表删除时 Cannot delete or update a parent row: a foreign key constraint fails 异常处理

有两张表,结构如下: 

t_item:                          t_bid:    
id        int                     id        int         
name    varchar                   name      varchar  
                                  item_id   int    
其中表t_item的主键id是表t_bid的item_id字段的外键。那么在这种情况下,如果删除表t_item中的记录,并且该记录中的id主键被t_bid中的item_id字段所引用,就会抛出如下异常: 

ERROR 1451 (23000): Cannot delete or update a parent row: a foreign key constraint fails (`test/t_bid`, CONSTRAINT `fk_id` FOREIGN KEY (`id`) REFERENCES `t_item  
` (`id`))   
解决方法:级联删除,即在删除t_item表中的记录时同时删除t_bid表中的相关记录 。

(1) 增加外键约束时声明级联删除,即: 

alter table t_bid add constraint fk_id foreign key(id) references   
key(id) on delete cascade;
(2) 使用触发器:在删除t_item表中记录之前先删除与之相关的t_bid表中的记录。 (这方法较好)
     触发器代码(MySQL): 

delimiter //    
create trigger tri_delete before delete on t_item  
for each row  
begin  
     delete from t_bid where id = old.id;  
end // 
Hibernate中的解决方案: 
这个问题在Hibernate中相对容易解决,只需设置cascade = “delete”即可。此时观察发出的sql语句: 
Hibernate: select item0_.id as id0_0_, item0_.name as name0_0_ from t_item item0_ where item0_.id=?  
Hibernate: select bids0_.item_id as item3_1_, bids0_.id as id1_, bids0_.id as id1_0_, bids0_.price as price1_0_, bids0_.item_id as item3_1_0_ from t_bid bids0_ where bids0_.item_id=?  
Hibernate: update t_bid set item_id=null where item_id=?  
Hibernate: delete from t_bid where id=?  
Hibernate: delete from t_bid where id=?  
Hibernate: delete from t_item where id=?  
发现在删除t_bid表中记录之前会先将它的item_id字段值设置为null,但如果我们在映射文件中设置item_id字段不能为null,即设置Bid.hbm.xml文件为:
<many-to-one name="item" column="item_id" class="po.Item" not-null="true"/>  
注意不能在Item.hbm.xml文件中进行如下设置(即在key元素中指定not-null="true"): 

<set name="bids" cascade="all">  
    <key column="item_id" not-null="true"/>   
    <one-to-many class="po.Bid"/>  
</set>   
这样会抛出"Repeated column in mapping for entity"异常
如果我们指定item_id字段值不能为null,那么在删除时会抛出如下异常:

org.hibernate.exception.GenericJDBCException: Could not execute JDBC batch update···  
Caused by: java.sql.BatchUpdateException: Data truncation: Column set to default value; NULL supplied to NOT NULL column 'item_id' at row 1  
•••  
此时的解决方法是设置inverse="true",这在Hibernate文档中有相应的描述:

Very Important Note: If the <key> column of a <one-to-many> association is declared NOT NULL, Hibernate may cause constraint violations when it creates or updates the association. To prevent this problem, you must use a bidirectional association with the many valued end (the set or bag) marked as inverse="true".   
观察此时发出的sql语句:
Hibernate: select item0_.id as id1_0_, item0_.name as name1_0_ from t_item item0_ where item0_.id=?  
Hibernate: select bids0_.item_id as item3_1_, bids0_.id as id1_, bids0_.id as id0_0_, bids0_.amount as amount0_0_, bids0_.item_id as item3_0_0_ from t_bid bids0_ where bids0_.item_id=?  
Hibernate: delete from t_bid where id=?  
Hibernate: delete from t_bid where id=?  
Hibernate: delete from t_item where id=?  
没有发出update语句。关于inverse="true"的理解:http://lijiejava.iteye.com/blog/776587

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