helm-安装与使用

Helm 可以理解为 Kubernetes 的包管理工具,可以方便地发现、共享和使用为Kubernetes构建的应用。

一、基本概念
1.Helm的三个基本概念
Chart:Helm应用(package),包括该应用的所有Kubernetes manifest模版,类似于YUM RPM或Apt dpkg文件
Repository:Helm package存储仓库
Release:chart的部署实例,每个chart可以部署一个或多个release

2.Helm工作原理
Helm包括两个部分,helm客户端和tiller服务端。
the client is responsible for managing charts, and the server is responsible for managing releases.

3.helm客户端
helm客户端是一个命令行工具,负责管理charts、reprepository和release。它通过gPRC API(使用kubectl port-forward将tiller的端口映射到本地,然后再通过映射后的端口跟tiller通信)向tiller发送请求,并由tiller来管理对应的Kubernetes资源。
Helm客户端的使用方法参见Helm命令。

4.tiller服务端
tiller接收来自helm客户端的请求,并把相关资源的操作发送到Kubernetes,负责管理(安装、查询、升级或删除等)和跟踪Kubernetes资源。为了方便管理,tiller把release的相关信息保存在kubernetes的ConfigMap中。
tiller对外暴露gRPC API,供helm客户端调用。

二、安装

环境:kubernetes 1.7 + helm 2.5.0

1. 客户端安装:
下载相应的版本:https://github.com/kubernetes/helm/releases
解压 (tar -zxvf helm-v2.5.0-linux-amd64.tgz)
把helm执行文件放置在: (mv linux-amd64/helm /usr/local/bin/helm)
From there, you should be able to run the client: helm help.

2.服务器端安装:
test@local:~/k8s/helm/test$ helm init
Creating /home/test/.helm
Creating /home/test/.helm/repository
Creating /home/test/.helm/repository/cache
Creating /home/test/.helm/repository/local
Creating /home/test/.helm/plugins
Creating /home/test/.helm/starters
Creating /home/test/.helm/cache/archive
Creating /home/test/.helm/repository/repositories.yaml
$HELM_HOME has been configured at /home/test/.helm.

Tiller (the helm server side component) has been installed into your Kubernetes Cluster.
成功后,就在你的k8s集群安装Tiller服务。

3.检查:
test@local:~$ kubectl get all -n kube-system
NAME                                           READY     STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
po/tiller-deploy-1713990561-0h04s              1/1       Running   0          2h

NAME                       CLUSTER-IP       EXTERNAL-IP   PORT(S)         AGE
svc/tiller-deploy          10.254.100.69    <none>        44134/TCP       3h

NAME                              DESIRED   CURRENT   UP-TO-DATE   AVAILABLE   AGE
deploy/tiller-deploy              1         1         1            1           3h

NAME                                     DESIRED   CURRENT   READY     AGE
rs/tiller-deploy-1713990561              1         1         1         2h

test@local:~$ helm version
Client: &version.Version{SemVer:"v2.5.0", GitCommit:"012cb0ac1a1b2f888144ef5a67b8dab6c2d45be6", GitTreeState:"clean"}
Server: &version.Version{SemVer:"v2.5.0", GitCommit:"012cb0ac1a1b2f888144ef5a67b8dab6c2d45be6", GitTreeState:"clean"}

在k8s节点机器上:
[root@k8s-node ~]# ps ax |grep socat
 1709 pts/1    S+     0:00 grep --color=auto socat
 2630 ?        S      0:00 /usr/bin/socat - TCP4:localhost:44134
 7287 ?        S      0:00 /usr/bin/socat - TCP4:localhost:44134
15182 ?        S      0:00 /usr/bin/socat - TCP4:localhost:44134
20016 ?        S      0:00 /usr/bin/socat - TCP4:localhost:44134

到此,客户端和服务器已经安装成功.

