使用Java实现串口通信

版权声明:本文为博主原创文章,转载请注明出处。 https://blog.csdn.net/kong_gu_you_lan/article/details/52302075

最新版程序请查看 《使用Java实现串口通信(二)》

1.介绍

使用Java实现的串口通信程序,支持十六进制数据的发送与接收。
源码下载地址:http://download.csdn.net/download/kong_gu_you_lan/10015803
效果图如下:
串口通信

2.RXTXcomm

Java串口通信依赖的jar包RXTXcomm.jar
下载地址:http://download.csdn.net/detail/kong_gu_you_lan/9611334

内含32位与64位版本
使用方法:
拷贝 RXTXcomm.jar 到 JAVA_HOME\jre\lib\ext目录中;
拷贝 rxtxSerial.dll 到 JAVA_HOME\jre\bin目录中;
拷贝 rxtxParallel.dll 到 JAVA_HOME\jre\bin目录中;
JAVA_HOME为jdk安装路径

3.串口通信管理

SerialPortManager实现了对串口通信的管理,包括查找可用端口、打开关闭串口、发送接收数据。

package com.yang.serialport.manage;

import gnu.io.CommPort;
import gnu.io.CommPortIdentifier;
import gnu.io.NoSuchPortException;
import gnu.io.PortInUseException;
import gnu.io.SerialPort;
import gnu.io.SerialPortEventListener;
import gnu.io.UnsupportedCommOperationException;

import java.io.IOException;
import java.io.InputStream;
import java.io.OutputStream;
import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.util.Enumeration;
import java.util.TooManyListenersException;

import com.yang.serialport.exception.NoSuchPort;
import com.yang.serialport.exception.NotASerialPort;
import com.yang.serialport.exception.PortInUse;
import com.yang.serialport.exception.ReadDataFromSerialPortFailure;
import com.yang.serialport.exception.SendDataToSerialPortFailure;
import com.yang.serialport.exception.SerialPortInputStreamCloseFailure;
import com.yang.serialport.exception.SerialPortOutputStreamCloseFailure;
import com.yang.serialport.exception.SerialPortParameterFailure;
import com.yang.serialport.exception.TooManyListeners;

/**
 * 串口管理
 * 
 * @author yangle
 */
public class SerialPortManager {

    /**
     * 查找所有可用端口
     * 
     * @return 可用端口名称列表
     */
    @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
    public static final ArrayList<String> findPort() {
        // 获得当前所有可用串口
        Enumeration<CommPortIdentifier> portList = CommPortIdentifier
                .getPortIdentifiers();
        ArrayList<String> portNameList = new ArrayList<String>();
        // 将可用串口名添加到List并返回该List
        while (portList.hasMoreElements()) {
            String portName = portList.nextElement().getName();
            portNameList.add(portName);
        }
        return portNameList;
    }

    /**
     * 打开串口
     * 
     * @param portName
     *            端口名称
     * @param baudrate
     *            波特率
     * @return 串口对象
     * @throws SerialPortParameterFailure
     *             设置串口参数失败
     * @throws NotASerialPort
     *             端口指向设备不是串口类型
     * @throws NoSuchPort
     *             没有该端口对应的串口设备
     * @throws PortInUse
     *             端口已被占用
     */
    public static final SerialPort openPort(String portName, int baudrate)
            throws SerialPortParameterFailure, NotASerialPort, NoSuchPort,
            PortInUse {
        try {
            // 通过端口名识别端口
            CommPortIdentifier portIdentifier = CommPortIdentifier
                    .getPortIdentifier(portName);
            // 打开端口,设置端口名与timeout(打开操作的超时时间)
            CommPort commPort = portIdentifier.open(portName, 2000);
            // 判断是不是串口
            if (commPort instanceof SerialPort) {
                SerialPort serialPort = (SerialPort) commPort;
                try {
                    // 设置串口的波特率等参数
                    serialPort.setSerialPortParams(baudrate,
                            SerialPort.DATABITS_8, SerialPort.STOPBITS_1,
                            SerialPort.PARITY_NONE);
                } catch (UnsupportedCommOperationException e) {
                    throw new SerialPortParameterFailure();
                }
                return serialPort;
            } else {
                // 不是串口
                throw new NotASerialPort();
            }
        } catch (NoSuchPortException e1) {
            throw new NoSuchPort();
        } catch (PortInUseException e2) {
            throw new PortInUse();
        }
    }

