:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<RelativeLayout
        xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android"
        xmlns:tools="http://schemas.android.com/tools"
        android:id="@+id/activity_main"
        android:layout_width="match_parent"
        android:layout_height="match_parent"
        android:paddingLeft="@dimen/activity_horizontal_margin"
        android:paddingRight="@dimen/activity_horizontal_margin"
        android:paddingTop="@dimen/activity_vertical_margin"
        android:paddingBottom="@dimen/activity_vertical_margin"
        tools:context="com.juyao.tinkertest.MainActivity">

    <Button
            android:text="显示名字"
            android:layout_width="match_parent"
            android:layout_height="wrap_content"
            android:layout_marginTop="17dp"
            android:id="@+id/btn_show_name"
            android:layout_below="@+id/editText"
            android:layout_alignParentLeft="true"
            android:layout_alignParentStart="true"/>

    <Button
            android:text="加载Patch"
            android:layout_width="match_parent"
            android:layout_height="wrap_content"
            android:layout_marginTop="11dp"
            android:id="@+id/btn_load_patch"
            android:layout_below="@+id/btn_show_name"
            android:layout_alignParentLeft="true"
            android:layout_alignParentStart="true"/>

    <EditText
            android:layout_width="match_parent"
            android:layout_height="wrap_content"
            android:inputType="textPersonName"
            android:text=""
            android:ems="10"
            android:id="@+id/editText"
            android:layout_alignParentTop="true"
            android:layout_alignParentLeft="true"
            android:layout_alignParentStart="true"/>
</RelativeLayout>

MainActivity代码:

package com.juyao.tinkertest;

import android.os.Environment;
import android.support.v7.app.AppCompatActivity;
import android.os.Bundle;
import android.util.Log;
import android.view.View;
import android.widget.EditText;
import android.widget.Toast;

import com.tencent.tinker.lib.tinker.TinkerInstaller;

import java.io.File;

public class MainActivity extends AppCompatActivity {
    private static final String TAG = MainActivity.class.getSimpleName();
    EditText etUserName;
    @Override
    protected void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
        super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);
        setContentView(R.layout.activity_main);
        //Log.e(TAG,"i am on patch log");
        //etUserName= (EditText) findViewById(R.id.editText);
        findViewById(R.id.btn_show_name).setOnClickListener(new View.OnClickListener() {
            @Override
            public void onClick(View v) {
                String name = etUserName.getText().toString();
                Toast.makeText(getApplicationContext(),"输入的名字为:" + name,Toast.LENGTH_SHORT).show();
            }
        });

        findViewById(R.id.btn_load_patch).setOnClickListener(new View.OnClickListener() {
            @Override
            public void onClick(View view) {
                String patchPath  = Environment.getExternalStorageDirectory().getAbsolutePath() + "/patch_signed_7zip.apk";
                File file = new File(patchPath);
                if (file.exists()) {
                    Log.v(TAG,"补丁文件存在");
                    TinkerInstaller.onReceiveUpgradePatch(getApplicationContext(), patchPath);
                } else {
                    Log.v(TAG,"补丁文件不存在");
            }
            }
        });
    }
}

以上
这里写图片描述
这两行代码是注释掉的,所以必定运行起来必定会报空指针异常。
下面执行gradle assembleDebug 命令,执行完成后,会在app/build 路径下面会生成一个bakApk文件夹,里面有个app-debug-0105-09-44-52.apk文件,将这个apk文件安装到手机里运行,不出所料,点击“显示名字”按钮,应用发生了闪退,日志信息报空指针异常。
然后将刚才注释的两行代码取消注释,将app/build.gradle文件里的
这里写图片描述
这个文件名修改成刚刚生成的文件名,接着在命令行运行gradle tinkerPatchDebug命令,如果报

* What went wrong:
Execution failed for task ':app:tinkerPatchDebug'.
> old apk /Users/juyao/AndroidStudioProjects/TinkerTest/app/build/bakApk/app-debug-0104-16-57-35.apk is not exist, you must set the correct old apk value!

这个错误,那就是上述没有修改文件名。
执行完成后,在app/build/outputs下会生成一个tinkerPatch文件夹,将tinkerPatch/debug文件夹下的patch_signed_7zip.apk补丁文件放到手机根目录下(其实只要跟代码里的文件路径保持一致就行),然后点击“加载PATCH”按钮,这里有个坑,希望大家注意,Android6.0以上需要手动申请权限,不然会报如下错误:
Throwable:Tinker Exception:ShareSecurityCheck file /storage/emulated/0/patch_signed_7zip.apk, size 1959 verifyPatchMetaSignature fail
加载补丁成功后,日志会输出

DefaultTinkerResultService received a result: PatchResult: isSuccess:true rawPatchFilePath:/storage/emulated/0/patch_signed_7zip.apk costTime:49
这时候应用会重新运行,点击“显示名字按钮”,就能正常Toast消息了。补丁安装成功。
以上就是第一次接触Tinker的流程,适合第一次接触Tinker的阅读人群,关于一些细节,后面还会详细与大家交流,比如补丁加载成功失败的监听,大家也可以去看官方文档,么么哒~~今天就到这里,想要源码的话就可以联系邮箱juyao0909@gmail.com

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