tiller 安装的命名空间问题:
默认安装在namespace:kube-system,如果你安装在其他namespace,请使用 --tiller-namespace
test@local:~/puppet/projects/test2/chart$ helm version
Client: &version.Version{SemVer:"v2.5.0", GitCommit:"012cb0ac1a1b2f888144ef5a67b8dab6c2d45be6", GitTreeState:"clean"}
Error: cannot connect to Tiller
test@local:~/puppet/projects/test2/chart$ helm version --tiller-namespace default
Client: &version.Version{SemVer:"v2.5.0", GitCommit:"012cb0ac1a1b2f888144ef5a67b8dab6c2d45be6", GitTreeState:"clean"}
Server: &version.Version{SemVer:"v2.5.0", GitCommit:"012cb0ac1a1b2f888144ef5a67b8dab6c2d45be6", GitTreeState:"clean"}
安装问题:
1. 缺少socat
test@local:~/k8s/helm/test$ helm version
Client: &version.Version{SemVer:"v2.5.0", GitCommit:"012cb0ac1a1b2f888144ef5a67b8dab6c2d45be6", GitTreeState:"clean"}
E0718 11:46:10.132102    7023 portforward.go:332] an error occurred forwarding 41458 -> 44134: error forwarding port 44134 to pod d566b78f997eea6c4b1c0322b34ce8052c6c2001e8edff243647748464cd7919, uid : unable to do port forwarding: socat not found.
Error: cannot connect to Tiller
解决方法:
在k8s的节点安装socat
[root@k8s-node ~]#  yum install socat
test@local:~/k8s/helm/test$ helm version
Client: &version.Version{SemVer:"v2.5.0", GitCommit:"012cb0ac1a1b2f888144ef5a67b8dab6c2d45be6", GitTreeState:"clean"}
Server: &version.Version{SemVer:"v2.5.0", GitCommit:"012cb0ac1a1b2f888144ef5a67b8dab6c2d45be6", GitTreeState:"clean"}
2. helm 跟kubectl 一样,从.kube/config 读取配置证书跟k8s通讯,先确保kubectl能够可用,否则出现一下错误:
test@local:~/k8s/helm/test$ helm version
Client: &version.Version{SemVer:"v2.5.0", GitCommit:"012cb0ac1a1b2f888144ef5a67b8dab6c2d45be6", GitTreeState:"clean"}
Error: cannot connect to Tiller
3.RBAC权限问题,如果集群启用RBAC,会出现下面的问题:
test@local:~/k8s/helm/test$ helm list
Error: User "system:serviceaccount:kube-system:default" cannot list configmaps in the namespace "kube-system". (get configmaps)
解决方法:
给tiller增加权限:
a. 创建sa
kubectl create serviceaccount --namespace kube-system tiller
b. 给sa绑定cluster-admin规则
kubectl create clusterrolebinding tiller-cluster-rule --clusterrole=cluster-admin --serviceaccount=kube-system:tiller
c.编辑 Tiller Deployment 名称为: tiller-deploy.
kubectl edit deploy --namespace kube-system tiller-deploy
插入一行 (serviceAccount: tiller) in the spec: template: spec section of the file:
...
spec:
  replicas: 1
  selector:
    matchLabels:
      app: helm
      name: tiller
  strategy:
    rollingUpdate:
      maxSurge: 1
      maxUnavailable: 1
    type: RollingUpdate
  template:
    metadata:
      creationTimestamp: null
      labels:
        app: helm
        name: tiller
    spec:
      serviceAccount: tiller
      containers:
      - env:
        - name: TILLER_NAMESPACE
          value: kube-system
...
三、删除服务端
test@local:~/k8s/helm/test$ helm reset
Tiller (the helm server side component) has been uninstalled from your Kubernetes Cluster.
四、使用
1.创建chart目录:
test@local:~/k8s/helm/test$ helm create mycharts
Creating myNginx
test@local:~/k8s/helm/test$ ls -l
drwxr-xr-x 4 test test 4096  7月 18 14:19 mycharts
创建后的目录结构:
test@local:~/k8s/helm/test$ tree mycharts
myNginx
├── charts
├── Chart.yaml
├── templates
│   ├── deployment.yaml
│   ├── _helpers.tpl
│   ├── ingress.yaml
│   ├── NOTES.txt
│   └── service.yaml
└── values.yaml
2.发布到k8s集群:
test@local:~/k8s/helm/test$ helm install --set name=mycharts ./mycharts/
NAME:   brown-poodle
LAST DEPLOYED: Tue Jul 18 14:38:50 2017
NAMESPACE: default
STATUS: DEPLOYED

RESOURCES:
==> v1/Service
NAME                   CLUSTER-IP     EXTERNAL-IP  PORT(S)  AGE
brown-poodle-mycharts  10.254.59.125  <none>       80/TCP   1s

==> v1beta1/Deployment
NAME                   DESIRED  CURRENT  UP-TO-DATE  AVAILABLE  AGE
brown-poodle-mycharts  1        1        1           0          1s

NOTES:
1. Get the application URL by running these commands:
  export POD_NAME=$(kubectl get pods --namespace default -l "app=mycharts,release=brown-poodle" -o jsonpath="{.items[0].metadata.name}")
  echo "Visit http://127.0.0.1:8080 to use your application"
  kubectl port-forward $POD_NAME 8080:80
3.查看以及安装的releases:
test@local:~/k8s/helm/test$ helm list
NAME        	REVISION	UPDATED                 	STATUS  	CHART         	NAMESPACE
brown-poodle	1       	Tue Jul 18 14:38:50 2017	DEPLOYED	mycharts-0.1.0	default
4.删除releases
test@local:~/k8s/helm/test$ helm delete brown-poodle
release "brown-poodle" deleted
5.configmap ,可以配置configmap 读取文件:
参考:https://docs.helm.sh/chart_template_guide/#basic-example