    /**
     * 关闭串口
     * 
     * @param serialport
     *            待关闭的串口对象
     */
    public static void closePort(SerialPort serialPort) {
        if (serialPort != null) {
            serialPort.close();
            serialPort = null;
        }
    }

    /**
     * 向串口发送数据
     * 
     * @param serialPort
     *            串口对象
     * @param order
     *            待发送数据
     * @throws SendDataToSerialPortFailure
     *             向串口发送数据失败
     * @throws SerialPortOutputStreamCloseFailure
     *             关闭串口对象的输出流出错
     */
    public static void sendToPort(SerialPort serialPort, byte[] order)
            throws SendDataToSerialPortFailure,
            SerialPortOutputStreamCloseFailure {
        OutputStream out = null;
        try {
            out = serialPort.getOutputStream();
            out.write(order);
            out.flush();
        } catch (IOException e) {
            throw new SendDataToSerialPortFailure();
        } finally {
            try {
                if (out != null) {
                    out.close();
                    out = null;
                }
            } catch (IOException e) {
                throw new SerialPortOutputStreamCloseFailure();
            }
        }
    }

    /**
     * 从串口读取数据
     * 
     * @param serialPort
     *            当前已建立连接的SerialPort对象
     * @return 读取到的数据
     * @throws ReadDataFromSerialPortFailure
     *             从串口读取数据时出错
     * @throws SerialPortInputStreamCloseFailure
     *             关闭串口对象输入流出错
     */
    public static byte[] readFromPort(SerialPort serialPort)
            throws ReadDataFromSerialPortFailure,
            SerialPortInputStreamCloseFailure {
        InputStream in = null;
        byte[] bytes = null;
        try {
            in = serialPort.getInputStream();
            // 获取buffer里的数据长度
            int bufflenth = in.available();
            while (bufflenth != 0) {
                // 初始化byte数组为buffer中数据的长度
                bytes = new byte[bufflenth];
                in.read(bytes);
                bufflenth = in.available();
            }
        } catch (IOException e) {
            throw new ReadDataFromSerialPortFailure();
        } finally {
            try {
                if (in != null) {
                    in.close();
                    in = null;
                }
            } catch (IOException e) {
                throw new SerialPortInputStreamCloseFailure();
            }
        }
        return bytes;
    }

    /**
     * 添加监听器
     * 
     * @param port
     *            串口对象
     * @param listener
     *            串口监听器
     * @throws TooManyListeners
     *             监听类对象过多
     */
    public static void addListener(SerialPort port,
            SerialPortEventListener listener) throws TooManyListeners {
        try {
            // 给串口添加监听器
            port.addEventListener(listener);
            // 设置当有数据到达时唤醒监听接收线程
            port.notifyOnDataAvailable(true);
            // 设置当通信中断时唤醒中断线程
            port.notifyOnBreakInterrupt(true);
        } catch (TooManyListenersException e) {
            throw new TooManyListeners();
        }
    }
}

4.程序主窗口

/*
 * MainFrame.java
 *
 * Created on 2016.8.19
 */

package com.yang.serialport.ui;

import gnu.io.SerialPort;
import gnu.io.SerialPortEvent;
import gnu.io.SerialPortEventListener;

import java.awt.Color;
import java.awt.GraphicsEnvironment;
import java.awt.Point;
import java.awt.event.ActionEvent;
import java.awt.event.ActionListener;
import java.util.List;

import javax.swing.BorderFactory;
import javax.swing.JButton;
import javax.swing.JComboBox;
import javax.swing.JFrame;
import javax.swing.JLabel;
import javax.swing.JPanel;
import javax.swing.JScrollPane;
import javax.swing.JTextArea;
import javax.swing.JTextField;

import com.yang.serialport.exception.NoSuchPort;
import com.yang.serialport.exception.NotASerialPort;
import com.yang.serialport.exception.PortInUse;
import com.yang.serialport.exception.SendDataToSerialPortFailure;
import com.yang.serialport.exception.SerialPortOutputStreamCloseFailure;
import com.yang.serialport.exception.SerialPortParameterFailure;
import com.yang.serialport.exception.TooManyListeners;
import com.yang.serialport.manage.SerialPortManager;
import com.yang.serialport.utils.ByteUtils;
import com.yang.serialport.utils.ShowUtils;

/**
 * 主界面
 * 
 * @author yangle
 */
public class MainFrame extends JFrame {

    /**
     * 程序界面宽度
     */
    public static final int WIDTH = 500;

    /**
     * 程序界面高度
     */
    public static final int HEIGHT = 360;

    private JTextArea dataView = new JTextArea();
    private JScrollPane scrollDataView = new JScrollPane(dataView);

    // 串口设置面板
    private JPanel serialPortPanel = new JPanel();
    private JLabel serialPortLabel = new JLabel("串口");
    private JLabel baudrateLabel = new JLabel("波特率");
    private JComboBox commChoice = new JComboBox();
    private JComboBox baudrateChoice = new JComboBox();

    // 操作面板
    private JPanel operatePanel = new JPanel();
    private JTextField dataInput = new JTextField();
    private JButton serialPortOperate = new JButton("打开串口");
    private JButton sendData = new JButton("发送数据");

    private List<String> commList = null;
    private SerialPort serialport;

    public MainFrame() {
        initView();
        initComponents();
        actionListener();
        initData();
    }

    private void initView() {
        // 关闭程序
        setDefaultCloseOperation(javax.swing.WindowConstants.EXIT_ON_CLOSE);
        // 禁止窗口最大化
        setResizable(false);

        // 设置程序窗口居中显示
        Point p = GraphicsEnvironment.getLocalGraphicsEnvironment()
                .getCenterPoint();
        setBounds(p.x - WIDTH / 2, p.y - HEIGHT / 2, WIDTH, HEIGHT);
        this.setLayout(null);

        setTitle("串口通讯");
    }

    private void initComponents() {
        // 数据显示
        dataView.setFocusable(false);
        scrollDataView.setBounds(10, 10, 475, 200);
        add(scrollDataView);

        // 串口设置
        serialPortPanel.setBorder(BorderFactory.createTitledBorder("串口设置"));
        serialPortPanel.setBounds(10, 220, 170, 100);
        serialPortPanel.setLayout(null);
        add(serialPortPanel);

        serialPortLabel.setForeground(Color.gray);
        serialPortLabel.setBounds(10, 25, 40, 20);
        serialPortPanel.add(serialPortLabel);

        commChoice.setFocusable(false);
        commChoice.setBounds(60, 25, 100, 20);
        serialPortPanel.add(commChoice);

        baudrateLabel.setForeground(Color.gray);
        baudrateLabel.setBounds(10, 60, 40, 20);
        serialPortPanel.add(baudrateLabel);

        baudrateChoice.setFocusable(false);
        baudrateChoice.setBounds(60, 60, 100, 20);
        serialPortPanel.add(baudrateChoice);

        // 操作
        operatePanel.setBorder(BorderFactory.createTitledBorder("操作"));
        operatePanel.setBounds(200, 220, 285, 100);
        operatePanel.setLayout(null);
        add(operatePanel);

        dataInput.setBounds(25, 25, 235, 20);
        operatePanel.add(dataInput);

        serialPortOperate.setFocusable(false);
        serialPortOperate.setBounds(45, 60, 90, 20);
        operatePanel.add(serialPortOperate);

        sendData.setFocusable(false);
        sendData.setBounds(155, 60, 90, 20);
        operatePanel.add(sendData);
    }

    @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
    private void initData() {
        commList = SerialPortManager.findPort();
        // 检查是否有可用串口,有则加入选项中
        if (commList == null || commList.size() < 1) {
            ShowUtils.warningMessage("没有搜索到有效串口!");
        } else {
            for (String s : commList) {
                commChoice.addItem(s);
            }
        }

        baudrateChoice.addItem("9600");
        baudrateChoice.addItem("19200");
        baudrateChoice.addItem("38400");
        baudrateChoice.addItem("57600");
        baudrateChoice.addItem("115200");
    }

    private void actionListener() {
        serialPortOperate.addActionListener(new ActionListener() {