6. 恢复之前的版本
mac-temp:test test$ helm list
NAME      	REVISION	UPDATED                 	STATUS  	CHART           	NAMESPACE
inky-eagle	1       	Thu Sep  7 20:45:34 2017	DEPLOYED	prometheus-4.5.0	default  
test      	5       	Tue Sep 12 18:43:19 2017	DEPLOYED	test-0.1.0      	default  

mac-temp:test test$ helm history test
REVISION	UPDATED                 	STATUS    	CHART     	DESCRIPTION      
1       	Thu Aug 24 19:50:32 2017	SUPERSEDED	test-0.1.0	Deletion complete
2       	Tue Sep 12 18:31:11 2017	SUPERSEDED	test-0.1.0	Upgrade complete
3       	Tue Sep 12 18:37:31 2017	SUPERSEDED	test-0.1.0	Upgrade complete
4       	Tue Sep 12 18:40:25 2017	SUPERSEDED	test-0.1.0	Rollback to 2    
5       	Tue Sep 12 18:43:19 2017	SUPERSEDED	test-0.1.0	Rollback to 2    
6       	Tue Sep 12 18:43:25 2017	DEPLOYED  	test-0.1.0	Rollback to 2    

mac-temp:test test$ helm rollback test 2
Rollback was a success! Happy Helming!
五、技巧
1. 可以增加多个values文件,使用-f 参数选择指定的values文件。这样可以达到使用一样的配置文件,输入不同的参数运行不同的服务:
例如我们要发布多个版本的apache,各个apachep配置文件只有几个参数不一样,这样可以配置多个values文件,启动不同的apache;
helm install -f ./mycharts/values-apache.yaml --set name=mycharts ./mycharts/
test@local:~/k8s/helm/test$ ls mycharts/ -l
总用量 20
drwxr-xr-x 2 test test 4096  7月 18 14:37 charts
-rw-r--r-- 1 test test   86  7月 18 14:37 Chart.yaml
drwxr-xr-x 2 test test 4096  7月 18 14:37 templates
-rw-r--r-- 1 test test 1134  7月 18 16:13 values-apache.yaml
-rw-r--r-- 1 test test 1134  7月 18 14:37 values.yaml
2. 使用 upgrade ,会自动判读如果没安装,会先安装(建议使用此方法)。
helm upgrade --install mycharts .
helm upgrade --install --set name=mycharts --tiller-namespace=default  mycharts ./mycharts/

3. 下载charts到本地:
helm search prometheus
helm fetch stable/prometheus
六、各种名词变量解析
1. 模板格式 : 模版文件deployment.yaml
2. Release.Name – 发行版名称
3. fullname :Release.Name+Chart.Name – 避免名字冲突
4. svc.yaml : 服务描述文件,声明如何访问服务
5. secrets.yaml : 存储密钥
6. Label : 通过release和app标签可以查找到 所有相关的资源


其他:
7.HOOKS
参考:https://github.com/kubernetes/helm/blob/master/docs/charts_hooks.md
允许图表开发人员在发布的生命周期中的某些点进行干预。例如,您可以使用钩子:
在加载任何其他图表之前,请先安装ConfigMap或Secret。
在安装新图表之前执行作业来备份数据库,然后在升级后执行第二个作业以恢复数据。
在删除发行版之前运行作业以在删除之前优雅地将服务取消旋转。
钩子像常规模板一样工作,但它们具有特殊的注释,使Helm能够不同地使用它们。在本节中,我们将介绍钩子的基本使用模式。


附:

比较好的helm文章参考:

简化Kubernetes应用部署工具-Helm简介

简化Kubernetes应用部署工具-Helm安装

简化Kubernetes应用部署工具-Helm之应用部署

简化Kubernetes应用部署工具-Helm之Release配置

简化Kubernetes应用部署工具-Helm之Hook

其他参考:
https://docs.helm.sh/
https://www.kubernetes.org.cn/2711.html
https://hackernoon.com/the-missing-ci-cd-kubernetes-component-helm-package-manager-1fe002aac680

https://github.com/kubernetes/helm
https://github.com/kubernetes/charts
https://github.com/kubernetes/charts/tree/master/stable/wordpress
http://docs.heptio.com/content/tutorials/aws-qs-helm-wordpress.html
https://github.com/feiskyer/kubernetes-handbook/blob/master/apps/basic.md
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uXaNh4Mrhdc (视频演示)

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