            @Override
            public void actionPerformed(ActionEvent e) {
                if ("打开串口".equals(serialPortOperate.getText())
                        && serialport == null) {
                    openSerialPort(e);
                } else {
                    closeSerialPort(e);
                }
            }
        });

        sendData.addActionListener(new ActionListener() {

            @Override
            public void actionPerformed(ActionEvent e) {
                sendData(e);
            }
        });
    }

    /**
     * 打开串口
     * 
     * @param evt
     *            点击事件
     */
    private void openSerialPort(java.awt.event.ActionEvent evt) {
        // 获取串口名称
        String commName = (String) commChoice.getSelectedItem();
        // 获取波特率
        int baudrate = 9600;
        String bps = (String) baudrateChoice.getSelectedItem();
        baudrate = Integer.parseInt(bps);

        // 检查串口名称是否获取正确
        if (commName == null || commName.equals("")) {
            ShowUtils.warningMessage("没有搜索到有效串口!");
        } else {
            try {
                serialport = SerialPortManager.openPort(commName, baudrate);
                if (serialport != null) {
                    dataView.setText("串口已打开" + "\r\n");
                    serialPortOperate.setText("关闭串口");
                }
            } catch (SerialPortParameterFailure e) {
                e.printStackTrace();
            } catch (NotASerialPort e) {
                e.printStackTrace();
            } catch (NoSuchPort e) {
                e.printStackTrace();
            } catch (PortInUse e) {
                e.printStackTrace();
                ShowUtils.warningMessage("串口已被占用!");
            }
        }

        try {
            SerialPortManager.addListener(serialport, new SerialListener());
        } catch (TooManyListeners e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        }
    }

    /**
     * 关闭串口
     * 
     * @param evt
     *            点击事件
     */
    private void closeSerialPort(java.awt.event.ActionEvent evt) {
        SerialPortManager.closePort(serialport);
        dataView.setText("串口已关闭" + "\r\n");
        serialPortOperate.setText("打开串口");
    }

    /**
     * 发送数据
     * 
     * @param evt
     *            点击事件
     */
    private void sendData(java.awt.event.ActionEvent evt) {
        // 输入框直接输入十六进制字符,长度必须是偶数
        String data = dataInput.getText().toString();
        try {
            SerialPortManager.sendToPort(serialport,
                    ByteUtils.hexStr2Byte(data));
        } catch (SendDataToSerialPortFailure e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        } catch (SerialPortOutputStreamCloseFailure e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        }
    }

    private class SerialListener implements SerialPortEventListener {
        /**
         * 处理监控到的串口事件
         */
        public void serialEvent(SerialPortEvent serialPortEvent) {

            switch (serialPortEvent.getEventType()) {

            case SerialPortEvent.BI: // 10 通讯中断
                ShowUtils.errorMessage("与串口设备通讯中断");
                break;

            case SerialPortEvent.OE: // 7 溢位(溢出)错误

            case SerialPortEvent.FE: // 9 帧错误

            case SerialPortEvent.PE: // 8 奇偶校验错误

            case SerialPortEvent.CD: // 6 载波检测

            case SerialPortEvent.CTS: // 3 清除待发送数据

            case SerialPortEvent.DSR: // 4 待发送数据准备好了

            case SerialPortEvent.RI: // 5 振铃指示

            case SerialPortEvent.OUTPUT_BUFFER_EMPTY: // 2 输出缓冲区已清空
                break;

            case SerialPortEvent.DATA_AVAILABLE: // 1 串口存在可用数据
                byte[] data = null;
                try {
                    if (serialport == null) {
                        ShowUtils.errorMessage("串口对象为空!监听失败!");
                    } else {
                        // 读取串口数据
                        data = SerialPortManager.readFromPort(serialport);
                        dataView.append(ByteUtils.byteArrayToHexString(data,
                                true) + "\r\n");
                    }
                } catch (Exception e) {
                    ShowUtils.errorMessage(e.toString());
                    // 发生读取错误时显示错误信息后退出系统
                    System.exit(0);
                }
                break;
            }
        }
    }

    public static void main(String args[]) {
        java.awt.EventQueue.invokeLater(new Runnable() {
            public void run() {
                new MainFrame().setVisible(true);
            }
        });
    }
}

5.写在最后

本文Demo下载

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感谢:
http://www.cnblogs.com/Dreamer-1/p/5523046.html

最新版程序请查看 《使用Java实现串口通信(二)》

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